League of Nations

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  • Horrors of World War 1 first mechanized war, with aeroplanes, chemical warfare
  • Keep world \peace by discouraging aggression from any nation. Collective security iMposing sanctionsNegotiating disputes.
  •    Condemnation (the League could tell a country it was doing wrong). 2.   Arbitration (the League could offer to decide between two countries).3.   Sanctions (stopping trade).
  • Was it too ambitious
  • 1)Upper Silesia (1921)The Treaty of Versailles had given the people of Upper Silesia the right to have a referendum on whether they wanted to be part of Germany or part of Poland. In this referendum, 700,000 voted for Germany and 500,000 for Poland. This close result resulted in rioting between those who expected Silesia to be made part of Germany and those who wanted to be part of Poland. The League was asked to settle this dispute. After a six-week inquiry, the League decided to split Upper Silesia between Germany and Poland. The League’s decision was accepted y both countries and by the people in Upper Silesia.2) Greece and Bulgaria (1925)Both these nations have a common border. In 1925, sentries patrolling this border fired on one another and a Greek soldier was killed. The Greek army invaded Bulgaria as a result. The Bulgarians asked the League for help and the League ordered both armies to stop fighting and that the Greeks should pull out of Bulgaria. The League then sent experts to the area and decided that Greece was to blame and fined her £45,000. Both nations accepted the decision.
  • The depression was not just felt in America – it affected the whole world.The USA demanded repayment of the money it had loaned to Germany and other countries. This caused great economic hardship and damaged world trade.The slump in world trade was worsened by the USA putting tariffs (taxes) on imported goods.The volume of international trade fell by 70% as countries brought in import tariffs – by taxing imports, countries sought to prevent cheaper foreign goods undercutting their domestic industries.
  • Invasion of the Ruhr by France (1923) France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr after Germany defaulted on reparations due as agreed upon in the Treaty of Versailles. The league was never consulted and Britain although a council maybe could do nothing even though they objected to it.
  • The Japanese economy relied on exporting goods to America. This meant thatthe depression hit Japan very hard.Economic hardship led to the Japanese civilian government becoming unpopular and the military increasing its power.The army decided that the best way for Japan to escape the effects of the depression was to invade Manchuria (part of China). Japan invaded Manchuriain 1931The League told Japan to leave Manchuria but they refused.A commission under Lord Lytton was sent to investigate the issue.The commission finally reported a year after the invasion, concluding that Japan was in the wrong and should leave Manchuria. Japan’s response was to withdraw from the League. Four years later Japan invaded the rest of China.
  • In the 1930s there was a world-wide economic depression.Japan tried to overcome the depression by building up an empire.In 1932, the Japanese army invaded Manchuria, threw out the Chinese, and set up their own government there. China asked the League to help.The League sent officials to study the problem (this took a year).The LON ordered Japan to leave Manchuria.Japan refused to leave Manchuria. Instead, Japan left the LON.Many countries had important trading links with Japan.The League could not agree on sanctions or even a ban on weapons sales. Britain and France did not want a war, so nothing was doneEffectClearly illustrated the inability of the LON to come to a consensus about taking action against aggressors- weak body that was manipulated by its member nations.
  • 0.4
  • ‘We don’t want you to fight,       but by jingo if you do,We will probably issue a joint memorandum,      Suggesting a mild disapproval of you.’ Mussolini holds a paper with the words 'Abyssinian Dispute' (= Italy is preparing to invade Abyssinia)● Characters representing Britain and France wag a finger at Mussolini (= Britain and France, the leading powers of the League, condemn Italy's actions in Abyssinia)● HOWEVER, all they sing is that they will issue a memorandum 'suggesting a mild disapproval' (= their action is almost non-existent). These words are a parody of a popular British song of 1878 which ran: 'We don't want to fight, but by Jingo if we do,We've got the ships, we've got the men, we've got the money too'.The message of the cartoon is the League's leaders are acting weakly in the face of Italian aggression in Abyssinia - they have reduced international politics to a ridiculous Music Hall farce, and a pale shadow of the world power Britain used to be.
  • League of Nations

    1. 1. Lets Play a Game What is the common inference that binds these four pictures?bazleebakhtiar/2013
    2. 2. Unit 2: Topic- League of Nations 1920-1939 Point 14- “A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike” Clementi Town Secondary Secondary 3 Express bazleebakhtiar/2013
    3. 3. Objectives By the end of the lesson you will learn…. 1. Reasons for its formation 2. Aims of the League of Nations What the league had, to accomplish its aims. 1. Structure of the League of Nations 2. Membership in the League 3. The League’s powers Did it work? 1. Successes/Failures of the League of nations bazleebakhtiar/2013
    4. 4. Reasons for The League of Nations • The League of Nations (LON) is an intergovernmental organization established on the 10th of January 1920 • It was the predecessor of the United Nations and has its offices in Geneva, Switzerland. • The LON operates on a covenant centered around Wilson’s 14points • The idea of a League of Nations was not new, but struck a cord with the peoples of Europe after the devastation of World War 1 bazleebakhtiar/2013
    5. 5. (KEEPP) Keep world peace by discouraging aggression from any nation. Encourage co-operation between countries to boost trade and commerce Enhance living and working conditions Persuade nations to disarm Peace Treaty of Versailles, to uphold its terms Aims of the League of Nations Consider the aims of the league of nations, Were they realistic in light of the recent war? bazleebakhtiar/2013
    6. 6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vx hlpDktAMI Lyrics: The League Of Nations was made to try and keep the peace The USA didn't join causing plenty of grief Mussolini tried to break the rules Then Italy left the League and they lost control They wanted their empire to grow Then the League chose to do the wrong thing, They did nothing to stop Italy's King, w-o-o-o-oh League of Nations, yes their plan did fail Why Why, did it all go off the rails? League of Nations, they had no success Why Why, did it turn into a mess? Yes, they had no army Oh, It was all quite barmy Why Why shorten German Payment hours? League of Nations, now we really know, My my, Your plan was just as strong as dough bazleebakhtiar/2013 Aims. Weakness. Italy to be blamed? The league fail. No Army was the cause? Allowed Germany lighter punishment.
    7. 7. An Artist’s impression on the League of Nation. What is the artist trying to say about the LON? bazleebakhtiar/2013
    8. 8. “The secret diplomacy of the old order would be replaced by...open discussion” bazleebakhtiar/2013
    9. 9. Structure of the LON 1) The Council (consisted of 4 permanent members) 2) The Assembly (consisted of all the other members) 3) The Secretariat (consisted of a Secretary General and is responsible for the day-to-day running of the LON) S E C R E T A R I A T COUNCIL ASSEMBLY bazleebakhtiar/2013
    10. 10. • The council is made of the four strongest members of the LON they are the victors of World War 1 • The council met 4-5 times a year or periodically to settle international disputes. A total of 107 public sessions from 1920-1939. • Decisions had to be unanimous COUNCIL Structure of the LON bazleebakhtiar/2013 Implications?
    11. 11. Structure of the LON • The Assembly consisted of all the other member nations of the LON. • The Assembly met once a year to debate on international affairs. Smaller nations had a forum for which to voice their opinions. • Decisions had to be unanimous ASSEMBLY bazleebakhtiar/2013
    12. 12. … decisions had to be UNANIMOUS bazleebakhtiar/2013
    13. 13. The League’s Powers The League’s Powers. (When a nation acted illegally the league could..) Condemn Tell a country that it has done wrong in the open Assembly. Sanctions Impose a trade embargo to push the country towards bankruptcy . Arbitration Offer to mediate between the two conflicting countries. bazleebakhtiar/2013
    14. 14. When a nation needs help the LON could: The League’s Powers Organize Aid Send supplies and expertise to ailing countries. Send volunteer forces. Give Smaller nations a voice The Assembly is used as a forum for small nations to have speak their views. bazleebakhtiar/2013
    15. 15. The league however had no real army to enforce their rules. The League’s Powers LON FIGHTING STRONG Since 1920 bazleebakhtiar/2013
    16. 16. Membership of the League of Nations During the establishment of the LON the League had 42 members. At its peak the League had 60 members. However, the League was not a firm unit as the league suffered frequent membership changes. Why? bazleebakhtiar/2013
    17. 17.  Germany, Russia and China were disallowed membership. Germany was only given membership when they showed willingness to abide by the treaty.  The membership of the LON was always changing. (WHY?) Membership of the League of Nations Britain 1919 1945 1945 France 1919 Italy 1919 Japan 1919 1933 1937 1933 1939 Germany 1926 USSR 1934 bazleebakhtiar/2013
    18. 18. • Important: Although the LON operated along the 14points and the ideas of President Wildrow Wilson. USA was never a part of the LON! Membership of the League of Nations bazleebakhtiar/2013
    19. 19. The League of Nation was like… bazleebakhtiar/2013
    20. 20. But… How strong was the League without the most powerful nations? bazleebakhtiar/2013
    21. 21. Homework 1. Identify the strength and weaknesses of the LON 2. Read up on the successes and failure of the LON, fill in the timeline worksheet. bazleebakhtiar/2013
    22. 22. Objectives for today: Successes & Failures of the League of Nations What criteria should we use to judge the LON’s successes/failures? We judge the LON base on its stated aims KEEPP bazleebakhtiar/2013
    23. 23. Successes of the League of Nations Enhance Living and working Conditions 200,000 slaves were freed after the LON attacked slave traders in Africa and Burma. It repatriated ½ million prisoners of war. The LON worked to prevent the spread of leprosy and malaria. The league set up a system for regulating opium. It closed down four big companies that were selling drugs. Organized conference to discuss monetary solutions to prevent economic collapse in 1920. Sent experts to help Austria and Hungary.bazleebakhtiar/2013
    24. 24. Politically, in its early years the LON appeared to have made progress towards preventing war. 1)(1921) The Aaland Islands 2)(1921) Upper Silesia 3)(1925) Greece and Bulgaria bazleebakhtiar/2013 Successes of the League of Nations Persuade nations to disarm Peace Treaty of Versailles, to uphold its terms (?)
    25. 25. Activity Walk a day in the shoes of the LON – Role Play activity. Instructions: 1. In your groups number yourself 1-4. 2. Read the worksheet and your respective fact sheet. 3. Get into the persona 4. Answer the given questions in your worksheet. Due to time constrains: Task1: Group 1-2 Option A Group 3-5 Option B Group 6-8 Option C Group 9-10 Option D bazleebakhtiar/2013 COUNCIL
    26. 26. Successes of the League of Nations Politically, in its early years the LON appeared to have made progress towards preventing war. But… Washington Naval Agreement (1922) The LON managed to reach an agreement between its 4 council members to limit the size of their navies. Treaty of Locarno (1925) Germany signed the Treaty of Locarno in which it agreed to accept its western boundaries, as set by the Treaty of Versailles, and also, the demilitarization of the Rhineland. Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Landmark agreement between 15 major countries, including Germany not to use “war as an instrument of national policy” and to pursue their goals through peaceful means. By 1933, 60 nations had made this promise. bazleebakhtiar/2013 Persuade nations to disarm Peace Treaty of Versailles, to uphold its terms (?)
    27. 27. The collapse of the American Stock Market in 1929 heralded the start of the Great Depression. America was the most powerful country in the world and “when America sneezes the rest of the world catches a cold.” bazleebakhtiar/2013 Why the League Failed
    28. 28. bazleebakhtiar/2013 How the depression affected the League There was less international cooperation. The USA and other nations looked to take care of themselves instead of worrying about world peace and humanitarian issues. Desperate people suffering terrible economic hardship increasingly turned to leaders offering radical solutions. This led to the rise of militaristic fascist governments. Britain and France no longer wished to sort out international disputes that would cost them money and could further damage their trade.
    29. 29. Failures of the League of Nation bazleebakhtiar/2013 Keep world peace by discouraging aggression from any nation. (?)
    30. 30. bazleebakhtiar/2013 Failures of the League of Nation What is the cartoonist saying about the invasion of Manchuria?
    31. 31.  The Japanese economy relied on exporting goods to America. This meant that the depression hit Japan very hard.  The army decided that the best way for Japan to escape the effects of the depression was to invade Manchuria (part of China).  Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931  The League told Japan to leave Manchuria but they refused.  Instead Japan left LON.  Many LON countries had trade links with Japan and could not agree on sanctions or even a ban  France and Britain were war adverse , so in the end nothing was done. bazleebakhtiar/2013 Failures of the League of Nation
    32. 32. The league wanted to Persuade nations to disarm. Held a disarmament conference in 1932. • Disarmament – dismantling of armies and breaking up of weapons, putting oneself in the position where war is not possible. Problem • Germany complained that they were the only one who disarmed. • LON tried to step in but could not get others to disarm. • They were concern with individual security bazleebakhtiar/2013 Failures of the League of Nation
    33. 33. bazleebakhtiar/2013 Failures of the League of Nation France Britain Italy ‘We don’t want you to fight, but by jingo if you do, We will probably issue a joint memorandum, Suggesting a mild disapproval of you.’
    34. 34.  The League agreed that Italy was in the wrong, but it took months to make a decision about what to do next.  In the end they punished Italy with economic sanctions.  Crucially, they did not include oil in the list of embargoed goods. The League knew if their members stopped selling oil to Italy, they would just get it from the USA instead.  Britain continued to let Italian ships use the Suez Canal to reach Abyssinia. bazleebakhtiar/2013 Failures of the League of Nation
    35. 35. Effects • The two events sent out the message that the LON were weak, ineffective and indecisive in taking up actions against its aggressors. In both cases the league took months to reach a consensus. Next the league still looked out for their own economic interest as they were reluctant to impose full sanctions on both instances. What would other nations think of the league? bazleebakhtiar/2013
    36. 36. bazleebakhtiar/2013 Failures of the League of Nation
    37. 37. In Summary: bazleebakhtiar/2013 There were many reason why the LON failed. It failed primarily because it, W A S D U M B W -- WEAK A -- AMERICA S -- STRUCTURE D -- DEPRESSION U -- UNSUCCESSFUL M -- MEMBERS B -- BIG BULLIES

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