Leading

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What exactly is leadership?
In what ways can individuals exercise leadership?
What makes an effective leader?
What is effective leadership?
What are the indicators of effective leadership?
Use and critique models of evaluating effective leadership.

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Leading

  1. 1. Learning ObjectivesI. What exactly is leadership?II. In what ways can individuals exercise leadership?III. What makes an effective leader? i. What is effective leadership? ii. What are the indicators of effective leadership? iii. Use and critique models of evaluating effective leadership. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 2
  2. 2. Controlling Leading isconsidered one of the core Influencing Planning functions of management. Organising © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 3
  3. 3. ?LEADERSHIP© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 4
  4. 4. influence Ability to the behaviour or actions of people (towards the attainment of goals.)© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 5
  5. 5. Influence is an expressionof power but power is not necessarily an expression of influence. Berlin Asong (2009) © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 6
  6. 6. …as depicted here. Loneman stood tall against the militarypower of the Chinese authority, Tiananmen Square 1989. Source: Jeff Widener(1989) © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 7
  7. 7. We’re constantly exertinginfluence at home, work, in our communities, etc.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 8
  8. 8. Implication… You have manifested someserves to dispel some myths about leadership such as… This assertion form of leadership.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 9
  9. 9. "Not EVERYONE can be a leader".© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 10
  10. 10. The tension between who can and can’t be a leader is a question of… how one defines leadership & how the leader expresses influence.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 11
  11. 11. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 12
  12. 12. So how do I express influence?© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 13
  13. 13. Your question requires us to identify the… SOURCES OF INFLUENCE© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 14
  14. 14. Expert power Resource power Legitimate power Reverent power Initiative power Reward power Coercive power© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 15
  15. 15. Expert Power Derived fromone’s expertise in a subject. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 16
  16. 16. Your expertise is influentialif it’s relevant to and recognised by the employed environment.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 17
  17. 17. Have you led or managed agroup of highly talented people? What was your experience? © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 18
  18. 18. Studies and anecdotal evidence have shown… being an expert doesn’t necessarily mean you’re a good leader of people.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 19
  19. 19. An expert influencer can be susceptible to… hubris, thought-rigidity,expertcentricism, learning- avoidance, etc.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 20
  20. 20. Resource Power Derived from possessing something that has economic or social value to others. Information, knowledge affiliation, money, technology, etc.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 21
  21. 21. Really? I can get 2 the info for your… 1 © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 22
  22. 22. How? 3 …my people on the ground. 4 © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 23
  23. 23. A Resource influencer is the gatekeeper between you and your goal.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 24
  24. 24. Resource Influencers Information hoarders Well-connected individuals Key decision-makers Ideas generators Wealth owners Security agents Etc.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 25
  25. 25. Reverent Power Derived from being liked or admired by others.Former President of South Africa—Nelson Mandela Former UN Sec Gen. Kofi Annan © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 26
  26. 26. Usually referred to as… Charismatic leaders; …heroes, geniuses or legends.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 27
  27. 27. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 28
  28. 28. What separates reverent influencers from their counterparts is… the strong affective relationship that exists between them and people.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 29
  29. 29. They owe their reverent status to the people they serve.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 30
  30. 30. Is there a formula of becoming a reverent influencer?© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 31
  31. 31. It’s a simple question without a simple answer. Studying the trajectoriesof reverent influencers (like football coaches, footballers, family figures, people in authority, employees, community members),the findings paint a mixed picture.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 32
  32. 32. His actions beforejoining the military and during his military service proved he had no deliberate plan to gain reverent status. Lance CorporalJohnson GideonBeharry, recipient (2005)ofthe Victoria Cross, thehighest military decoration forvalour inthe British andCommonwealth armedforces. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 33 Source: Wikipedia
  33. 33. …same forformer South African President Nelson Mandela, a symbolof the anti-apartheid movement. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 34 Source: www.pitchengine.com
  34. 34. However, there are some design aspects that catapulted them to reverence.The values (they believe in)that influence their actions.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 35
  35. 35. Consider the case of Steve Jobs… Apple Inc. Former CEO Steve Jobs© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 36
  36. 36. Initiative PowerTaking a leadin something. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 37
  37. 37. Reward Power Derived from using incentive to influence people.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 38
  38. 38. Coercive Power Derived from using the threat of punishment.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 39
  39. 39. Legitimate PowerDerived fromthe positionone occupieson the social stratum. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 40
  40. 40. Which position do you hold in your organisation? 1) Top-level management 2) Middle-level management 3) Frontline management 4) Experienced (non-management) 5) Newbie© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 41
  41. 41. Sadly, most leadership literature focus on legitimate power.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 42
  42. 42. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 43
  43. 43. What makes an effective leader?© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 44
  44. 44. Let’s get to understand what is… EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 45
  45. 45. One that effectstop-line & bottom- line growth? Apple Inc. Former CEO Steve Jobs © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 46
  46. 46. One that serves the aspirations of people?© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 47
  47. 47. One that impactshumankind? Microsoft Founder—Bill Gates © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 48
  48. 48. One that overcomes adversity? Former South Africa President Nelson Mandela© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 49 Source: www.pitchengine.com
  49. 49. One thatadmits tomistakes? Ex New YorK Governor Eliot Spitzerresigned in March 2008 amid a sex scandal. Source: usliberals.about.com © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 50
  50. 50. One who is always there for me?© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 51
  51. 51. The implication … effective leadership is interpreted in many ways. This presents a problem as we shall find out in a moment.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 52
  52. 52. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 53
  53. 53. Why are someindividuals effective (or unsuccessful) in their leadership roles? © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 54
  54. 54. Factors Determining Leadership Effectiveness. Leader’s qualities Followers’ qualities Environment Leader’s actions© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 55
  55. 55. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 56
  56. 56. Use of innate and non-innate qualities to explain a leader’s effectiveness or ineffectiveness.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 57
  57. 57. Personality Traits© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 58
  58. 58. Cognitive Skills US President Barack Obama© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 59
  59. 59. Social SkillsFormer Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 60
  60. 60. CharacterMark HurdEx HP CEO resigned after admitting to expense misrepresentation (2010). © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 61
  61. 61. Yahoo CEO Scott Thompson stepped down after it was revealed he doesn’t have a computer science degree as stated in his CV. May 2012© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 62
  62. 62. Technical Skills Toyota’s CEO Akio Toyoda© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 63
  63. 63. Self-awareness Ability to understand ones own emotions, needs, weaknesses, strengths and drives.PepsiCo CEO Indra Nooyi © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 64
  64. 64. Self-regulationAbility to control ones own emotions,needs, weaknesses, strengths and drives. Mahatma Gandhi © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 65
  65. 65. EmpathyAbility to see and understand the worldfrom the viewpoints of other people. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 66 Source: www.pitchengine.com
  66. 66. Critique Leader’s Qualities Theory© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 67
  67. 67. It explains why individuals become (and to an extent how they become) leaders.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 68
  68. 68. Some have boiled downleadership effectiveness to traits like… Visionary Determined Inspiring Intelligent Assertive © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 69
  69. 69. Was Hitler an effective leader? Do the traits below explain his effectiveness or ineffectiveness? VisionaryDetermined Inspiring Intelligent Assertive Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 70
  70. 70. Was Bin Laden an effective leader? Do the traits below explain his effectiveness or ineffectiveness? Visionary DeterminedSource: www.timgough.org Inspiring Intelligent Assertive © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 71
  71. 71. Do the traits belowexplain Jobs’ effectiveness as a leader at Apple? VisionaryDetermined Inspiring Intelligent Assertive Apple Inc. Former CEO Steve Jobs © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 72
  72. 72. The leader’s qualities theoryraises the question whether leaders are born or nurtured? © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 73
  73. 73. Would Steve have been a successfulleader at Nintendo, GE or Oracle? Apple Inc. Former CEO Steve Jobs © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 74
  74. 74. 2 Leader’s qualities are unreliable to predict leadership effectiveness. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 75
  75. 75. 3 It ignores the environmental and time factors that contribute to leadership effectiveness. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 76
  76. 76. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 77
  77. 77. The leader’s effectiveness or ineffectiveness is explained through… the attributes of the followers.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 78
  78. 78. Followers’ Aspirations-The type of aspirations.- The number of aspirations.- The degree of alignment between the aspirations of followersand that of leader. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 79
  79. 79. Skills & expertise© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 80
  80. 80. Followers’ Attitude© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 81
  81. 81. Cohesion© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 82
  82. 82. Commitment & Character© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 83
  83. 83. AwarenessAbility to understand their actions and thoseof the leaders. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 84
  84. 84. Awareness is a bifurcating factor of leadership effectiveness or ineffectiveness. For example… Followers’ low understandingof the leader’s actions can contribute to leadership effectiveness and ineffectiveness. How? © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 85
  85. 85. Critique Followers’ Qualities Theory© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 86
  86. 86. 1 It offers a plausible understanding why some leaders are effective. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 87
  87. 87. The people element …as exemplified by former South African President Nelson Mandela, a symbol ofthe anti-apartheid movement. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 88 Source: www.pitchengine.com
  88. 88. 2 However, it’s mistaken to think… …all leaders interact with homogenous groups of people sharing same goals. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 89
  89. 89. Source: www.huffingtonpost.com Facebook Inc. Mark Zuckerberg © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 90
  90. 90. Consider the case of Facebook CEO & Co-FounderMark Zuckerberg © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 91
  91. 91. …many have questioned his ability to lead a public company; from dealing with shareholders’, lawmakers’, to employees’ and users’ concerns.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 92 Source: cleveland.com
  92. 92. 3 Mark’s aspirations might bealigned with those of his employees but that doesn’t necessarily make him a successful leader. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 93
  93. 93. 4 It’s also disingenuous to ignorehow brilliantly he has steered Facebook since its inception. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 94
  94. 94. 5 Talks whether Mark is the next Bill Gate or Steve Jobs… underlie the problems found in most metrics used to evaluate leadership effectiveness. Leadership effectiveness should be viewed in context (environment). © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 95
  95. 95. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 96
  96. 96. What makes an effective leader?© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 97
  97. 97. It depends…© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 98
  98. 98. Environmental theory adheres to the notion that… leadership effectiveness isinfluenced by systems outside the leader and followers.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 99
  99. 99. John McAuley, Joanne Duberley and Phil Johnson, Organization Theory: Challenges and Perspectives, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2007© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 100
  100. 100. Organisation’s Characteristics E.g. Goals, Resources, Competences, etc.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 101
  101. 101. Characteristics of organisational tasks© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 102
  102. 102. Employees’ Characteristics© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 103
  103. 103. Organisation’s External Environment© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 104
  104. 104. Critique Environmental Theory© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 105
  105. 105. 1 In the eyes of environmental theorists… theres no such thing as traits that can predict the effectiveness of a leader. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 106
  106. 106. In the eyes of environmental theorists… because a leader wassuccessful in firm A, doesn’tnecessarily mean that would be the case in firm B.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 107
  107. 107. March 2012 Sacked afterfailing to repeat his Porto-success at Chelsea. Former Chelsea FC Manager Andre Villas Boas Source: independent.co.uk © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 108
  108. 108. In the eyes of environmental theorists… because a leader was successful in firm A, doesn’t necessarily meanthat would be the case in subsequent years for the same firm. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 109
  109. 109. May 2011 Fired after failingto repeat his streak of successes with other clubs and Chelsea. Former Chelsea FC Manager Carlo Ancelotti © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 110
  110. 110. 2 Does that mean there’s no formula for leadership effectiveness? © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 111
  111. 111. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 112
  112. 112. It appears environment theorists squashed any hope of finding the holy grail of effective leadership. Not quite.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 113
  113. 113. The leader’s actions theory tries to understand… the actions of the leader;why and how they were made.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 114
  114. 114. How &why “it” is made.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 115
  115. 115. Niche consultative style© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 116
  116. 116. Mass consultative style © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 117
  117. 117. Delegated style © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 118
  118. 118. Participative style © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 119
  119. 119. Autocratic style © 2010 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 120
  120. 120. GOALS© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 121
  121. 121. © 2009 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 122
  122. 122. Employees Investors Suppliers/distributorsConsumers OrganisationGovernment/Regulators Communities © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 123
  123. 123. Leadership effectiveness is judged by the actions taken,& not necessarily the results stemming from them.© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 124
  124. 124. Leadership Metaphors Orchestra conductor Football coach Father Therapist Judge Grand mum© 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 125
  125. 125. Which one of these metaphorsfits the type of leader you prefer to work with? Explain why. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 126
  126. 126. © 2013 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 127

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