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Organisational Culture
Organisational Culture
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Organisational Culture

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What exactly is culture? …

What exactly is culture?
Understand culture using metaphors.
Understanding organisational culture.
Why organisational culture matters?
Explain and use techniques to evaluate organisational culture.
Cultural web
Cultural iceberg
Handy’s four culture types
Competing values framework
How is organisational culture created and preserved?
Can organisational culture be changed?
Discuss cases of cultural blunders.
What are the causes of cultural blunders?
How to minimise cultural blunders.

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  • 1. ORGANISATIONAL
  • 2. 2 Learning Objectives © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. I. Whatexactlyisculture? i. Understandcultureusingmetaphors. II. Understandingorganisationalculture. i. Whyorganisationalculturematters? III. Explainandusetechniquestoevaluateorganisationalculture. i. Culturalweb ii. Culturaliceberg iii. Handy’sfourculturetypes iv. Competingvaluesframework
  • 3. 3 Learning Objectives © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. IV. Howisorganisationalculturecreatedandpreserved? V. Canorganisationalculturebechanged? VI. Discusscasesofculturalblunders. i. Whatarethecausesofculturalblunders? ii. Howtominimiseculturalblunders.
  • 4. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 4 You are a product of your environment.
  • 5. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 5
  • 6. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 6
  • 7. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 7 Culture ?
  • 8. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 8 It’sthecollectiveprogramming ofthemindwhichdistinguishes amemberofonegroupfromanother. Geert Hofstede 1997
  • 9. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 9 mind Human
  • 10. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 10 Thecentreofconsciousness thatgeneratesthoughts,feelings,ideas,andperceptions, andstoresknowledgeandmemories.
  • 11. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 11
  • 12. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 12
  • 13. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 13 “Collectiveprogrammingofthemind…” What does this imply?
  • 14. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 14 Is culture a set of “instructions” installed in the minds of people? 1
  • 15. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 15 What are these instructions? Who writes (wrote) them? And why? Ifso…
  • 16. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 16 Is culture perceivable? 2 Ifculturedistinguishesa groupofpeoplefromanother…
  • 17. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 17 Suggestingcultureis identity.
  • 18. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 18 Culture [is] installed in the minds of people… 3
  • 19. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 19 …then culture is unperceivable & hard to articulate.
  • 20. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 20 Culture is a set of values & norms shared by a group of people.
  • 21. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 21 values
  • 22. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 22 Principles or standards that people use in directing their behaviours.
  • 23. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 23 Describe to the person next to you the qualities you want for a friend?
  • 24. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 24 normal. Putsimply,norms= Towhom?
  • 25. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 25 Asetofsharedvalues understandings assumptions,and goalsthatarelearnedfromearlier generations,imposedbypresentmembers ofasociety,andpassedontosucceeding generations.
  • 26. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 26 Cultureis: perceivable unperceivable Comprisesof: norms values practices Difficultto: articulate Summary
  • 27. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 27
  • 28. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 28
  • 29. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 29 Culture is the software of the mind. 1
  • 30. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 30 Culture comprises of codes; set auto-pilot behaviours; it has a pattern.
  • 31. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 31 Cultureislikean Iceberg.
  • 32. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 32 Visible elements of culture Invisible elements of culture
  • 33. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 33 Hellriegel, D. and Slocum, J. W. (2008), “Organisational Behaviour”. 13th edition, Cengage Learning, London, p. 479.
  • 34. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 34 Culture as values 3
  • 35. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 35 Cultural Value Systems Social system Legal system Education system Religion Political system Economic system
  • 36. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 36 4 Culture as a web.
  • 37. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 37 Used to convey its intricacy & complexity.
  • 38. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 38 InternationalCulture NationalCulture OrganisationCulture Occupational Culture Personal Culture RelationalbutDistinctEnvironmentsofCultures
  • 39. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 39 InternationalCulture
  • 40. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 40 National Culture
  • 41. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 41 Organisation Culture
  • 42. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 42 Occupational Culture
  • 43. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 43 Personal Culture
  • 44. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 44 Thepracticesofmyfirm contradictmypersonal valuesandbeliefs.
  • 45. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 45 Is your “personal culture” aligned with the “national culture” of your country?
  • 46. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 46
  • 47. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 47 Organisational Culture
  • 48. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 48 Shared values, principles, traditions and practices that influence the way organisational members act, and distinguish the organisation from other organisations. Robbins, S. P. and Coulter, M. (2012) “Management”. 11th edition, Prentice Hall: London p. 52”
  • 49. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 49 Setofnorms,values and practicestowhich peopleinanorganisationareexposed.
  • 50. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 50 VALUES PRACTICES NORMS Theorganisationtreatsemployees,customers,shareholders andsociety;itsservicesandproducts;itsfutureambitions,etc. PRACTICES …arereflectedon… PRACTICES
  • 51. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 51 Barclays fined £290 for rigging LIBOR rate. Source: www.guardian.co.uk/business/2012/jun/27/barclays-chief-bob-diamond-bonus-fine FormerBarclaysCEOBobDiamondresignedamidliborscandal 3 July 2012 Source: insurance-center.org
  • 52. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 52 PPImis-selling,LIBORscandal, HSBCmoneylaunderingscandal havebroughtrenewedattentionto bankingpracticesofUK’sbanks.
  • 53. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 53 Organisational culture is “the way we do things around here”. Adapted from Matsumoto, D. (1996) Culture and Psychology. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • 54. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 54 How can we determine the culture of an organisation?
  • 55. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 55 How To Determine the Culture of an Organisation Rituals. Policies. Artefacts. Annual reports. Products/services. Stories (current, ex-employees, customers, founders). Organisational structure. Publications on website. Covert observation. Overt observation. Minutes. Etc.
  • 56. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 56 Too often the culture that an organisation communicates through its annual reports, policy handbook, speeches, websites and media interviews do not reflect the “way things get done around here”.
  • 57. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 57 Yougottobeinside tosee,feel,smell,touch andhearit,andmake senseofit.
  • 58. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 58 Sites like Glassdoor.com and Indee.com allow current and ex-employees to write reviews about the managers, practices, systems, rituals, etc. of organisations.
  • 59. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 59 However, symbolic objects & activities can yield clues to a firm’s culture.
  • 60. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 60 Artefacts
  • 61. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 61
  • 62. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 62
  • 63. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 63
  • 64. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 64 Rituals
  • 65. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 65 What rituals can you see from this picture?
  • 66. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 66 Stories
  • 67. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 67 History Reports Speeches Customers’thoughts Employees’thoughts Frontlinestaffs Ex-staffs Theunspoken Etc.
  • 68. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 68 WhyIAmLeavingGoldmanSachs Source: Greg, S. (2012). Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/opinion/why-i-am-leaving-goldman-sachs.html?pagewanted=all
  • 69. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 69 Source: Greg, S. (2012). Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/opinion/why-i-am-leaving-goldman-sachs.html?pagewanted=all
  • 70. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 70 Source: Greg, S. (2011). Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/opinion/why-i-am-leaving-goldman-sachs.html?pagewanted=all Whatdoyoumake ofGreg’sdescription ofGoldmanSachs’ culture?
  • 71. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 71 Products Services Processes Policies Organisationalstructure Decisionrights Standards Goals Strategy Language Etc. OtherSymbolicObjects&Activities
  • 72. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 72 Remember.Symbols arenotcultureinthemselves butmeanstoprojectthe “softwareofthemind”.
  • 73. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 73
  • 74. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 74 Why organisational culture matters?
  • 75. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 75 Itgivespeoplea senseofidentity, belongingand security. 1
  • 76. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 76 Thinkaboutyour firstdayatworkfor anewemployer. Howdidyoufeel? Didyourelatewith yournewco- workers?
  • 77. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 77 Doyoufeel proudworking foryourcurrent employer?
  • 78. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 78 Doyoufeel comfortabletalking aboutyourjobor whereyouwork withfriends,etc.
  • 79. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 79 Behaviourisinfluenced byone’sculturalmind-set(education,belief,needs, aspirations,etc.)inturninfluencedbyones environment(economics,religion,laws,politics,etc.). 2
  • 80. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 80 Knowledge Past ExperiencesInterestsGoals Values Norms Other Info.
  • 81. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 81Former Apple CEO Steve Jobs
  • 82. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 82 Virgin Group CEO Richard Branson
  • 83. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 83 The link between culture and organisational performance. 3
  • 84. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 84 PerformanceCulture 
  • 85. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 85 Culturegivescharactertothe organisation’soperationslikeHRM, marketing,services,ethics,etc. 4
  • 86. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 86 Usedtopreserveorchangethecultureofanorganisation
  • 87. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 87 A“poorculture” canleadtostaff disengagement andcustomer dissatisfaction.
  • 88. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 88 It affects how work is done in an organisation. 5
  • 89. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 89
  • 90. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 90 Tools for Evaluating Organisational Culture
  • 91. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 91
  • 92. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 92 Diagnostictoolfor understandingandassessingthe cultureofagroupofpeople.
  • 93. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 93 The Paradigm Stories Rituals & Routines Symbols Power Structures Organisation al Structure Control Systems Gerry Johnson & Kevan Scholes, 1992 CulturalWeb
  • 94. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 94 Stories
  • 95. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 95 History Reports Speeches Customers’thoughts Employees’thoughts Frontlinestaffs Ex-staffs Theunspoken Etc.
  • 96. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 96 Objects, Awards Events, Acts People, Etc. that convey meanings. Symbols
  • 97. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 97 Activities or events that reinforce people’s way of life. Rituals&Routines
  • 98. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 98 Has it got a flat, tall, organic, mechanistic, formal, informal or hybrid structure? Organisationalstructure
  • 99. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 99 What measures or programmes are used to preserve,protect&promulgate organisationallife? ControlSystems
  • 100. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 100 Ispowerdefinedbyone’s expertise,performance,personality, affiliation,resourcecontrol,etc. PowerStructures
  • 101. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 101 Thesixelementsofthecultural webreflecttheoverallclimate (paradigm)insidetheorganisation. Paradigm
  • 102. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 102 Example
  • 103. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 103 Example
  • 104. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 104
  • 105. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 105 Visible Invisible
  • 106. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 106
  • 107. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 107
  • 108. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 108 Over 90% of an organisation’s culture is invisible, even to its members.
  • 109. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 109 How do you study something that’s hard to articulate & has no form?
  • 110. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 110
  • 111. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 111 CharlesHandy (1985)– Organisational Behaviour Academic; Social Philosopher 1932-
  • 112. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 112 Handy’s Four Dimensions
  • 113. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 113 Powerculture Powerrestsinthe handsofacentralfigure orgroupofindividuals.
  • 114. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 114 The Web
  • 115. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 115 Oneperson, divisionunitor groupovershadows theentirefirm. Former Apple CEO Steve Jobs
  • 116. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 116 Obedience tothecentral commander(s).
  • 117. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 117 Dissentingviews areignored,contained orpunished.
  • 118. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 118 Abilityto influence isbasedonone’s positiononthe organisational chart.
  • 119. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 119 Jobpromotionis sometimesbasedon longevityinservice,not expertise,meritocracy.
  • 120. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 120 Thesuccessof apower-culture organisation dependsonthe effectivenessof thepower- holder. Former Apple CEO Steve Jobs
  • 121. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 121 What’s good and bad about a power culture organisation?
  • 122. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 122 Strengths
  • 123. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 123 Values&practices thatcontribute toorganisational effectivenesscan bepreserved. 1 Source: dadcando.com
  • 124. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 124 Sometimes, work gets done effectively & speedily. Why? 2 Source: developingyouthspeed.com
  • 125. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 125 Weaknesses
  • 126. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 126 Dissentingviews areignored,contained orpunished. 1
  • 127. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 127 …employees feel isolated from important decisions.
  • 128. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 128 May stifle employee creativity & emotional connection withtheorganisation.
  • 129. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 129 2 Jobpromotionmaybebased on longevity in service, not expertise, meritocracy. Source: onetip.net
  • 130. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 130 Slow to respond to environmental changes. How? 3
  • 131. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 131 Strong power culture can be a barrier to needed change.
  • 132. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 132 Workplaceinequality&discrimination Exploitationofcustomers&employees Corruption&accountingfraud Excessiverisk-taking complacency Etc. Strong power culture can foster bad practices. 4
  • 133. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 133 RoleCulture
  • 134. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 134 “TheGreektemple”
  • 135. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 135 Senior management Pillar (department) Pillar (department) Pillar (department) Pillar (department)
  • 136. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 136 Pillar (accounting) Pillar (marketing) Pillar (HRM) Pillar (R&D) Senior management
  • 137. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 137 Senior management Pillar (division) Pillar (division) Pillar (division) Pillar (division)
  • 138. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 138 Seniormanagement Pillar (division) Pillar (division) Pillar (division) Pillar (division) Senior management& departmentor divisionalheads sharepower.
  • 139. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 139 Abilityto influence isbasedonone’s positiononthe organisational chart.
  • 140. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 140 Clearlydefined roles,rules,work procedures. Bendingtherules islesswelcome.
  • 141. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 141 Highemphasis onstaffstodevelop specialisedcompetence.
  • 142. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 142 Job promotion may be predictable. Source: onetip.net
  • 143. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 143 I’mcomfortable workinginarole cultureorganisation because…
  • 144. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 144 1
  • 145. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 145 High emphasis on staffs to develop specialised competence. 2
  • 146. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 146 Weaknesses
  • 147. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 147 encourage staff to think inside the box. Itmay… 1
  • 148. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 148
  • 149. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 149 Highlydepartmentalised structuresmayreducetheflow ofinformationandresourcesharing. 2
  • 150. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 150 Excessive rules can cripple employees’ effectiveness. 3 Source: rachelmariestone.com
  • 151. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 151 Taskculture
  • 152. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 152 Howcanweget the job done?
  • 153. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 153 Resources & competences are pulled from all available areas to get the job done.
  • 154. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 154 Jones, Mills, Weatherbee, & Hills (2006) Organizational Theory, Design, and Change,
  • 155. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 155 Ability to influence is based on one’s expertise and inputs.
  • 156. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 156 Greatercross- departmental anddivisional collaborationand communication.
  • 157. Adapting fast to new events is highly important to task culture organisations. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 157
  • 158. Employees’ roles and responsibilities change frequently. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 158
  • 159. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 159 Excessive focus on task may be at the expense of employee’s wellbeing.
  • 160. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 160 Personculture
  • 161. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 161 Itaspirestoservetheneeds & interests ofindividuals workingforthatorganisation.
  • 162. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 162 …small-sized firms like consultancies, tech start-ups, privatehealthcareandlawfirms. Thisistypicalof… …alsosomefamily-ownedbusinesses.
  • 163. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 163 Power is evenly shared amongst members.
  • 164. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 164 Individuals workfor themselves, notthefirm.
  • 165. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 165 …highly motivated employees; carryinga senseof prideintheir work.
  • 166. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 166
  • 167. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 167 Personal identitiesmake uptheoverall cultureofthefirm
  • 168. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 168 Theriskofconflict amongmembersover organisationalmatters.
  • 169. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 169 Inpractice,these culturesrarelyexist intheirpurestform.
  • 170. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 170 Somecommentatorsdescribe NewsCorpasapower-culture companysteepedintheidealsof itsfounderRupertMurdoch. Source: economist.com
  • 171. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 171 …NewsCorpisequally ataskandroleculturecompany. Hence,ithasahybridculture.
  • 172. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 172 Whattypeofcultureisyourorganisation: Power? Task? Role? Person? Hybrid?
  • 173. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 173 Power Task Role Person Classroomshavecultures.Describe yourclasscultureusingHandy’s dimensionsoforganisationalculture. Doesthecultureconstrainyou?How?
  • 174. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 174
  • 175. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 175 InternalFocus ExternalFocus Istheorganisationdesignedto adapttoitsexternalenvironmentor topreserveitsinternalstatusquo?
  • 176. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 176 Theassumptionis,preserving theinternalstatusquoandadapting toachangingenvironmentare mutuallyexclusive.
  • 177. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 177 Someorganisationsthrivebetter bymaintainingtheinternalstatus quo,whileothersthrivebyadapting toachangingenvironment.
  • 178. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 178 Flexibility Control Isthe organisation’s management stylecontrolling orflexible?
  • 179. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 179 Theassumptionis,centralised anddecentralisedmanagements aremutuallyexclusive.
  • 180. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 180 Someorganisationsthrivethrough flexiblemanagement,whileothers throughcontrollingmanagement.
  • 181. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 181 The term flexible management is an oxymoron since management is all about control.
  • 182. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 182 The term controlling management is a tautology.
  • 183. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 183 However, combining these two sets of competing priorities like so…
  • 184. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 184 Flexibility Control InternalFocus ExternalFocus
  • 185. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 185 …four types of organisational culture are identified.
  • 186. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 186 Flexibility Control InternalFocus ExternalFocus Clan Adhocracy Hierarchy Market Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn created the CVF model
  • 187. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 187 CVF—CultureTypes Ocai-online (2012). Retrieved from www.ocai-online.com/about-the-Organizational-Culture-Assessment-Instrument-OCAI/Organizational-Culture-Types
  • 188. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 188 Flexibility Control InternalFocus ExternalFocus Clan Market Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn created the CVF model Hierarchy Adhocracy
  • 189. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 189
  • 190. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 190
  • 191. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 191 How is organisational culture created & preserved?
  • 192. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 192 Col.Sander KFC Founder
  • 193. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 193
  • 194. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 194 Kellogg's Global Leadership Team TopManagement
  • 195. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 195
  • 196. ArseneWenger Arsenal FC Manager © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved.
  • 197. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 197 HRrecruitment&selectionpolicies
  • 198. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 198 Usedtopreserveorchangethecultureofanorganisation
  • 199. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 199 Inductionprogrammes
  • 200. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 200 Socialisation
  • 201. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 201 Reward
  • 202. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 202 Punishment
  • 203. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 203 “Organisational Behaviour & Analysis”, 4th Ed, Derek Rollinson, 2008
  • 204. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 204
  • 205. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 205
  • 206. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 206 …that depends on your definition & interpretation of culture.
  • 207. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 207 …canbechanged. …mightchangeovertime. …mightnotchange.
  • 208. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 208 However, some aspects of organisational culture decay over time.
  • 209. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 209
  • 210. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 210 Cultural Blunders
  • 211. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 211 beef oil in India.
  • 212. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 212 GMlaunchedacar, “Chevy Nova” inLatinAmerican. “No va”inSpanishmeans“it won’t go”.
  • 213. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 213 Ford'sPintofloppedin Brazil.Thecompany foundoutthatPinto wasBrazilianslangfor “tinymalegenitals”.
  • 214. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 214 German shoppers loathedWal- Martstore greeters.
  • 215. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 215 InTaiwan,thetranslationofthePepsi slogan“ComealivewiththePepsi Generation”cameoutas“Pepsiwillbring yourancestorsbackfromthedead.”
  • 216. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 216 InChinese,theKentuckyFried Chickenslogan“finger-lickin’good” cameoutas“eatyourfingersoff.”
  • 217. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 217 Why these cultural blunders are committed?
  • 218. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 218 Lack of cultural awareness & literacy. 1
  • 219. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 219 "Okay" "Vulgar gesture" "It's a secret" "Very nosey" "Crazy" "Very clever"
  • 220. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 220
  • 221. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 221
  • 222. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 222 Lack of due diligence 2
  • 223. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 223 Assuming the planet Jupiter was a country you planned to visit next month. What due diligence would you perform?
  • 224. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 224 Ethnocentrism: the tendency to “superioritise” one’s own culture over that of others. 3
  • 225. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 225 My-culture-is-superior mentality.
  • 226. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 226 Culture is complex. It’s hard to grasp all its shades and contours. 4
  • 227. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 227
  • 228. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 228 What can managers do to reduce the commission of cultural blunders? 20minutes

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