Introduction abdomen-dr.gosai

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Planes, Regions and Arrangement of structures in abdomen

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Introduction abdomen-dr.gosai

  1. 1. ABDOMENABDOMEN Planes, Divisions andPlanes, Divisions and Arrangement of StructuresArrangement of Structures Dr.B.B.GosaiDr.B.B.Gosai IntroductionIntroduction
  2. 2. Learning Objectives:Learning Objectives:  At the end of this lecture studentAt the end of this lecture student should be able to:should be able to: – Explain Planes and divisions of abdomenExplain Planes and divisions of abdomen – Arrangement of structures (Skeleton,Arrangement of structures (Skeleton, Muscles, Vessels and organs) in theMuscles, Vessels and organs) in the abdominal cavityabdominal cavity
  3. 3. AbdomenAbdomen  Lower half of trunkLower half of trunk below the diaphragmbelow the diaphragm  Divided in to twoDivided in to two parts:parts:  Abdomen Proper:Abdomen Proper: From Diaphragm toFrom Diaphragm to Pelvic brim (PelvicPelvic brim (Pelvic inlet)inlet)  Pelvis: Below thePelvis: Below the pelvic brim (Pelvicpelvic brim (Pelvic inlet)inlet)
  4. 4. Planes for Demarcation of Abdominal RegionPlanes for Demarcation of Abdominal Region indicated by a line encircling the body midway between the suprasternal notch and the symphysis pubis (or midway between the umbilicus and inferior end of the sternal body or a hand's breadth below the xiphisternal joint); it intersects the first lumbar vertebral body near its lower border and meets the costal margins at the tips of the ninth costal cartilages. Passes through Pylorus of stomach. corresponds to a line round the trunk level with the iliac tubercles ; it cuts the front of the fifth lumbar vertebral body near its upper border. Horizontal planes Transtubercular plane Transpyloric plane (of Addision)
  5. 5. A third horizontal plane, often used in abdominal topography, the subcostal plane, corresponds to a line level with the lowest limits of the tenth costal cartilages. It cuts the front of the third lumbar vertebral body nears its upper border. It often replaces the transpyloric plane in descriptions of abdominal regions. Subcostal plane
  6. 6. On the body's posterior surface a transverse line between the highest points on the iliac crests and level with the fourth lumbar vertebral spinous process delineates a supracristal plane. Supracristal plane
  7. 7. Right and left lateral planes: indicated on the surface by vertical lines through points midway between the anterior superior iliac spines and the symphysis pubis (these lines are also called 'mid-clavicular' or 'mammary' lines). Vertical planes Planes for Demarcation of Abdominal RegionPlanes for Demarcation of Abdominal Region
  8. 8. Division of Abdomen in to Nine QuadrantsDivision of Abdomen in to Nine Quadrants  Abdomen is divided into nine Regions byAbdomen is divided into nine Regions by Two Horizontal and Two Vertical Planes.Two Horizontal and Two Vertical Planes.  Planes used for demarcation are:Planes used for demarcation are: – Horizontal planes : Transpyloric plane andHorizontal planes : Transpyloric plane and Transtubercular planesTranstubercular planes – Vertical Planes : Right and left Lateral planesVertical Planes : Right and left Lateral planes  Three regions on Right and Left sidesThree regions on Right and Left sides each and Three regions in the central part.each and Three regions in the central part.
  9. 9. L L Abdominal QuadrantsAbdominal Quadrants
  10. 10. Abdominal QuadrantsAbdominal Quadrants
  11. 11. Regions of AbdomenRegions of Abdomen  Right Hypochondriac regionRight Hypochondriac region: Lateral to: Lateral to right lateral plane and above transpyloricright lateral plane and above transpyloric plane.plane.  Right Lumbar regionRight Lumbar region: Lateral to right: Lateral to right lateral plane, below transpyloric plane andlateral plane, below transpyloric plane and above transtubercular plane.above transtubercular plane.  Right Iliac regionRight Iliac region: Lateral to right lateral: Lateral to right lateral plane and below transtubercular plane.plane and below transtubercular plane.
  12. 12. Regions of AbdomenRegions of Abdomen  Left Hypochondriac regionLeft Hypochondriac region: Lateral to left: Lateral to left lateral plane and above transpyloric plane.lateral plane and above transpyloric plane.  Left Lumbar regionLeft Lumbar region: Lateral to left lateral: Lateral to left lateral plane, below transpyloric plane and aboveplane, below transpyloric plane and above transtubercular plane.transtubercular plane.  Left Iliac regionLeft Iliac region: Lateral to left lateral plane: Lateral to left lateral plane and below transtubercular plane.and below transtubercular plane.
  13. 13. Regions of AbdomenRegions of Abdomen  Epigastric regionEpigastric region: Medial to right and left: Medial to right and left lateral planes and above transpyloriclateral planes and above transpyloric plane.plane.  Umbilical regionUmbilical region: Medial to right and left: Medial to right and left lateral planes, below transpyloric planelateral planes, below transpyloric plane and above transtubercular plane.and above transtubercular plane.  Hypogastric regionHypogastric region: Medial to right and left: Medial to right and left lateral planes and below transtubercularlateral planes and below transtubercular plane.plane.
  14. 14. Arrangement ofArrangement of Structures in AbdomenStructures in Abdomen
  15. 15. Skeleton of AbdomenSkeleton of Abdomen
  16. 16. Posterior Abdominal WallPosterior Abdominal Wall  Muscles:Muscles: – DiaphragmDiaphragm – Psoas MajorPsoas Major – Quadratus lumborumQuadratus lumborum – TransversusTransversus AbdominisAbdominis – IliacusIliacus
  17. 17. Posterior Abdominal WallPosterior Abdominal Wall  Main Vessels:Main Vessels: – Abdomonal Aorta andAbdomonal Aorta and its branchesits branches – Inferior vena cava andInferior vena cava and its tributariesits tributaries
  18. 18.  Nerves:Nerves: – Subcostal nerveSubcostal nerve – Ilioinguinal andIlioinguinal and Iliohypogastric nervesIliohypogastric nerves – Femoral nervesFemoral nerves – Genitofemoral nervesGenitofemoral nerves – Obturator nervesObturator nerves – Sympathetic chainSympathetic chain
  19. 19. Posterior Abdominal WallPosterior Abdominal Wall  Organs:Organs: – Kidneys and ureterKidneys and ureter – Suprarenal glandsSuprarenal glands – PancreasPancreas – DuodenumDuodenum
  20. 20. Disposition of AbdominalDisposition of Abdominal OrgansOrgans
  21. 21. Disposition in AbdomenDisposition in Abdomen  Liver and gall bladderLiver and gall bladder  StomachStomach  SpleenSpleen  Greater and lesserGreater and lesser omentumomentum
  22. 22. Disposition in AbdomenDisposition in Abdomen  Small intestine and itsSmall intestine and its parts: Jejunum andparts: Jejunum and IleumIleum
  23. 23. Disposition in AbdomenDisposition in Abdomen  Large intestine and itsLarge intestine and its parts:parts:  Cecum and appendixCecum and appendix  Ascending colon,Ascending colon, Transverse colon andTransverse colon and descending colondescending colon  Pelvic colonPelvic colon  RectumRectum
  24. 24. ReferencesReferences  Clinical Anatomy by Richard Snell (8Clinical Anatomy by Richard Snell (8thth Edition)Edition)  Gray’s Anatomy (40Gray’s Anatomy (40thth Edition)Edition)
  25. 25. ……..Thanks…....Thanks…..

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