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ORGANISATIONAL
2
Learning Objectives
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved.
I. Whatexactlyisculture?
i. Understandcultureusingmetaphor...
3
Learning Objectives
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved.
IV. Howisorganisationalculturecreatedandpreserved?
V. Cano...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 4
You are a product of your environment.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 5
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 6
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 7
Culture
?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 8
It’sthecollectiveprogramming
ofthemindwhichdistinguishes
amemberofonegroupfrom...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 9
mind
Human
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 10
Thecentreofconsciousness
thatgeneratesthoughts,feelings,ideas,andperceptions,...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 11
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 12
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 13
“Collectiveprogrammingofthemind…”
What does
this imply?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 14
Is culture a set of
“instructions” installed in the
minds of people?
1
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 15
What are these
instructions? Who writes
(wrote) them? And why?
Ifso…
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 16
Is culture
perceivable?
2
Ifculturedistinguishesa
groupofpeoplefromanother…
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 17
Suggestingcultureis
identity.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 18
Culture [is] installed
in the minds of people…
3
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 19
…then culture is
unperceivable & hard
to articulate.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 20
Culture is a set of values & norms
shared by a group of people.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 21
values
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 22
Principles or standards
that people use in directing
their behaviours.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 23
Describe to the person
next to you the qualities
you want for a friend?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 24
normal.
Putsimply,norms=
Towhom?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 25
Asetofsharedvalues
understandings
assumptions,and
goalsthatarelearnedfromearl...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 26
Cultureis:
perceivable
unperceivable
Comprisesof:
norms
values
practices
Diff...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 27
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 28
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 29
Culture is the software
of the mind.
1
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 30
Culture comprises
of codes; set auto-pilot
behaviours; it has a pattern.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 31
Cultureislikean
Iceberg.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 32
Visible elements of culture
Invisible elements of culture
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 33
Hellriegel, D. and Slocum, J. W. (2008), “Organisational Behaviour”. 13th edi...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 34
Culture as values
3
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 35
Cultural
Value
Systems
Social
system
Legal
system
Education
system
Religion
P...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 36
4
Culture
as a web.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 37
Used to convey its
intricacy & complexity.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 38
InternationalCulture
NationalCulture
OrganisationCulture
Occupational
Culture...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 39
InternationalCulture
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 40
National Culture
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 41
Organisation Culture
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 42
Occupational Culture
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 43
Personal Culture
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 44
Thepracticesofmyfirm
contradictmypersonal
valuesandbeliefs.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 45
Is your “personal culture”
aligned with the “national
culture” of your countr...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 46
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 47
Organisational
Culture
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 48
Shared values, principles, traditions and
practices that influence the way or...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 49
Setofnorms,values
and practicestowhich
peopleinanorganisationareexposed.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 50
VALUES
PRACTICES
NORMS
Theorganisationtreatsemployees,customers,shareholders
...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 51
Barclays fined £290
for rigging LIBOR rate.
Source: www.guardian.co.uk/busine...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 52
PPImis-selling,LIBORscandal,
HSBCmoneylaunderingscandal
havebroughtrenewedatt...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 53
Organisational culture is “the way we do things around here”.
Adapted from Ma...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 54
How can we determine the
culture of an organisation?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 55
How To Determine the Culture of an Organisation
Rituals.
Policies.
Artefacts....
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 56
Too often the culture that an organisation communicates through
its annual re...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 57
Yougottobeinside
tosee,feel,smell,touch
andhearit,andmake
senseofit.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 58
Sites like Glassdoor.com and Indee.com allow current
and ex-employees to writ...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 59
However, symbolic
objects & activities can yield
clues to a firm’s culture.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 60
Artefacts
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 61
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 62
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 63
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 64
Rituals
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 65
What rituals can you
see from this picture?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 66
Stories
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 67
History
Reports
Speeches
Customers’thoughts
Employees’thoughts
Frontlinestaff...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 68
WhyIAmLeavingGoldmanSachs
Source: Greg, S. (2012). Retrieved from www.nytimes...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 69
Source: Greg, S. (2012). Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/opinion/wh...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 70
Source: Greg, S. (2011). Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/opinion/wh...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 71
Products
Services
Processes
Policies
Organisationalstructure
Decisionrights
S...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 72
Remember.Symbols
arenotcultureinthemselves
butmeanstoprojectthe
“softwareofth...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 73
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 74
Why
organisational
culture matters?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 75
Itgivespeoplea
senseofidentity,
belongingand
security.
1
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 76
Thinkaboutyour
firstdayatworkfor
anewemployer.
Howdidyoufeel?
Didyourelatewit...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 77
Doyoufeel
proudworking
foryourcurrent
employer?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 78
Doyoufeel
comfortabletalking
aboutyourjobor
whereyouwork
withfriends,etc.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 79
Behaviourisinfluenced
byone’sculturalmind-set(education,belief,needs,
aspirat...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 80
Knowledge Past ExperiencesInterestsGoals
Values Norms Other Info.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 81Former Apple CEO Steve Jobs
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 82
Virgin Group CEO Richard Branson
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 83
The link between
culture and organisational
performance.
3
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 84
PerformanceCulture

© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 85
Culturegivescharactertothe
organisation’soperationslikeHRM,
marketing,service...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 86
Usedtopreserveorchangethecultureofanorganisation
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 87
A“poorculture”
canleadtostaff
disengagement
andcustomer
dissatisfaction.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 88
It affects how
work is done in an
organisation.
5
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 89
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 90
Tools for
Evaluating
Organisational
Culture
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 91
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 92
Diagnostictoolfor
understandingandassessingthe
cultureofagroupofpeople.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 93
The
Paradigm
Stories
Rituals &
Routines
Symbols
Power
Structures
Organisation...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 94
Stories
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 95
History
Reports
Speeches
Customers’thoughts
Employees’thoughts
Frontlinestaff...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 96
Objects,
Awards
Events,
Acts
People,
Etc.
that convey meanings.
Symbols
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 97
Activities or
events that reinforce
people’s way of life.
Rituals&Routines
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 98
Has it got a flat, tall,
organic, mechanistic, formal,
informal or hybrid str...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 99
What measures or
programmes are used to
preserve,protect&promulgate
organisat...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 100
Ispowerdefinedbyone’s
expertise,performance,personality,
affiliation,resourc...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 101
Thesixelementsofthecultural
webreflecttheoverallclimate
(paradigm)insidetheo...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 102
Example
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 103
Example
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 104
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 105
Visible
Invisible
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 106
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 107
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 108
Over 90% of an
organisation’s culture is
invisible, even to its
members.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 109
How do you study
something that’s
hard to articulate &
has no form?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 110
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 111
CharlesHandy
(1985)–
Organisational Behaviour
Academic; Social Philosopher
1...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 112
Handy’s Four Dimensions
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 113
Powerculture
Powerrestsinthe
handsofacentralfigure
orgroupofindividuals.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 114
The Web
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 115
Oneperson,
divisionunitor
groupovershadows
theentirefirm.
Former Apple CEO S...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 116
Obedience
tothecentral
commander(s).
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 117
Dissentingviews
areignored,contained
orpunished.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 118
Abilityto
influence
isbasedonone’s
positiononthe
organisational
chart.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 119
Jobpromotionis
sometimesbasedon
longevityinservice,not
expertise,meritocracy.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 120
Thesuccessof
apower-culture
organisation
dependsonthe
effectivenessof
thepow...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 121
What’s good
and bad about a
power culture
organisation?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 122
Strengths
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 123
Values&practices
thatcontribute
toorganisational
effectivenesscan
bepreserve...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 124
Sometimes,
work gets done
effectively &
speedily. Why?
2
Source: developingy...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 125
Weaknesses
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 126
Dissentingviews
areignored,contained
orpunished.
1
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 127
…employees feel isolated
from important decisions.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 128
May stifle employee
creativity & emotional
connection withtheorganisation.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 129
2
Jobpromotionmaybebased
on longevity in service, not
expertise, meritocracy...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 130
Slow to respond to
environmental changes.
How?
3
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 131
Strong power
culture can be a barrier
to needed change.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 132
Workplaceinequality&discrimination
Exploitationofcustomers&employees
Corrupt...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 133
RoleCulture
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 134
“TheGreektemple”
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 135
Senior management
Pillar
(department)
Pillar
(department)
Pillar
(department...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 136
Pillar
(accounting)
Pillar
(marketing)
Pillar
(HRM)
Pillar
(R&D)
Senior mana...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 137
Senior management
Pillar
(division)
Pillar
(division)
Pillar
(division)
Pill...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 138
Seniormanagement
Pillar
(division)
Pillar
(division)
Pillar
(division)
Pilla...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 139
Abilityto
influence
isbasedonone’s
positiononthe
organisational
chart.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 140
Clearlydefined
roles,rules,work
procedures.
Bendingtherules
islesswelcome.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 141
Highemphasis
onstaffstodevelop
specialisedcompetence.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 142
Job promotion
may be predictable.
Source: onetip.net
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 143
I’mcomfortable
workinginarole
cultureorganisation
because…
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 144
1
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 145
High emphasis
on staffs to develop
specialised competence.
2
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 146
Weaknesses
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 147
encourage staff to
think inside the box.
Itmay…
1
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 148
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 149
Highlydepartmentalised
structuresmayreducetheflow
ofinformationandresourcesh...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 150
Excessive
rules can cripple
employees’
effectiveness.
3
Source: rachelmaries...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 151
Taskculture
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 152
Howcanweget
the job done?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 153
Resources & competences
are pulled from all available
areas to get the job d...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 154
Jones, Mills, Weatherbee, & Hills (2006) Organizational Theory, Design, and ...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 155
Ability to influence
is based on one’s
expertise and inputs.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 156
Greatercross-
departmental
anddivisional
collaborationand
communication.
Adapting fast to
new events is highly
important to task culture
organisations.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 1...
Employees’ roles
and responsibilities
change frequently.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 158
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 159
Excessive focus on task
may be at the expense of
employee’s wellbeing.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 160
Personculture
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 161
Itaspirestoservetheneeds &
interests ofindividuals
workingforthatorganisatio...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 162
…small-sized firms like
consultancies, tech start-ups,
privatehealthcareandl...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 163
Power is
evenly shared
amongst
members.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 164
Individuals
workfor
themselves,
notthefirm.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 165
…highly
motivated
employees;
carryinga
senseof
prideintheir
work.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 166
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 167
Personal
identitiesmake
uptheoverall
cultureofthefirm
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 168
Theriskofconflict
amongmembersover
organisationalmatters.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 169
Inpractice,these
culturesrarelyexist
intheirpurestform.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 170
Somecommentatorsdescribe
NewsCorpasapower-culture
companysteepedintheidealso...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 171
…NewsCorpisequally
ataskandroleculturecompany.
Hence,ithasahybridculture.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 172
Whattypeofcultureisyourorganisation:
Power?
Task?
Role?
Person?
Hybrid?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 173
Power Task Role Person
Classroomshavecultures.Describe
yourclasscultureusing...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 174
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 175
InternalFocus ExternalFocus
Istheorganisationdesignedto
adapttoitsexternalen...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 176
Theassumptionis,preserving
theinternalstatusquoandadapting
toachangingenviro...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 177
Someorganisationsthrivebetter
bymaintainingtheinternalstatus
quo,whileothers...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 178
Flexibility
Control
Isthe
organisation’s
management
stylecontrolling
orflexi...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 179
Theassumptionis,centralised
anddecentralisedmanagements
aremutuallyexclusive.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 180
Someorganisationsthrivethrough
flexiblemanagement,whileothers
throughcontrol...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 181
The term flexible
management is an oxymoron
since management is all
about co...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 182
The term controlling
management is a tautology.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 183
However, combining
these two sets of competing
priorities like so…
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 184
Flexibility
Control
InternalFocus ExternalFocus
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 185
…four types of organisational
culture are identified.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 186
Flexibility
Control
InternalFocus ExternalFocus
Clan Adhocracy
Hierarchy Mar...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 187
CVF—CultureTypes
Ocai-online (2012). Retrieved from www.ocai-online.com/abou...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 188
Flexibility
Control
InternalFocus ExternalFocus
Clan
Market
Kim Cameron and ...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 189
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 190
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 191
How is
organisational
culture created
& preserved?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 192
Col.Sander
KFC Founder
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 193
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 194
Kellogg's Global Leadership Team
TopManagement
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 195
ArseneWenger
Arsenal FC Manager
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 197
HRrecruitment&selectionpolicies
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 198
Usedtopreserveorchangethecultureofanorganisation
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 199
Inductionprogrammes
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 200
Socialisation
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 201
Reward
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 202
Punishment
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 203
“Organisational Behaviour & Analysis”, 4th Ed, Derek Rollinson, 2008
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 204
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 205
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 206
…that depends on your
definition & interpretation
of culture.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 207
…canbechanged.
…mightchangeovertime.
…mightnotchange.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 208
However, some
aspects of organisational
culture decay over time.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 209
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 210
Cultural
Blunders
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 211
beef oil in India.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 212
GMlaunchedacar,
“Chevy Nova”
inLatinAmerican. “No
va”inSpanishmeans“it
won’t...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 213
Ford'sPintofloppedin
Brazil.Thecompany
foundoutthatPinto
wasBrazilianslangfo...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 214
German
shoppers
loathedWal-
Martstore
greeters.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 215
InTaiwan,thetranslationofthePepsi
slogan“ComealivewiththePepsi
Generation”ca...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 216
InChinese,theKentuckyFried
Chickenslogan“finger-lickin’good”
cameoutas“eatyo...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 217
Why these
cultural blunders
are committed?
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 218
Lack of cultural
awareness & literacy.
1
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 219
"Okay"
"Vulgar gesture"
"It's a secret"
"Very nosey"
"Crazy"
"Very clever"
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 220
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 221
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 222
Lack of due diligence
2
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 223
Assuming the planet Jupiter
was a country you planned to
visit next month. W...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 224
Ethnocentrism: the tendency
to “superioritise” one’s own
culture over that o...
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 225
My-culture-is-superior
mentality.
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 226
Culture is complex.
It’s hard to grasp all its
shades and contours.
4
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 227
© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 228
What can managers
do to reduce the commission
of cultural blunders?
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Organisational Culture

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What exactly is culture?
Understand culture using metaphors.
Understanding organisational culture.
Why organisational culture matters?
Explain and use techniques to evaluate organisational culture.
Cultural web
Cultural iceberg
Handy’s four culture types
Competing values framework
How is organisational culture created and preserved?
Can organisational culture be changed?
Discuss cases of cultural blunders.
What are the causes of cultural blunders?
How to minimise cultural blunders.

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Transcript of "Organisational Culture"

  1. 1. ORGANISATIONAL
  2. 2. 2 Learning Objectives © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. I. Whatexactlyisculture? i. Understandcultureusingmetaphors. II. Understandingorganisationalculture. i. Whyorganisationalculturematters? III. Explainandusetechniquestoevaluateorganisationalculture. i. Culturalweb ii. Culturaliceberg iii. Handy’sfourculturetypes iv. Competingvaluesframework
  3. 3. 3 Learning Objectives © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. IV. Howisorganisationalculturecreatedandpreserved? V. Canorganisationalculturebechanged? VI. Discusscasesofculturalblunders. i. Whatarethecausesofculturalblunders? ii. Howtominimiseculturalblunders.
  4. 4. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 4 You are a product of your environment.
  5. 5. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 5
  6. 6. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 6
  7. 7. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 7 Culture ?
  8. 8. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 8 It’sthecollectiveprogramming ofthemindwhichdistinguishes amemberofonegroupfromanother. Geert Hofstede 1997
  9. 9. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 9 mind Human
  10. 10. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 10 Thecentreofconsciousness thatgeneratesthoughts,feelings,ideas,andperceptions, andstoresknowledgeandmemories.
  11. 11. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 11
  12. 12. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 12
  13. 13. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 13 “Collectiveprogrammingofthemind…” What does this imply?
  14. 14. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 14 Is culture a set of “instructions” installed in the minds of people? 1
  15. 15. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 15 What are these instructions? Who writes (wrote) them? And why? Ifso…
  16. 16. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 16 Is culture perceivable? 2 Ifculturedistinguishesa groupofpeoplefromanother…
  17. 17. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 17 Suggestingcultureis identity.
  18. 18. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 18 Culture [is] installed in the minds of people… 3
  19. 19. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 19 …then culture is unperceivable & hard to articulate.
  20. 20. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 20 Culture is a set of values & norms shared by a group of people.
  21. 21. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 21 values
  22. 22. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 22 Principles or standards that people use in directing their behaviours.
  23. 23. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 23 Describe to the person next to you the qualities you want for a friend?
  24. 24. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 24 normal. Putsimply,norms= Towhom?
  25. 25. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 25 Asetofsharedvalues understandings assumptions,and goalsthatarelearnedfromearlier generations,imposedbypresentmembers ofasociety,andpassedontosucceeding generations.
  26. 26. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 26 Cultureis: perceivable unperceivable Comprisesof: norms values practices Difficultto: articulate Summary
  27. 27. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 27
  28. 28. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 28
  29. 29. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 29 Culture is the software of the mind. 1
  30. 30. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 30 Culture comprises of codes; set auto-pilot behaviours; it has a pattern.
  31. 31. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 31 Cultureislikean Iceberg.
  32. 32. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 32 Visible elements of culture Invisible elements of culture
  33. 33. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 33 Hellriegel, D. and Slocum, J. W. (2008), “Organisational Behaviour”. 13th edition, Cengage Learning, London, p. 479.
  34. 34. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 34 Culture as values 3
  35. 35. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 35 Cultural Value Systems Social system Legal system Education system Religion Political system Economic system
  36. 36. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 36 4 Culture as a web.
  37. 37. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 37 Used to convey its intricacy & complexity.
  38. 38. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 38 InternationalCulture NationalCulture OrganisationCulture Occupational Culture Personal Culture RelationalbutDistinctEnvironmentsofCultures
  39. 39. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 39 InternationalCulture
  40. 40. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 40 National Culture
  41. 41. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 41 Organisation Culture
  42. 42. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 42 Occupational Culture
  43. 43. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 43 Personal Culture
  44. 44. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 44 Thepracticesofmyfirm contradictmypersonal valuesandbeliefs.
  45. 45. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 45 Is your “personal culture” aligned with the “national culture” of your country?
  46. 46. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 46
  47. 47. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 47 Organisational Culture
  48. 48. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 48 Shared values, principles, traditions and practices that influence the way organisational members act, and distinguish the organisation from other organisations. Robbins, S. P. and Coulter, M. (2012) “Management”. 11th edition, Prentice Hall: London p. 52”
  49. 49. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 49 Setofnorms,values and practicestowhich peopleinanorganisationareexposed.
  50. 50. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 50 VALUES PRACTICES NORMS Theorganisationtreatsemployees,customers,shareholders andsociety;itsservicesandproducts;itsfutureambitions,etc. PRACTICES …arereflectedon… PRACTICES
  51. 51. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 51 Barclays fined £290 for rigging LIBOR rate. Source: www.guardian.co.uk/business/2012/jun/27/barclays-chief-bob-diamond-bonus-fine FormerBarclaysCEOBobDiamondresignedamidliborscandal 3 July 2012 Source: insurance-center.org
  52. 52. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 52 PPImis-selling,LIBORscandal, HSBCmoneylaunderingscandal havebroughtrenewedattentionto bankingpracticesofUK’sbanks.
  53. 53. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 53 Organisational culture is “the way we do things around here”. Adapted from Matsumoto, D. (1996) Culture and Psychology. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  54. 54. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 54 How can we determine the culture of an organisation?
  55. 55. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 55 How To Determine the Culture of an Organisation Rituals. Policies. Artefacts. Annual reports. Products/services. Stories (current, ex-employees, customers, founders). Organisational structure. Publications on website. Covert observation. Overt observation. Minutes. Etc.
  56. 56. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 56 Too often the culture that an organisation communicates through its annual reports, policy handbook, speeches, websites and media interviews do not reflect the “way things get done around here”.
  57. 57. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 57 Yougottobeinside tosee,feel,smell,touch andhearit,andmake senseofit.
  58. 58. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 58 Sites like Glassdoor.com and Indee.com allow current and ex-employees to write reviews about the managers, practices, systems, rituals, etc. of organisations.
  59. 59. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 59 However, symbolic objects & activities can yield clues to a firm’s culture.
  60. 60. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 60 Artefacts
  61. 61. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 61
  62. 62. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 62
  63. 63. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 63
  64. 64. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 64 Rituals
  65. 65. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 65 What rituals can you see from this picture?
  66. 66. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 66 Stories
  67. 67. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 67 History Reports Speeches Customers’thoughts Employees’thoughts Frontlinestaffs Ex-staffs Theunspoken Etc.
  68. 68. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 68 WhyIAmLeavingGoldmanSachs Source: Greg, S. (2012). Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/opinion/why-i-am-leaving-goldman-sachs.html?pagewanted=all
  69. 69. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 69 Source: Greg, S. (2012). Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/opinion/why-i-am-leaving-goldman-sachs.html?pagewanted=all
  70. 70. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 70 Source: Greg, S. (2011). Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/opinion/why-i-am-leaving-goldman-sachs.html?pagewanted=all Whatdoyoumake ofGreg’sdescription ofGoldmanSachs’ culture?
  71. 71. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 71 Products Services Processes Policies Organisationalstructure Decisionrights Standards Goals Strategy Language Etc. OtherSymbolicObjects&Activities
  72. 72. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 72 Remember.Symbols arenotcultureinthemselves butmeanstoprojectthe “softwareofthemind”.
  73. 73. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 73
  74. 74. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 74 Why organisational culture matters?
  75. 75. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 75 Itgivespeoplea senseofidentity, belongingand security. 1
  76. 76. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 76 Thinkaboutyour firstdayatworkfor anewemployer. Howdidyoufeel? Didyourelatewith yournewco- workers?
  77. 77. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 77 Doyoufeel proudworking foryourcurrent employer?
  78. 78. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 78 Doyoufeel comfortabletalking aboutyourjobor whereyouwork withfriends,etc.
  79. 79. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 79 Behaviourisinfluenced byone’sculturalmind-set(education,belief,needs, aspirations,etc.)inturninfluencedbyones environment(economics,religion,laws,politics,etc.). 2
  80. 80. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 80 Knowledge Past ExperiencesInterestsGoals Values Norms Other Info.
  81. 81. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 81Former Apple CEO Steve Jobs
  82. 82. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 82 Virgin Group CEO Richard Branson
  83. 83. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 83 The link between culture and organisational performance. 3
  84. 84. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 84 PerformanceCulture 
  85. 85. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 85 Culturegivescharactertothe organisation’soperationslikeHRM, marketing,services,ethics,etc. 4
  86. 86. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 86 Usedtopreserveorchangethecultureofanorganisation
  87. 87. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 87 A“poorculture” canleadtostaff disengagement andcustomer dissatisfaction.
  88. 88. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 88 It affects how work is done in an organisation. 5
  89. 89. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 89
  90. 90. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 90 Tools for Evaluating Organisational Culture
  91. 91. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 91
  92. 92. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 92 Diagnostictoolfor understandingandassessingthe cultureofagroupofpeople.
  93. 93. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 93 The Paradigm Stories Rituals & Routines Symbols Power Structures Organisation al Structure Control Systems Gerry Johnson & Kevan Scholes, 1992 CulturalWeb
  94. 94. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 94 Stories
  95. 95. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 95 History Reports Speeches Customers’thoughts Employees’thoughts Frontlinestaffs Ex-staffs Theunspoken Etc.
  96. 96. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 96 Objects, Awards Events, Acts People, Etc. that convey meanings. Symbols
  97. 97. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 97 Activities or events that reinforce people’s way of life. Rituals&Routines
  98. 98. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 98 Has it got a flat, tall, organic, mechanistic, formal, informal or hybrid structure? Organisationalstructure
  99. 99. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 99 What measures or programmes are used to preserve,protect&promulgate organisationallife? ControlSystems
  100. 100. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 100 Ispowerdefinedbyone’s expertise,performance,personality, affiliation,resourcecontrol,etc. PowerStructures
  101. 101. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 101 Thesixelementsofthecultural webreflecttheoverallclimate (paradigm)insidetheorganisation. Paradigm
  102. 102. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 102 Example
  103. 103. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 103 Example
  104. 104. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 104
  105. 105. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 105 Visible Invisible
  106. 106. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 106
  107. 107. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 107
  108. 108. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 108 Over 90% of an organisation’s culture is invisible, even to its members.
  109. 109. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 109 How do you study something that’s hard to articulate & has no form?
  110. 110. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 110
  111. 111. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 111 CharlesHandy (1985)– Organisational Behaviour Academic; Social Philosopher 1932-
  112. 112. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 112 Handy’s Four Dimensions
  113. 113. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 113 Powerculture Powerrestsinthe handsofacentralfigure orgroupofindividuals.
  114. 114. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 114 The Web
  115. 115. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 115 Oneperson, divisionunitor groupovershadows theentirefirm. Former Apple CEO Steve Jobs
  116. 116. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 116 Obedience tothecentral commander(s).
  117. 117. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 117 Dissentingviews areignored,contained orpunished.
  118. 118. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 118 Abilityto influence isbasedonone’s positiononthe organisational chart.
  119. 119. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 119 Jobpromotionis sometimesbasedon longevityinservice,not expertise,meritocracy.
  120. 120. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 120 Thesuccessof apower-culture organisation dependsonthe effectivenessof thepower- holder. Former Apple CEO Steve Jobs
  121. 121. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 121 What’s good and bad about a power culture organisation?
  122. 122. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 122 Strengths
  123. 123. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 123 Values&practices thatcontribute toorganisational effectivenesscan bepreserved. 1 Source: dadcando.com
  124. 124. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 124 Sometimes, work gets done effectively & speedily. Why? 2 Source: developingyouthspeed.com
  125. 125. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 125 Weaknesses
  126. 126. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 126 Dissentingviews areignored,contained orpunished. 1
  127. 127. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 127 …employees feel isolated from important decisions.
  128. 128. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 128 May stifle employee creativity & emotional connection withtheorganisation.
  129. 129. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 129 2 Jobpromotionmaybebased on longevity in service, not expertise, meritocracy. Source: onetip.net
  130. 130. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 130 Slow to respond to environmental changes. How? 3
  131. 131. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 131 Strong power culture can be a barrier to needed change.
  132. 132. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 132 Workplaceinequality&discrimination Exploitationofcustomers&employees Corruption&accountingfraud Excessiverisk-taking complacency Etc. Strong power culture can foster bad practices. 4
  133. 133. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 133 RoleCulture
  134. 134. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 134 “TheGreektemple”
  135. 135. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 135 Senior management Pillar (department) Pillar (department) Pillar (department) Pillar (department)
  136. 136. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 136 Pillar (accounting) Pillar (marketing) Pillar (HRM) Pillar (R&D) Senior management
  137. 137. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 137 Senior management Pillar (division) Pillar (division) Pillar (division) Pillar (division)
  138. 138. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 138 Seniormanagement Pillar (division) Pillar (division) Pillar (division) Pillar (division) Senior management& departmentor divisionalheads sharepower.
  139. 139. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 139 Abilityto influence isbasedonone’s positiononthe organisational chart.
  140. 140. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 140 Clearlydefined roles,rules,work procedures. Bendingtherules islesswelcome.
  141. 141. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 141 Highemphasis onstaffstodevelop specialisedcompetence.
  142. 142. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 142 Job promotion may be predictable. Source: onetip.net
  143. 143. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 143 I’mcomfortable workinginarole cultureorganisation because…
  144. 144. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 144 1
  145. 145. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 145 High emphasis on staffs to develop specialised competence. 2
  146. 146. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 146 Weaknesses
  147. 147. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 147 encourage staff to think inside the box. Itmay… 1
  148. 148. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 148
  149. 149. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 149 Highlydepartmentalised structuresmayreducetheflow ofinformationandresourcesharing. 2
  150. 150. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 150 Excessive rules can cripple employees’ effectiveness. 3 Source: rachelmariestone.com
  151. 151. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 151 Taskculture
  152. 152. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 152 Howcanweget the job done?
  153. 153. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 153 Resources & competences are pulled from all available areas to get the job done.
  154. 154. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 154 Jones, Mills, Weatherbee, & Hills (2006) Organizational Theory, Design, and Change,
  155. 155. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 155 Ability to influence is based on one’s expertise and inputs.
  156. 156. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 156 Greatercross- departmental anddivisional collaborationand communication.
  157. 157. Adapting fast to new events is highly important to task culture organisations. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 157
  158. 158. Employees’ roles and responsibilities change frequently. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 158
  159. 159. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 159 Excessive focus on task may be at the expense of employee’s wellbeing.
  160. 160. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 160 Personculture
  161. 161. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 161 Itaspirestoservetheneeds & interests ofindividuals workingforthatorganisation.
  162. 162. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 162 …small-sized firms like consultancies, tech start-ups, privatehealthcareandlawfirms. Thisistypicalof… …alsosomefamily-ownedbusinesses.
  163. 163. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 163 Power is evenly shared amongst members.
  164. 164. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 164 Individuals workfor themselves, notthefirm.
  165. 165. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 165 …highly motivated employees; carryinga senseof prideintheir work.
  166. 166. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 166
  167. 167. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 167 Personal identitiesmake uptheoverall cultureofthefirm
  168. 168. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 168 Theriskofconflict amongmembersover organisationalmatters.
  169. 169. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 169 Inpractice,these culturesrarelyexist intheirpurestform.
  170. 170. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 170 Somecommentatorsdescribe NewsCorpasapower-culture companysteepedintheidealsof itsfounderRupertMurdoch. Source: economist.com
  171. 171. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 171 …NewsCorpisequally ataskandroleculturecompany. Hence,ithasahybridculture.
  172. 172. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 172 Whattypeofcultureisyourorganisation: Power? Task? Role? Person? Hybrid?
  173. 173. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 173 Power Task Role Person Classroomshavecultures.Describe yourclasscultureusingHandy’s dimensionsoforganisationalculture. Doesthecultureconstrainyou?How?
  174. 174. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 174
  175. 175. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 175 InternalFocus ExternalFocus Istheorganisationdesignedto adapttoitsexternalenvironmentor topreserveitsinternalstatusquo?
  176. 176. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 176 Theassumptionis,preserving theinternalstatusquoandadapting toachangingenvironmentare mutuallyexclusive.
  177. 177. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 177 Someorganisationsthrivebetter bymaintainingtheinternalstatus quo,whileothersthrivebyadapting toachangingenvironment.
  178. 178. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 178 Flexibility Control Isthe organisation’s management stylecontrolling orflexible?
  179. 179. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 179 Theassumptionis,centralised anddecentralisedmanagements aremutuallyexclusive.
  180. 180. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 180 Someorganisationsthrivethrough flexiblemanagement,whileothers throughcontrollingmanagement.
  181. 181. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 181 The term flexible management is an oxymoron since management is all about control.
  182. 182. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 182 The term controlling management is a tautology.
  183. 183. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 183 However, combining these two sets of competing priorities like so…
  184. 184. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 184 Flexibility Control InternalFocus ExternalFocus
  185. 185. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 185 …four types of organisational culture are identified.
  186. 186. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 186 Flexibility Control InternalFocus ExternalFocus Clan Adhocracy Hierarchy Market Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn created the CVF model
  187. 187. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 187 CVF—CultureTypes Ocai-online (2012). Retrieved from www.ocai-online.com/about-the-Organizational-Culture-Assessment-Instrument-OCAI/Organizational-Culture-Types
  188. 188. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 188 Flexibility Control InternalFocus ExternalFocus Clan Market Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn created the CVF model Hierarchy Adhocracy
  189. 189. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 189
  190. 190. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 190
  191. 191. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 191 How is organisational culture created & preserved?
  192. 192. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 192 Col.Sander KFC Founder
  193. 193. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 193
  194. 194. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 194 Kellogg's Global Leadership Team TopManagement
  195. 195. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 195
  196. 196. ArseneWenger Arsenal FC Manager © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved.
  197. 197. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 197 HRrecruitment&selectionpolicies
  198. 198. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 198 Usedtopreserveorchangethecultureofanorganisation
  199. 199. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 199 Inductionprogrammes
  200. 200. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 200 Socialisation
  201. 201. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 201 Reward
  202. 202. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 202 Punishment
  203. 203. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 203 “Organisational Behaviour & Analysis”, 4th Ed, Derek Rollinson, 2008
  204. 204. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 204
  205. 205. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 205
  206. 206. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 206 …that depends on your definition & interpretation of culture.
  207. 207. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 207 …canbechanged. …mightchangeovertime. …mightnotchange.
  208. 208. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 208 However, some aspects of organisational culture decay over time.
  209. 209. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 209
  210. 210. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 210 Cultural Blunders
  211. 211. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 211 beef oil in India.
  212. 212. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 212 GMlaunchedacar, “Chevy Nova” inLatinAmerican. “No va”inSpanishmeans“it won’t go”.
  213. 213. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 213 Ford'sPintofloppedin Brazil.Thecompany foundoutthatPinto wasBrazilianslangfor “tinymalegenitals”.
  214. 214. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 214 German shoppers loathedWal- Martstore greeters.
  215. 215. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 215 InTaiwan,thetranslationofthePepsi slogan“ComealivewiththePepsi Generation”cameoutas“Pepsiwillbring yourancestorsbackfromthedead.”
  216. 216. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 216 InChinese,theKentuckyFried Chickenslogan“finger-lickin’good” cameoutas“eatyourfingersoff.”
  217. 217. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 217 Why these cultural blunders are committed?
  218. 218. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 218 Lack of cultural awareness & literacy. 1
  219. 219. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 219 "Okay" "Vulgar gesture" "It's a secret" "Very nosey" "Crazy" "Very clever"
  220. 220. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 220
  221. 221. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 221
  222. 222. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 222 Lack of due diligence 2
  223. 223. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 223 Assuming the planet Jupiter was a country you planned to visit next month. What due diligence would you perform?
  224. 224. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 224 Ethnocentrism: the tendency to “superioritise” one’s own culture over that of others. 3
  225. 225. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 225 My-culture-is-superior mentality.
  226. 226. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 226 Culture is complex. It’s hard to grasp all its shades and contours. 4
  227. 227. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 227
  228. 228. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 228 What can managers do to reduce the commission of cultural blunders? 20minutes

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