Surface water pollution


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Surface water pollution

  1. 1. Page  2 Introduction SurfaceWater Pollution TheYamunaRiver Pollution in River River Contamination PreventionsAnd Control Reference
  2. 2. Page  3 The biggest major rivers of India are: →Flowing into the Bay of Bengal: Brahmaputra, Ganges, Meghna, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri →Flowing into the Arabian Sea: Indus, Narmada, Tapti →Surface Water is water collecting on the ground or in a stream, river, lake, wetland, or ocean →A River is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river.
  3. 3. Page  4 There are three types of water pollution in river: i. Nutrient-based ii. Chemical iii. Thermal i. Nutrient-based Pollution  Includes untreated human sewage and agricultural run-off from phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers, serve as food for phytoplankton.  The river will gradually become eutrophified(oxygen-depleted)
  4. 4. Page  5 ii. Chemical Pollution  Include heavy metals (zinc, copper, chromium, lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic)  These substances bioaccumulations iii. Thermal pollution  Includes numerous nuclear, coals or oil based power plants.  The heated waste water raises the water temperature  Another pollution is municipal sewage.  Burned coal ashes aoe flown affecting plants and human work.
  5. 5. Page  6 →Also known as Jamuna →Total length of around 1370 km is the largest tributary of the ganges. →Its source is at yamunotri in the uttarakhand himalaya regions. →It flows through the state of Uttaranchal, Haryana, Delhi And Uttar Pradesh →It is no more a, “Maili Yamuna But A Ganda Naalah”.
  6. 6. Page  7 •Agricultural residues, insecticides and pesticides •People wash their clothes, utensils and defecate •There are three main sources of pollution in the river a. Households and municipal disposal sites b. Soil erosion resulting c. Chemical wash-off
  7. 7. Page  8 Haryana a.Industrial effluents and untreated sewage b.Moderate levels of toxic metals (nickel, lead, manganese, chromium, mercury, zinc) c.Contaminated water reaches the soil, the vegetables growing in this soil absorb the contaminants d.The concentration of heavy metals was found to be the highest in spinach, followed by cauliflower and the least in radish.
  8. 8. Page  9 Delhi a.Discharges about 3,684 MLD (million liters per day) of sewage through18 drains b.Factories and people living in colonies, slums and rural pollute the river with impunity because of untreated water.
  9. 9. Page  10 Yamuna in Delhi is called dead river Making vegetables hazardous to health Causing cancer and skin problem Releases Ammonia gas causes difficulty in breathing and a permanent damage to lungs Releases Hydrogen Sulphide gas (H2S) causes bronchitis, asthma and headache
  10. 10. Page  11 Sudden deaths of about 156 Gharials in river Chambal and thousands of fishes in the river between Vrindavan and Mathura Main cause of Eutrophication The Delhi metro is losing its cool on the Yamuna stretch due to the toxic river.
  11. 11. Page  12 Not discharging untreated sewage and other industrial waste Not dumping solid wastes, garbage and medical wastes Not using river banks as open toilets Not disposing dead human bodies/animal carcasses in rivers Not quarrying sand Not washing vehicles
  12. 12. Page  13 Reducing agricultural run-off Preventing or treating industrial discharges Preventing or treating municipal sanitary sewage discharges Preventing or treating municipal storm water discharges Preventing or controlling resource recovery in river channels Controlling shipping (ballast, swage) discharges Controlling marina operations 
  13. 13. Page  14 Shepard Krech III, J.R. Mcneill, Carolyn Merchant (2003) Encyclopedia Of World And Environmental History, Vol. 3, 1st Edition Routledge Publishers M. G. Chitkara (1998) Encyclopedia Of Ecology, Environment And Pollution, Ashish Publishing House Yash Vardhan Jain Chetan Singh- Pollution In Yamuna River PDF File Central Pollution Control Board (Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. Of India) (2006) Water Quality Status Of Yamuna River (1999 – 2005) PDF File
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