Alzheimer's disease 01202010


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Alzheimer's disease 01202010

  1. 1. Alzheimer’s Disease Presented by: Beth Barranco, RN, BSN
  2. 2. What is Alzheimer’s Disease? <ul><li>Was first described by and subsequently named after a German physician, Dr. Alois Alzheimer, in 1906 </li></ul><ul><li>A progressive and fatal brain disease that affects as many as 5.3 million Americans today and is the 7 th leading cause of death in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>It destroys brain cells, causing memory loss and problems with thinking </li></ul><ul><li>It worsens over time and is fatal </li></ul>
  3. 3. Alzheimer’s Disease… <ul><li>Chemical and structural changes in the brain gradually destroy the ability to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate to others.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As critical cells die, drastic personality loss occurs and body systems fail </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease <ul><li>Very Early AD </li></ul><ul><li>Mild to Moderate AD </li></ul><ul><li>Severe AD </li></ul>
  5. 5. Early Stage: <ul><li>In the earliest stages, before symptoms can be detected with current tests, plaques begin to form in brain areas involved in: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and memory </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking and planning </li></ul>
  6. 6. Moderate Stage: <ul><li>Brain areas important to memory and thinking and planning , develop more plaques. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with memory or thinking can become serious enough to interfere with work or social life. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain areas that are involved in speaking and understanding speech can also become affected </li></ul>
  7. 7. Severe Alzheimer’s Disease: <ul><li>In advanced Alzheimer’s disease, most of the cortex is seriously damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>The brain shrinks dramatically due to widespread cell death. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals lose their ability to communicate, to recognize family and loved ones and to care for themselves </li></ul>
  8. 8. Alzheimer’s effects your everyday life Work Hobbies Social Interactions
  9. 9. 10 Warning Signs of Alzheimer’s: <ul><li>Memory loss disruptive to daily life </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges planning or solving problems </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty completing tasks at work or home </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion with time and place </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble with visual images or spatial relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with speaking or writing words </li></ul><ul><li>Misplacing things or inability to retrace steps </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased or poor judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal from work or social activities </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in mood or personality </li></ul>
  10. 10. Unmodifiable Risk Factors: <ul><li>Age : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The greatest known risk factor for Alzheimer’s is increasing age. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most individuals with the disease are 65 or older. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s doubles about every five years after age 65. After age 85, the risk reaches nearly 50 percent.   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family History : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research shows that those who have a parent, brother, sister, or child with Alzheimer’s are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The risk increases if more than one family member has the illness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterministic genes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Controllable Risk Factors: <ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>High cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Liver and kidney disease </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking, alcohol, drug use </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality or insufficient sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Stress </li></ul>
  12. 12. What should you do if you think you may have Alzheimer’s Disease? <ul><li>If you notice any signs of Alzheimer’s in yourself or someone you know, don’t ignore them. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule an appointment with your doctor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no single type of doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating memory loss or Alzheimer’s disease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary care doctors or internists often oversee the diagnostic process and provide treatment themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EARLY DETECTION IS IMPORTANT!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other physicians that may be involved in your care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A neurologist : diseases of the brain and nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A psychiatrist : disorders that affect mood or the way the mind works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A psychologist : advanced training in testing memory, concentration, problem solving, language and other mental functions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Understanding the problem: <ul><li>There is no single test that proves a person has Alzheimer’s. A medical workup will evaluate your overall health and identify any conditions that could affect how well the mind works. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors can almost always determine that a person has dementia, but it may sometimes be difficult to pin down the exact cause. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dementia is not a disease itself, but rather a group of symptoms that are caused by various diseases or conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dementia, though often treatable to some degree, is usually due to causes that are progressive and incurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected areas of cognition may be memory , attention , language , and problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alzheimer's disease causes 50% to 60% of all dementias </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Life after diagnosis: <ul><li>Medications and Alzheimer’s disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications can not reverse serious brain deterioration, but the earlier these drugs are started, the greater their potential effectiveness in slowing memory loss and preserving independence. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create your personal anti-Alzheimer’s program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain regeneration continues through adulthood. Building brain reserves through systematic lifestyle choices is currently your best defense against Alzheimer’s disease </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Treatment: <ul><li>Unfortunately, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>If your symptoms are the result of Alzheimer’s disease, medications can delay the onset of more debilitating symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Early diagnosis can prolong independence and is the first step towards treatment, management, and living life fully. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Strategies to Prevent and Delay Alzheimer’s Disease <ul><li>Get plenty of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Eat a brain-healthy diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow a Mediterranean diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain consistent levels of insulin and blood sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat across the rainbow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drink tea daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider supplementing your diet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep your mind active </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep to restore your memory </li></ul>
  17. 17. Strategies to Prevent and Delay Alzheimer’s Disease <ul><li>Build brain reserves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set aside time each day to learn something new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice memorization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solve riddles and work puzzles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow the road less traveled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learn to and relax manage your stress </li></ul><ul><li>Protect your brain </li></ul>
  18. 18. Coping with Alzheimer’s Disease: <ul><li>To help cope with memory problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep a book with you to record important information such as phone numbers, names, appointments, your address and directions to your home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place sticky notes around the house when you need to remember things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Label cupboards and drawers with their contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask friends/family to call you each day and remind you of important things such as meal times, medication times, and appointment times. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use photos of people you see often labeled with their names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep track of phone messages by using an answering machine. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Coping cont.. <ul><li>In planning your day: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find things to do that you enjoy and are able to do safely on your own. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to accomplish tasks during the times of the day you feel your best. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If something becomes too difficult, take a break </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you need help.. Ask for it! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To keep from getting lost: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask someone to go with you when you go out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always take directions with you wherever you go. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Coping cont.. <ul><li>Taking care of yourself at home: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have family, friends, or a community service program call or visit daily to ensure that everything is all right. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask a neighbor that you trust to keep a set of house keys for you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask someone to check things out around your house such as: smoke alarms / CO2 detectors, electrical appliances, mail, perishable food items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Alzheimer organizations will be able to tell you how to get help with things like shopping, housekeeping, meals, and transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep a list of important and emergency numbers by the phone </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Maintaining Your Responsibilities: <ul><li>It is important to realize that at some point, it will become too difficult or dangerous for you to live by yourself . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss with your family/friends your wishes regarding living arrangements and medical care when you are no longer able to make those decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct a WILL, LIVING WILL and POWER OF ATTORNEY and share with the appropriate members of your family or support group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange for direct deposit of checks such as your retirement pension or Social Security benefits. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Try to locate a support group or small network of people </li></ul><ul><li>Surround yourself with familiar things. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Resources <ul><li>Alzheimer’s Association : </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24/7 helpline: 800.272.3900 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office: 1899 Central Avenue, Augusta, GA 706.731.9060 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adult Day Care, Long-term care, Home-delivered meals, Homemaker Services, Transportation, Small Home Repair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aiken Adult Care, Inc. 951 Millbrook Ave. Aiken , SC 29803 (803) 648-7045 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council On Aging 159 Morgan St., NW Aiken , SC 29801 (803) 648-5447 </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Public Safety Department Presents to the Community : Project Lifesaver of North Augusta/Aiken County, Inc <ul><li>A Public Safety Program used to assist in locating missing persons suffering from Dementia-type disorders that wander </li></ul><ul><li>The Mission : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dedicated to bringing your loved ones home !” </li></ul><ul><li>How it Works : </li></ul><ul><li>Those at risk of wandering, bolting, running and/or eloping wear a one-ounce transmitter on the wrist or ankle that emits a constant pulsating radio tracking signal 24/7. </li></ul><ul><li>When the caregiver discovers their loved one missing, they call the police and trained Project Lifesaver personnel respond with a special tracking unit that has proved useful in locating missing persons. </li></ul><ul><li>The Facts : </li></ul><ul><li>A Non-Profit Organization founded by police to serve police in the electronic location of wanderers, available in over 325 police departments in 37 states </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1,322 wanderers have been found to date; </li></ul><ul><li>Average Location Time: 22 minutes (19 minutes after arriving on the scene. Location time prior to Project Lifesaver was over 8 hours; </li></ul>
  24. 24. Project LifeSaver <ul><li>Project LifeSaver International has joined forces with the North Augusta Department of Public Safety , Aiken County Sheriff's Office and Aiken Department of Public Safety to aid in locating victims suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease, Autism and other dementias. </li></ul><ul><li>Project Lifesaver of North Augusta/Aiken County, Inc. deploys specially trained teams with the most reliable technology available to quickly locate and return wandering adults and children to their families and caregivers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To apply for a tracking device, complete an application and physician statement and mail to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Lifesaver of North Augusta / Aiken County, Inc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attn: Nancy Kieltsch </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Aiken County Sheriff’s Office 420 Hampton Ave., NE Aiken, SC 29801 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Thank you and Good Night ;)