CrossFit                   Understanding CrossFit                                               Understanding CrossFit    ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitUnderstanding CrossFit ...continuedMethodology                                          ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFit                                                         N OT E S                       ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFit                                                             FoundationsCrossFit is a co...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedand competency in each of the three main metabolic              ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedconditioning program in the sense that the fitness we           ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedpotentially undesirable side effect whereas the CrossFitCoach ty...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedhardly the stuff of elite athleticism. The CrossFit athlete,    ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continued                                                                ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedAny routine, no matter how complete, contains within            ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedFunctional Movements                                            ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedThe stuff with long shelf life is all circumspect. If you follow...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFit                                                         N OT E S                       ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFit                                                             What is Fitness?What Is Fit...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continuedCrossfit’s First Fitness Standard                          ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continued                                                           ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continuedof the CrossFit “cardio” prescription. To understand theCro...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continued                                                           ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continuedactivities like climbing, yoga, calisthenics, and dance whe...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continuedskills/cond). This is among our favorite fitness sites.    ...
CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continuedEffective nutrition is moderate in protein, carbohydrate,  ...
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Manual nivel 4 cross fit
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Manual nivel 4 cross fit

3,085

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,085
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
95
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Manual nivel 4 cross fit

  1. 1. CrossFit Understanding CrossFit Understanding CrossFit Page 1The aims, prescription, methodology, implementation, and adaptations of FoundationsCrossFit are collectively and individually unique, defining of CrossFit, and Page 4instrumental in our program’s successes in diverse applications. What is Fitness?Aims Page 14From the beginning, the aim of CrossFit has been to forge a broad, general,and inclusive fitness. We sought to build a program that would best preparetrainees for any physical contingency—prepare them not only for the unknownbut for the unknowable. Looking at all sport and physical tasks collectively,we asked what physical skills and adaptations would most universally lendthemselves to performance advantage. Capacity culled from the intersectionof all sports demands would quite logically lend itself well to all sport. In sum,our specialty is not specializing. The second issue (“What is Fitness?”) of theCrossFit Journal details this perspective.PrescriptionThe CrossFit prescription is “constantly varied, high-intensity, functionalmovement.” Functional movements are universal motor recruitment patterns;they are performed in a wave of contraction from core to extremity; andthey are compound movements—i.e., they are multi-joint. They are natural,effective, and efficient locomotors of body and external objects. But no aspectof functional movements is more important than their capacity to move largeloads over long distances, and to do so quickly. Collectively, these three attributes(load, distance, and speed) uniquely qualify functional movements for theproduction of high power. Intensity is defined exactly as power, and intensity isthe independent variable most commonly associated with maximizing favorableadaptation to exercise. Recognizing that the breadth and depth of a program’sstimulus will determine the breadth and depth of the adaptation it elicits, ourprescription of functionality and intensity is constantly varied. We believe thatpreparation for random physical challenges—i.e., unknown and unknowableevents—is at odds with fixed, predictable, and routine regimens. 1 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  2. 2. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitUnderstanding CrossFit ...continuedMethodology capacity as the holy grail of performance improvement and all other common metrics like VO2 max, lactateThe methodology that drives CrossFit is entirely threshold, body composition, and even strength andempirical. We believe that meaningful statements about flexibility as being correlates—derivatives, even. We’dsafety, efficacy, and efficiency, the three most important not trade improvements in any other fitness metric for aand interdependent facets of any fitness program, can be decrease in work capacity.supported only by measurable, observable, repeatablefacts, i.e., data. We call this approach “evidence-based Conclusionsfitness”. The CrossFit methodology depends on fulldisclosure of methods, results, and criticisms, and we’ve The modest start of publicly posting our daily workoutsemployed the Internet (and various intranets) to support on the Internet beginning six years ago has evolved intothese values. Our charter is open source, making co- a community where human performance is measureddevelopers out of participating coaches, athletes, and and publicly recorded against multiple, diverse, andtrainers through a spontaneous and collaborative online fixed workloads. CrossFit is an open-source enginecommunity. CrossFit is empirically driven, clinically tested, where inputs from any quarter can be publicly given toand community developed. demonstrate fitness and fitness programming, and where coaches, trainers, and athletes can collectively advanceImplementation the art and science of optimizing human performance.In implementation, CrossFit is, quite simply, a sport—the“sport of fitness.” We’ve learned that harnessing thenatural camaraderie, competition, and fun of sport orgame yields an intensity that cannot be matched by othermeans. The late Col. Jeff Cooper observed that “the fearof sporting failure is worse than the fear of death.” Itis our observation that men will die for points. Usingwhiteboards as scoreboards, keeping accurate scoresand records, running a clock, and precisely definingthe rules and standards for performance, we not onlymotivate unprecedented output but derive both relativeand absolute metrics at every workout; this data hasimportant value well beyond motivation.AdaptationsOur commitment to evidence-based fitness, publiclyposting performance data, co-developing our program incollaboration with other coaches, and our open-sourcecharter in general has well positioned us to garnerimportant lessons from our program—to learn preciselyand accurately, that is, about the adaptations elicited byCrossFit programming. What we’ve discovered is thatCrossFit increases work capacity across broad time andmodal domains. This is a discovery of great import andhas come to motivate our programming and refocusour efforts. This far-reaching increase in work capacitysupports our initially stated aims of building a broad,general, and inclusive fitness program. It also explainsthe wide variety of sport demands met by CrossFit asevidenced by our deep penetration among diverse sportsand endeavors. We’ve come to see increased work 2 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  3. 3. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFit N OT E S 3 of 94® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com© 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  4. 4. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFit FoundationsCrossFit is a core strength and conditioning program. demanded of military and police personnel, fi refi ghters,We have designed our program to elicit as broad an and many sports requiring total or complete physicaladaptational response as possible. CrossFit is not a prowess. CrossFit has proven effective in these arenas.specialized fi tness program but a deliberate attempt to Aside from the breadth or totality of fi tness the CrossFitoptimize physical competence in each of ten recognized fi Program seeks, our program is distinctive, if not unique,tness domains. They are Cardiovascular and Respiratory in its focus on maximizing neuroendocrine response,endurance, Stamina, Strength, Flexibility, Power, Speed, developing power, cross-training with multiple trainingCoordination, Agility, Balance, and Accuracy. modalities, constant training and practice with functionalThe CrossFit Program was developed to enhance an movements, and the development of successful dietindividual’s competency at all physical tasks. Our athletes strategies.are trained to perform successfully at multiple, diverse, Our athletes are trained to bike, run, swim, and row atand randomized physical challenges. This fitness is short, middle, and long distances guaranteeing exposure 4 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  5. 5. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedand competency in each of the three main metabolic very same methods that elicit optimal response in thepathways. Olympic or professional athlete will optimize the same response in the elderly. Of course, we can’t load yourWe train our athletes in gymnastics from rudimentary grandmother with the same squatting weight that we’dto advanced movements garnering great capacity at assign an Olympic skier, but they both need to squat.controlling the body both dynamically and statically while In fact, squatting is essential to maintaining functionalmaximizing strength to weight ratio and fl exibility. We independence and improving fitness. Squatting is just onealso place a heavy emphasis on Olympic Weightlifting example of a movement that is universally valuable andhaving seen this sport’s unique ability to develop an essential yet rarely taught to any but the most advanced ofathletes’ explosive power, control of external objects, athletes.This is a tragedy.Through painstakingly thoroughand mastery of critical motor recruitment patterns. And coaching and incremental load assignment CrossFit hasfi nally we encourage and assist our athletes to explore been able to teach anyone who can care for themselvesa variety of sports as a vehicle to express and apply their to perform safely and with maximum efficacy the samefi tness. movements typically utilized by professional coaches in elite and certainly exclusive environments.An effective approachIn gyms and health clubs throughout the world the typical Who has benefited from CrossFit?workout consists of isolation movements and extended Many professional and elite athletes are participatingaerobic sessions. The fi tness community from trainers in the CrossFit Program. Prize-fighters, cyclists, surfers,to the magazines has the exercising public believing that skiers, tennis players, triathletes and others competinglateral raises, curls, leg extensions, sit-ups and the like at the highest levels are using the CrossFit approach tocombined with 20-40 minute stints on the stationary advance their core strength and conditioning, but that’sbike or treadmill are going to lead to some kind of not all. CrossFit has tested its methods on the sedentary,great fi tness. Well, at CrossFit we work exclusively overweight, pathological, and elderly and found that thesewith compound movements and shorter high intensity special populations met the same success as our stablecardiovascular sessions. We’ve replaced the lateral of athletes. We call this “bracketing”. If our programraise with pushpress, the curl with pull-ups, and the leg works for Olympic Skiers and overweight, sedentaryextension with squats. For every long distance effort homemakers then it will work for you.our athletes will do fi ve or six at short distance. Why?Because compound or functional movements and high Your current regimenintensity or anaerobic cardio is radically more effective ateliciting nearly any desired fi tness result. Startlingly, this If your current routine looks somewhat like what we’veis not a matter of opinion but solid irrefutable scientifi described as typical of the fitness magazines and gymsc fact and yet the marginally effective old ways persist don’t despair. Any exercise is better than none, andand are nearly universal. Our approach is consistent with you’ve not wasted your time. In fact, the aerobic exercisewhat is practiced in elite training programs associated that you’ve been doing is an essential foundation towith major university athletic teams and professional fitness and the isolation movements have given yousports. CrossFit endeavors to bring state-of-the-art some degree of strength. You are in good company; wecoaching techniques to the general public and athlete have found that some of the world’s best athletes werewho haven’t access to current technologies, research, and sorely lacking in their core strength and conditioning.coaching methods. It’s hard to believe but many elite athletes have achieved international success and are still far from their potentialIs this for me? because they have not had the benefit of state-of-the-art coaching methodsAbsolutely! Your needs and the Olympic athlete’sdiffer by degree not kind. Increased power, strength, Just what is a “core strength andcardiovascular and respiratory endurance, flexibility, conditioning” program?stamina, coordination, agility, balance, and coordinationare each important to the world’s best athletes and CrossFit is a core strength and conditioning programto our grandparents. The amazing truth is that the in two distinct senses. First, we are a core strength and 5 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  6. 6. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedconditioning program in the sense that the fitness we heart disease, reduced cancer risk, fewer strokes, and lessdevelop is foundational to all other athletic needs. This is depression than non-athletesthe same sense in which the university courses requiredof a particular major are called the “core curriculum”. What is an athlete?This is the stuff that everyone needs. Second, we are a According to Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, an“core” strength and conditioning program in the literal athlete is “a person who is trained or skilled in exercises,sense meaning the center of something. Much of our sports, or games requiring strength, agility, or stamina”.work focuses on the major functional axis of the humanbody, the extension and flexion, of the hips and extension, The CrossFit definition of an athlete is a bit tighter.flexion, and rotation of the torso or trunk.The primacy of The CrossFit definition of an athlete is “a person whocore strength and conditioning in this sense is supported is trained or skilled in strength, power, balance andby the simple observation that powerful hip extension agility, flexibility, and endurance”. The CrossFit modelalone is necessary and nearly sufficient for elite athletic holds “fitness”, “health”, and “athleticism” as stronglyperformance. That is, our experience has been that no overlapping constructs. For most purposes they can beone without the capacity for powerful hip extension seen as equivalents.enjoys great athletic prowess and nearly everyone we’vemet with that capacity was a great athlete. Running, What if I don’t want to be an athlete; I justjumping, punching and throwing all originate at the core. want to be healthy?At CrossFit we endeavor to develop our athletes from You’re in luck. We hear this often, but the truth is thatthe inside out, from core to extremity, which is by the fitness, wellness, and pathology (sickness) are measuresway how good functional movements recruit muscle, of the same entity, your health. There are a multitude offrom the core to the extremities. measurable parameters that can be ordered from sick (pathological) to well (normal) to fit (better than normal).Can I enjoy optimal health without being an These include but are not limited to blood pressure,athlete? cholesterol, heart rate, body fat, muscle mass, flexibility,No! Athletes experience a protection from the ravages and strength. It seems as though all of the body functionsof aging and disease that non-athletes never find. For that can go awry have states that are pathological, normal,instance, 80-year-old athletes are stronger than non- and exceptional and that elite athletes typically showathletes in their prime at 25 years old. If you think that these parameters in the exceptional range. The CrossFitstrength isn’t important consider that strength loss is view is that fitness and health are the same thing. It iswhat puts people in nursing homes. Athletes have greater also interesting to notice that the health professionalbone density, stronger immune systems, less coronary maintains your health with drugs and surgery each with 6 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  7. 7. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedpotentially undesirable side effect whereas the CrossFitCoach typically achieves a superior result always with“side benefit” vs. side effect.What is the CrossFit method?The CrossFit method is to establish a hierarchy of effortand concern that builds as follows:Diet - lays the molecular foundations for fitness and health.Metabolic Conditioning - builds capacity in each of three metabolic pathways, beginning with aerobic, then lactic acid, and then phosphocreatine pathways.Gymnastics - establishes functional capacity for body control and range of motion.Weightlifting and throwing - develop ability to control external objects and produce power.Sport - applies fitness in competitive atmosphere with more randomized movements and skill mastery. There isn’t a strength and conditioning program anywhereExamples of CrossFit exercises that works with a greater diversity of tools, modalities, and drills.Biking, running, swimming, and rowing in an endlessvariety of drills. The clean&jerk, snatch, squat, deadlift, What if I don’t have time for all of this?push-press, bench-press, and power-clean. Jumping,medicine ball throws and catches, pull-ups, dips, push- It is a common sentiment to feel that because of theups, handstands, presses to handstand, pirouettes, kips, obligations of career and family that you don’t have thecartwheels, muscle-ups, sit-ups, scales, and holds. We time to become as fit as you might like. Here’s the goodmake regular use of bikes, the track, rowing shells and news: world class, age group strength and conditioningergometers, Olympic weight sets, rings, parallel bars, free is obtainable through an hour a day six days per weekexercise mat, horizontal bar, plyometrics boxes, medicine of training. It turns out that the intensity of training thatballs, and jump rope. optimizes physical conditioning is not sustainable past forty-five minutes to an hour. Athletes that train for hours a day are developing skill or training for sports that include adaptations inconsistent with elite strength and conditioning. Past one hour, more is not better! “Fringe Athletes” There is a near universal misconception that long distance athletes are fitter that their short distance counterparts. The triathlete, cyclist, and marathoner are often regarded as among the fittest athletes on earth. Nothing could be farther from the truth.The endurance athlete has trained long past any cardiovascular health benefit and has lost ground in strength, speed, and power, typically does nothing for coordination, agility, balance, and accuracy and possesses little more than average flexibility. This is 7 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  8. 8. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedhardly the stuff of elite athleticism. The CrossFit athlete, lactic acid system. Examples of anaerobic activity includeremember, has trained and practiced for optimal physical running a 100-meter sprint, squatting, and doing pull-ups.competence in all ten physical skills (cardiovascular/ Our main purpose here is to discuss how anaerobicrespiratory endurance, stamina, flexibility, strength, and aerobic training support performance variables likepower, speed, coordination, agility, balance, and accuracy). strength, power, speed, and endurance. We also supportThe excessive aerobic volume of the endurance athlete’s the contention that total conditioning and optimal healthtraining has cost him in speed, power, and strength to necessitates training each of the physiological systems inthe point where his athletic competency has been a systematic fashion.compromised. No triathlete is in ideal shape to wrestle,box, pole-vault, sprint, play any ball sport, fight fires, or It warrants mention that in any activity all three energydo police work. Each of these requires a fitness level far systems are utilized though one may dominate. Thebeyond the needs of the endurance athlete. None of this interplay of these systems can be complex, yet a simplesuggests that being a marathoner, triathlete or other examination of the characteristics of aerobic vs. anaerobicendurance athlete is a bad thing; just don’t believe that training can prove useful.training as a long distance athlete gives you the fitnessthat is prerequisite to many sports. CrossFit considers the Aerobic training benefits cardiovascular function andSumo Wrestler, triathlete, marathoner, and power lifter decreases body fat. This is certainly of significant benefit.to be “fringe athletes” in that their fitness demands are Aerobic conditioning allows us to engage in moderate/so specialized as to be inconsistent with the adaptations low power output for extended period of time. This isthat give maximum competency at all physical challenges. valuable for many sports. Athletes engaging in excessiveElite strength and conditioning is a compromise between aerobic training witness decreases in muscle mass,each of the ten physical adaptations. Endurance athletes strength, speed, and power. It is not uncommon to finddo not balance that compromise. marathoners with a vertical leap of several inches and a bench press well below average for most athletes.Aerobics and Anaerobics Aerobic activity has a pronounced tendency to decrease anaerobic capacity. This does not bode well for athletesThere are three main energy systems that fuel all human or the individual interested in total conditioning oractivity. Almost all changes that occur in the body due optimal health.to exercise are related to the demands placed on theseenergy systems. Furthermore, the efficacy of any given Anaerobic activity also benefits cardiovascular functionfitness regimen may largely be tied to its ability to elicit and decreases body fat. Anaerobic activity is uniquean adequate stimulus for change within these three in its capacity to dramatically improve power, speed,energy systems. strength, and muscle mass. Anaerobic conditioning allows us to exert tremendous forces over a very brief time.Energy is derived aerobically when oxygen is utilized to Perhaps the aspect of anaerobic conditioning that bearsmetabolize substrates derived from food and liberates greatest consideration is that anaerobic conditioning willenergy. An activity is termed aerobic when the majority not adversely affect aerobic capacity! In fact, properlyof energy needed is derived aerobically. These activities structured, anaerobic activity can be used to developare usually greater than ninety seconds in duration and a very high level of aerobic fitness without the muscleinvolve low to moderate power output or intensity. wasting consistent with high volume aerobic exercise!Examples of aerobic activity include running on thetreadmill for twenty minutes, swimming a mile, and Basketball, football, gymnastics, boxing, track and fieldwatching TV. events under one mile, soccer, swimming events under 400 yards, volleyball, wrestling, and weightlifting are allEnergy is derived anaerobically when energy is liberated sports that require the majority of training time spentfrom substrates in the absence of oxygen. Activities are in anaerobic activity. Long distance and ultra-enduranceconsidered anaerobic when the majority of the energy running, cross-country skiing, and 1500+ yard swimmingneeded is derived anaerobically. These activities are of are all sports that require aerobic training at levelsless than two minutes in duration and involve moderate that produce results unacceptable to other athletes orto high power output or intensity. There are two such individuals concerned with total conditioning or optimalanaerobic systems, the phosphagen system and the health. 8 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  9. 9. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continued is also worth mentioning that the Olympic lifts are the only lifts shown to increase maximum oxygen uptake, the most important marker for cardiovascular fitness. Sadly, the Olympic lifts are seldom seen in the commercial fitness community because of their inherently complex and technical nature. CrossFit makes them available to anyone with the patience and persistence to learn. Gymnastics The extraordinary value of gymnastics as a training modality lies in its reliance on the body’s own weight as the sole source of resistance. This places a unique premium on the improvement of strength to weight ratio. Unlike other strength training modalities gymnastics and calisthenics allow for increases in strength only whileThe CrossFit approach is to judiciously balance anaerobic increasing strength to weight ratio!and aerobic exercise in a manner that is consistent withthe athlete’s goals. Our exercise prescriptions adhere to Gymnastics develops pull-ups, squats, lunges, jumping,proper specificity, progression, variation, and recovery to push-ups, and numerous presses to handstand, scales, andoptimize adaptations. holds. These skills are unrivaled in their benefit to the physique as evident in any competitive gymnast.The Olympic Lifts, a.k.a., Weightlifting As important as the capacity of this modality is forThere are two Olympic lifts, the clean and jerk and the strength development it is without a doubt the ultimatesnatch. Mastery of these lifts develops the squat, deadlift, approach to improving coordination, balance, agility,powerclean, and split jerk while integrating them into a accuracy, and flexibility. Through the use of numeroussingle movement of unequaled value in all of strength and presses, handstands, scales, and other floor work theconditioning.The Olympic lifters are without a doubt the gymnast’s training greatly enhances kinesthetic sense.world’s strongest athletes. The variety of movements available for inclusion in thisThese lifts train athletes to effectively activate more modality probably exceeds the number of exercisesmuscle fibers more rapidly than through any other known to all non-gymnastic sport! The rich variety heremodality of training. The explosiveness that results from contributes substantially to the CrossFit program’s abilitythis training is of vital necessity to every sport. to inspire great athletic confidence and prowess.Practicing the Olympic lifts teaches one to apply force For a combination of strength, flexibility, well-developedto muscle groups in proper sequence, i.e., from the physique, coordination, balance, accuracy, and agility thecenter of the body to its extremities (core to extremity). gymnast has no equal in the sports world. The inclusionLearning this vital technical lesson benefits all athletes of this training modality is absurdly absent from nearly allwho need to impart force to another person or object training programs.as is commonly required in nearly all sports. RoutinesIn addition to learning to impart explosive forces, theclean and jerk and snatch condition the body to receive There is no ideal routine! In fact, the chief value of anysuch forces from another moving body both safely and routine lies in abandoning it for another.The CrossFit idealeffectively. is to train for any contingency. The obvious implication is that this is possible only if there is a tremendously varied,Numerous studies have demonstrated the Olympic lifts if not randomized, quality to the breadth of stimulus. It isunique capacity to develop strength, muscle, power, speed, in this sense that the CrossFit Program is a core strengthcoordination, vertical leap, muscular endurance, bone and conditioning program. Anything else is sport specificstrength, and the physical capacity to withstand stress. It training not core strength and conditioning. 9 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  10. 10. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedAny routine, no matter how complete, contains within Program. Heavy load weight training, short rest betweenits omissions the parameters for which there will be no sets, high heart rates, high intensity training, and shortadaptation. The breadth of adaptation will exactly match rest intervals, though not entirely distinct components,the breadth of the stimulus. For this reason the CrossFit are all associated with a high neuroendocrine response.program embraces short, middle, and long distancemetabolic conditioning, low, moderate, and heavy load Powerassignment. We encourage creative and continuously Power is defined as the “time rate of doing work.” It hasvaried compositions that tax physiological functions often been said that in sport speed is king. At CrossFitagainst every realistically conceivable combination of “power” is the undisputed king of performance. Powerstressors. This is the stuff of surviving fights and fires. is in simplest terms, “hard and fast.” Jumping, punching,Developing a fitness that is varied yet complete defines throwing, and sprinting are all measures of power.the very art of strength and conditioning coaching. Increasing your ability to produce power is necessary andThis is not a comforting message in an age where nearly sufficient to elite athleticism. Additionally, power isscientific certainty and specialization confer authority and the definition of intensity, which in turn has been linkedexpertise. Yet, the reality of performance enhancement to nearly every positive aspect of fitness. Increases incares not one wit for trend or authority. The CrossFit strength, performance, muscle mass, and bone densityProgram’s success in elevating the performance of world- all arise in proportion to the intensity of exercise. Andclass athletes lies clearly in demanding of our athletes again, intensity is defined as power. Power is one of thetotal and complete physical competence. No routine four defining themes of the CrossFit Program. Powertakes us there. development is an ever-present aspect of the CrossFit Daily Workout.Neuroendocrine Adaptation Cross-Training“Neuroendocrine adaptation” is a change in the bodythat affects you either neurologically or hormonally. Cross training is typically defined as participating inMost important adaptations to exercise are in part multiple sports. At CrossFit we take a much broaderor completely a result of a hormonal or neurological view of the term.We view cross training as exceeding theshift. Current research, much of it done by Dr. William normal parameters of the regular demands of your sportKraemer, Penn State University, has shown which exercise or training. The CrossFit Program recognizes functional,protocols maximize neuroendocrine responses. Earlier metabolic, and modal cross training. That is we regularlywe faulted isolation movements as being ineffectual. Now train past the normal motions, metabolic pathways, andwe can tell you that one of the critical elements missing modes or sports common to the athlete’s sport orfrom these movements is that they invoke essentially no exercise regimen. We are unique and again distinctive toneuroendocrine response. the extent that we adhere to and program within this context.Among the hormonal responses vital to athleticdevelopment are substantial increases in testosterone, If you remember the CrossFit objective of providing ainsulinlike growth factor, and human growth hormone. broad based fitness that provides maximal competency inExercising with protocols known to elevate these all adaptive capacities, cross training, or training outsidehormones eerily mimics the hormonal changes sought of the athletes normal or regular demands is a given. Thein exogenous hormonal therapy (steroid use) with none CrossFit coaching staff had long ago noticed that athletesof the deleterious effect. Exercise regimens that induce are weakest at the margins of their exposure for almosta high neuroendocrine response produce champions! every measurable parameter. For instance, if you onlyIncreased muscle mass and bone density are just two cycle between five to seven miles at each training effortof many adaptative responses to exercises capable of you will test weak at less than five and greater than sevenproducing a significant neuroendocrine response. miles.This is true for range of motion, load, rest, intensity, and power, etc. The CrossFit workouts are engineeredIt is impossible to overstate the importance of the to expand the margins of exposure as broad as functionneuroendocrine response to exercise protocols. This is and capacity will allow. Cross training is one of the fourwhy it is one of the four defining themes of the CrossFit CrossFit defining themes. 10 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  11. 11. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedFunctional Movements a colossal waste of time. For this reason functional movement is one of the four dominant CrossFit themes.There are movements that mimic motor recruitmentpatterns that are found in everyday life. Others are Dietsomewhat unique to the gym. Squatting is standing froma seated position; deadlifting is picking any object off The CrossFit dietary prescription is as follows:the ground.They are both functional movements. Leg Protein should be lean and varied and account for aboutextension and leg curl both have no equivalent in nature 30% of your total caloric load.and are in turn nonfunctional movements. The bulk ofisolation movements are non-functional movements. Carbohydrates should be predominantly low-glycemicBy contrast the compound or multi-joint movements and account for about 40% of your total caloric load.are functional. Natural movement typically involves themovement of multiple joints for every activity. Fat should be predominantly monounsaturated and account for about 30% of your total caloric load.The importance of functional movements is primarilytwo-fold. First of all the functional movements are Calories should be set at between .7 and 1.0 grams ofmechanically sound and therefore safe, and secondly they protein per pound of lean body mass depending on yourare the movements that elicit a high neuroendocrine activity level. The .7 figure is for moderate daily workoutresponse. loads and the 1.0 figure is for the hardcore athlete.CrossFit has managed a stable of elite athletes and What should I eat?dramatically enhanced their performance exclusively In plain language, base your diet on garden vegetables,with functional movements. The superiority of training especially greens, lean meats, nuts and seeds, little starch,with functional movements is clearly apparent with any and no sugar. That’s about as simple as we can get. Manyathlete within weeks of their incorporation. have observed that keeping your grocery cart to theThe soundness and efficacy of functional movement is so perimeter of the grocery store while avoiding the aislesprofound that exercising without them is by comparison is a great way to protect your health. Food is perishable. 11 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  12. 12. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitFoundations ...continuedThe stuff with long shelf life is all circumspect. If you follow What is the Problem with High-Glycemicthese simple guidelines you will benefit from nearly all Carbohydrates?that can be achieved through nutrition. The problem with high-glycemic carbohydrates is thatThe Caveman or Paleolithic Model for they give an inordinate insulin response. Insulin is anNutrition essential hormone for life, yet acute, chronic elevation of insulin leads to hyperinsulinism, which has beenModern diets are ill suited for our genetic composition. positively linked to obesity, elevated cholesterol levels,Evolution has not kept pace with advances in agriculture blood pressure, mood dysfunction and a Pandora’s box ofand food processing resulting in a plague of health disease and disability. Research “hyperinsulinism” on theproblems for modern man. Coronary heart disease, Internet. There’s a gold mine of information pertinent todiabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, obesity and psychological your health available there. The CrossFit prescription isdysfunction have all been scientifically linked to a diet a low-glycemic diet and consequently severely blunts thetoo high in refined or processed carbohydrate. Search insulin response“google” or “Alta Vista” for Paleolithic nutrition, or diet.The return is extensive, compelling, and fascinating. The Caloric Restriction and LongevityCaveman model is perfectly consistent with the CrossFit Current research strongly supports the link betweenprescription. caloric restriction and an increased life expectancy. TheWhat Foods should I avoid? incidence of cancers and heart disease sharply decline with a diet that is carefully limited in controlling caloricExcessive consumption of high-glycemic carbohydrates is intake. “Caloric Restriction” is another fruitful area forthe primary culprit in nutritionally caused health problems. Internet search. The CrossFit prescription is consistentHigh glycemic carbohydrates are those that raise blood with this research.sugar too rapidly. They include rice, bread, candy, potato,sweets, sodas, and most processed carbohydrates. The CrossFit prescription allows a reduced caloricProcessing can include bleaching, baking, grinding, and intake and yet still provides ample nutrition for rigorousrefining. Processing of carbohydrates greatly increases activity.their glycemic index, a measure of their propensity toelevate blood sugar. 12 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  13. 13. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFit N OT E S 13 of 94® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com© 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  14. 14. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFit What is Fitness?What Is Fitness and Who Is Fit? standards for assessing and defining fitness.Outside Magazine crowned triathlete Mark Allen “the CrossFit makes use of three different standards or modelsfittest man on earth” (http://web.outsidemag.com/ for evaluating and guiding fitness. Collectively, these threemagazine/0297/9702fefit.html). Let’s just assume for a standards define the CrossFit view of fitness. The first ismoment that this famous six-time winner of the IronMan based on the ten general physical skills widely recognizedTriathlon is the fittest of the fit, then what title do we by exercise physiologists. The second standard, or model,bestow on the decathlete Simon Poelman (http://www. is based on the performance of athletic tasks, while thedecathlon2000.ee/english/legends/poelman.htm) who third is based on the energy systems that drive all humanalso possesses incredible endurance and stamina, yet action.crushes Mr.Allen in any comparison that includes strength,power, speed, and coordination? Each model is critical to the CrossFit concept and each has distinct utility in evaluating an athlete’s overall fitnessPerhaps the definition of fitness doesn’t include or a strength and conditioning regimen’s efficacy. Beforestrength, speed, power, and coordination though that explaining in detail how each of these three perspectivesseems rather odd. Merriam Webster’s Collegiate works, it warrants mention that we are not attempting toDictionary defines “fitness” and being “fit” as the ability demonstrate our program’s legitimacy through scientificto transmit genes and being healthy. No help there. principles. We are but sharing the methods of a programSearching the Internet for a workable, reasonable whose legitimacy has been established through thedefinition of fitness yields disappointingly little (http:// testimony of athletes, soldiers, cops, and others whosewww.google.com/search?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF- lives or livelihoods depend on fitness.8&q=fitness+definition). Worse yet, the NSCA, themost respected publisher in exercise physiology, in theirhighly authoritative Essentials of Strength Training and World-Class Fitness in 100 Words:Conditioning doesn’t even attempt a definition.Crossfit’s Fitness • Eat meat and vegetables, nuts and seeds, some fruit, little starch and no sugar. Keep intake toFor CrossFit the specter of championing a fitness programwithout clearly defining what it is that the program levels that will support exercise but not bodydelivers combines elements of fraud and farce. The fat.vacuum of guiding authority has therefore necessitatedthat CrossFit’s directors provide their own definition of • Practice and train major lifts: Deadlift, clean,fitness. That’s what this issue of CrossFit Journal is about, squat, presses, C&J, and snatch. Similarly,our “fitness.” master the basics of gymnastics: pull-ups,Our pondering, studying, debating about, and finally dips, rope climb, push-ups, sit-ups, presses todefining fitness have played a formative role in CrossFit’s handstand, pirouettes, flips, splits, and holds.successes. The keys to understanding the methods and Bike, run, swim, row, etc, hard and fast.achievements of CrossFit are perfectly imbedded in ourview of fitness and basic exercise science. • Five or six days per week mix these elementsIt will come as no surprise to most of you that our in as many combinations and patterns asview of fitness is a contrarian view. The general public creativity will allow. Routine is the enemy. Keepboth in opinion and in media holds endurance athletes workouts short and intense.as exemplars of fitness. We do not. Our incredulity onlearning of Outside’s awarding a triathlete title of “fittest • Regularly learn and play new sports.man on earth” becomes apparent in light of CrossFit’s 14 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  15. 15. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continuedCrossfit’s First Fitness Standard Here’s an excellent reference for additional information: http://predator.pnb.uconn.edu/beta/virtualtemp/muscle/There are ten recognized general physical skills. They exercise-folder/muscle.htmlare cardiovascular/respiratory endurance, stamina,strength, flexibility, power, coordination, agility, balance, Total fitness, the fitness that CrossFit promotes andand accuracy. (See “General Physical Skills”, pg. 4, for develops, requires competency and training in each ofdefinitions.) You are as fit as you are competent in each of these three pathways or engines. Balancing the effectsthese ten skills. A regimen develops fitness to the extent of these three pathways largely determines the how andthat it improves each of these ten skills. why of the metabolic conditioning or “cardio” that we do at CrossFit.Importantly, improvements in endurance, stamina,strength, and flexibility come about through training. Favoring one or two to the exclusion of the others andTraining refers to activity that improves performance not recognizing the impact of excessive training in thethrough a measurable organic change in the body. By oxidative pathway are arguably the two most commoncontrast improvements in coordination, agility, balance, faults in fitness training. More on that later.and accuracy come about through practice. Practicerefers to activity that improves performance throughchanges in the nervous system. Power and speed are Percent of total energyadaptations of both training and practice.Crossfit’s Second Fitness StandardThe essence of this model is the view that fitness is aboutperforming well at any and every task imaginable. Picturea hopper loaded with an infinite number of physicalchallenges where no selective mechanism is operative,and being asked to perform fetes randomly drawn fromthe hopper. This model suggests that your fitness can bemeasured by your capacity to perform well at these tasksin relation to other individuals. Time (seconds)The implication here is that fitness requires an ability Phosphagen Glycolytic Oxidativeto perform well at all tasks, even unfamiliar tasks, taskscombined in infinitely varying combinations. In practicethis encourages the athlete to disinvest in any set notions Common Groundof sets, rest periods, reps, exercises, order of exercises, The motivation for the three standards is simply to ensureroutines, periodization, etc. Nature frequently provides the broadest and most general fitness possible. Our firstlargely unforeseeable challenges; train for that by striving model evaluates our efforts against a full range of generalto keep the training stimulus broad and constantly varied. physical adaptations, in the second the focus is on breadthCrossfit’s Third Fitness Standard and depth of performance, with the third the measure is time, power and consequently energy systems. It shouldThere are three metabolic pathways that provide the be fairly clear that the fitness that CrossFit advocatesenergy for all human action. These “metabolic engines” and develops is deliberately broad, general, and inclusive.are known as the phosphagen pathway, the glycolytic Our specialty is not specializing. Combat, survival, manypathway, and the oxidative pathway. The first, the sports, and life reward this kind of fitness and, on average,phosphagen, dominates the highest-powered activities, punish the specialist.those that last less than about ten seconds. The secondpathway, the glycolytic, dominates moderate-powered Sickness, Wellness, and Fitnessactivities, those that last up to several minutes. The There is another aspect to the CrossFit brand of fitnessthird pathway, the oxidative, dominates low-powered that is of great interest and immense value to us.We haveactivities, those that last in excess of several minutes. 15 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  16. 16. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continued “Wellness” Based on measurements of: - Blood Pressure - Body Fat - Bone Density - Triglycerides - Good and Bad Cholesterol - Flexibility “Sickness” - Muscle Mass “Fitness” - etc. Our assumption is that if everything we can measure about health will conform to this continuum then it seems that sickness, wellness, and fitness are different mea- sures of a single quality: health.observed that nearly every measurable value of health (As a note of interest, Mel Siff PhD, whom we oftencan be placed on a continuum that ranges from sickness respect and admire, holds his atherosclerotic diseaseto wellness to fitness. See table below. Though tougher and subsequent heart attack as anecdotal evidence ofto measure, we would even add mental health to this the contention that fitness and health are not necessarilyobservation. Depression is clearly mitigated by proper linked because of his regular training and “good diet”.diet and exercise, i.e., genuine fitness. When we researched his dietary recommendations we discovered that he advocates a diet ideally structured forFor example, a blood pressure of 160/95 is pathological, causing heart disease – low fat/high carb. Siff has fallen120/70 is normal or healthy, and 105/55 is consistent victim to junk science!)with an athlete’s blood pressure; a body fat of 40% ispathological, 20% is normal or healthy, and 10% is fit. We Implementationobserve a similar ordering for bone density, triglycerides,muscle mass, flexibility, HDL or “good cholesterol”, resting Our fitness, being “CrossFit”, comes through moldingheart rate, and dozens of other common measures of men and women that are equal parts gymnast, Olympichealth. Many authorities (e.g. Mel Siff, the NSCA) make weightlifter, and multi-modal sprinter or “sprintathlete.”a clear distinction between health and fitness. Frequently Develop the capacity of a novice 800-meter track athlete,they cite studies that suggest that the fit may not be gymnast, and weightlifter and you’ll be fitter than anyhealth protected. A close look at the supporting evidence world-class runner, gymnast, or weightlifter. Let’s lookinvariably reveals the studied group is endurance athletes at how CrossFit incorporates metabolic conditioningand, we suspect, endurance athletes on a dangerous fad (“cardio”), gymnastics, and weightlifting to forge thediet (high carb, low fat, low protein). world’s fittest men and women.Done right, fitness provides a great margin of protection Metabolic Conditioning, or “Cardio”against the ravages of time and disease. Where youfind otherwise examine the fitness protocol, especially Biking, running, swimming, rowing, speed skating, anddiet. Fitness is and should be “super-wellness.” Sickness, cross-country skiing are collectively known as “metabolicwellness, and fitness are measures of the same entity. conditioning.” In the common vernacular they are referredA fitness regimen that doesn’t support health is not to as “cardio.” CrossFit’s third fitness standard, the oneCrossFit. that deals with metabolic pathways, contains the seeds 16 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  17. 17. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continuedof the CrossFit “cardio” prescription. To understand theCrossFit approach to “cardio” we need first to briefly General Physical Skillscover the nature and interaction of the three majorpathways. If your goal is optimum physical competence thenOf the three metabolic pathways the first two, the all the general physical skills must be considered:phosphagen and the glycolytic, are “anaerobic” and the 1. Cardiovascular/respiratory endurance - Thethird, the oxidative, is “aerobic.” We needn’t belabor the ability of body systems to gather, process,biochemical significance of aerobic and anaerobic systems; and deliver oxygen.suffice it to say that the nature and interaction of anaerobicexercise and aerobic exercise is vital to understanding 2. Stamina - The ability of body systems toconditioning. Just remember that efforts at moderate process, deliver, store, and utilize energy.to high power and lasting less than several minutes are 3. Strength - The ability of a muscular unit,anaerobic and efforts at low power and lasting in excess or combination of muscular units, to applyof several minutes are aerobic. As an example the sprints force.at 100, 200, 400, and 800 meters are largely anaerobicand events like 1,500 meters, the mile, 2,000 meters, and 4. Flexibility - the ability to maximize the range3,000 meters are largely aerobic. of motion at a given joint.Aerobic training benefits cardiovascular function and 5. Power - The ability of a muscular unit, ordecreases body fat – all good. Aerobic conditioning combination of muscular units, to applyallows us to engage in low power extended efforts maximum force in minimum time.efficiently (cardio/respiratory endurance and stamina).This is critical to many sports. Athletes engaged in sports 6. Speed - The ability to minimize the timeor training where a preponderance of the training load cycle of a repeated movement.is spent in aerobic efforts witness decreases in muscle 7. Coordination - The ability to combinemass, strength, speed, and power. It is not uncommon several distinct movement patterns into ato find marathoners with a vertical leap of only several singular distinct movement.inches! Furthermore, aerobic activity has a pronouncedtendency to decrease anaerobic capacity. This does not 8. Agility - The ability to minimize transitionbode well for most athletes or those interested in elite time from one movement pattern tofitness. another.Anaerobic activity also benefits cardiovascular function 9. Balance - The ability to control theand decreases body fat! In fact, anaerobic exercise is placement of the bodies center of gravity insuperior to aerobic exercise for fat loss! (http://www. relation to its support base.cbass.com/FATBURN.HTM) Anaerobic activity is, 10. Accuracy - The ability to control movementhowever, unique in its capacity to dramatically improve in a given direction or at a given intensity.power, speed, strength, and muscle mass. Anaerobicconditioning allows us to exert tremendous forces over (Ed. - Thanks to Jim Crawley and Bruce Evans ofbrief time intervals. One aspect of anaerobic conditioning Dynamax, www.medicineballs.com)that bears great consideration is that anaerobicconditioning will not adversely affect aerobic capacity. Infact, properly structured, anaerobic activity can be usedto develop a very high level of aerobic fitness without the volleyball, wrestling, and weightlifting are all sports thatmuscle wasting consistent with high volumes of aerobic require the vast majority of training time spent in anaerobicexercise!! The method by which we use anaerobic efforts activity. Long distance and ultra endurance running, crossto develop aerobic conditioning is “interval training.” country skiing, and 1500+ meter swimming are all sports that require aerobic training at levels that produce resultsBasketball, football, gymnastics, boxing, track events under unacceptable to other athletes or the individual concernedone mile, soccer, swimming events under 400 meters, with total conditioning and optimal health. 17 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  18. 18. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continued Dr. Izumi Tabata published research that Sprint Mid-Distance Distance demonstrated that this interval protocol produced remarkable increases in both Primary Energy System Phophagen Glycolytic Oxidative anaerobic and aerobic capacity. Duration of work It is highly desirable to regularly experiment 10–30 30–120 120–300 with interval patterns of varying (in seconds) combinations of rest, work, and repetitions. Duration of recovery 30–90 60–240 120–300 One of the best Internet resources on (in seconds) interval training comes from Dr. Stephen Seiler (http://home.hia.no/~stephens/ Load:Recovery Ratio 1:3 1:2 1:1 interval.htm). This article on interval training and another on the time course Repetitions 25–30 10–20 3–5 of training adaptations (http://home.hia. no/~stephens/timecors.htm) contain theWe strongly recommend that you attend a track meet seeds of CrossFit’s heavy reliance on interval training.of nationally or internationally competitive athletes. The article on the time course of training adaptationsPay close attention to the physiques of the athletes explains that there are three waves of adaptation tocompeting at 100, 200, 400, 800 meters, and the milers. endurance training. The first wave is increased maximalThe difference you’re sure to notice is a direct result of oxygen consumption. The second is increased lactatetraining at those distances. threshold. The third is increased efficiency. In the CrossFit concept we are interested in maximizing firstInterval Training wave adaptations and procuring the second systemicallyThe key to developing the cardiovascular system without through multiple modalities, including weight training,an unacceptable loss of strength, speed, and power is and avoiding completely third wave adaptations. Secondinterval training. Interval training mixes bouts of work and and third wave adaptations are highly specific to therest in timed intervals. Figure 3 (pg. 5) gives guidelines for activity in which they are developed and are detrimentalinterval training. We can control the dominant metabolic to the broad fitness that we advocate and develop. Apathway conditioned by varying the duration of the clear understanding of this material has prompted us towork and rest interval and number of repetitions. Note advocate regular high intensity training in as many trainingthat the phosphagen pathway is the dominant pathway modalities as possible through largely anaerobic effortsin intervals of 10-30 seconds of work followed by rest and intervals while deliberately and specifically avoidingof 30-90 seconds (load:recovery 1:3) repeated 25-30 the efficiency that accompanies mastery of a singletimes. The glycolytic pathway is the dominant pathway modality. It is at first ironic that this is our interpretationin intervals of 30-120 seconds work followed by rest of Dr. Seiler’s work for it was not his intention, but whenof 60-240 seconds (load: recovery 1:2) repeated 10-20 our quest of optimal physical competence is viewedtimes. And finally, the oxidative pathway is the dominant in light of Dr. Seiler’s more specific aim of maximizingpathway in intervals of 120-300 seconds work followed endurance performance our interpretation is powerful.by rest of 120-300 seconds (load:recovery 1:1). The bulk Dr. Seiler’s work, incidentally, makes clear the fallacy ofof metabolic training should be interval training. assuming that endurance work is of greater benefit to theInterval training need not be so structured or formal. cardiovascular system than higher intensity interval work.One example would be to sprint between one set of This is very important: with interval training we get all oftelephone poles and jog between the next set alternating the cardiovascular benefit of endurance work withoutin this manner for the duration of a run. the attendant loss of strength, speed, and power.One example of an interval that CrossFit makes regular Gymnasticsuse of is the Tabata Interval, which is 20 seconds of Our use of the term “gymnastics” not only includes thework followed by 10 seconds of rest repeated six to traditional competitive sport that we’ve seen on TV but alleight times (http://www.cbass.com/INTERVAL.HTM). 18 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  19. 19. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continuedactivities like climbing, yoga, calisthenics, and dance where until you’ve turned 180 degrees. This skill needs to bethe aim is body control. It is within this realm of activities practiced until it can be done with little chance of fallingthat we can develop extraordinary strength (especially from the handstand. Work in intervals of 90 degrees asupper body and trunk), flexibility, coordination, balance, benchmarks of your growth – 90, 180, 270, 360, 450, 540,agility, and accuracy. In fact, the traditional gymnast has no 630, and finally 720 degrees.peer in terms of development of these skills. Walking on the hands is another fantastic tool forCrossFit uses short parallel bars, mats, still rings, pull- developing both the handstand and balance and accuracy.up and dip bars, and a climbing rope to implement our A football field or sidewalk is an excellent place togymnastics training. (See CrossFit Journal, September practice and measure your progress.You want to be able2002, “The Garage Gym” for recommended equipment to walk 100 yards in the handstand without falling.and vendors.) Competency in the handstand readies the athlete forThe starting place for gymnastic competency lies with handstand presses. There is a family of presses that rangethe well-known calisthenic movements: pull-ups, push- from relatively easy, ones that any beginning gymnast canups, dips, and rope climb.These movements need to form perform to ones so difficult that only the best gymnaststhe core of your upper body strength work. Set goals for competing at national levels can perform. Their hierarchyachieving benchmarks like 20, 25, and 30 pull-ups; 50, 75, of difficulty is bent arm/bent body (hip)/bent leg; straightand 100 push-ups; 20, 30, 40, and 50 dips; 1, 2, 3, 4, and arm/bent body/bent leg; straight arm/bent body/ straight5 consecutive trips up the rope without any use of the leg, bent arm/straight body/straight leg, and finally thefeet or legs. monster: straight arm/straight body/straight leg. It is not unusual to take ten years to get these five presses!At fifteen pull-ups and dips each it is time to startworking regularly on a “muscle-up.” The muscle-up is The trunk flexion work in gymnastics is beyond anythingmoving from a hanging position below the rings to a you’ll see anywhere else. Even the beginning gymnasticsupported position, arms extended, above the rings. It trunk movements cripple bodybuilders, weightlifters, andis a combination movement containing both a pull-up martial artists. In a future issue of CFJ (CrossFit Journal)and a dip. Far from a contrivance the muscle-up is hugely we’ll cover in great detail many of the better trunk/abfunctional. With a muscle-up you’ll be able to surmount exercises, but until then the basic sit-up and “L” hold areany object on which you can get a finger hold – if you the staples. The “L” hold is nothing more than holdingcan touch it you can get up on it. The value here for your trunk straight, supported by locked arms, hands onsurvival, police, fire fighter, and military use is impossible bench, floor, or parallel bars, and hips at 90 degrees withto overstate. We will in future issues be covering the legs straight held out in front of you. You want to workdetails of this great movement.The key to developing the towards a three minute hold in benchmark incrementsmuscle-up is pull-ups and dips. of 30 seconds – 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 seconds. When you can hold an “L” for three minutes all your oldWhile developing your upper body strength with the ab work will be silly easy.pull-ups, push-ups, dips, and rope climb, a large measureof balance and accuracy can be developed through We recommend Bob Anderson’s Stretching. This is amastering the handstand. Start with a headstand against simple no nonsense approach to flexibility. The sciencethe wall if you need to. Once reasonably comfortable with of stretching is weakly developed and many athletesthe inverted position of the headstand you can practice like gymnasts who demonstrate great flexibility receivekicking up to the handstand again against a wall. Later take no formal instruction. Just do it. Generally, you want tothe handstand to the short parallel bars or parallettes stretch in a warm-up to establish safe, effective range of(http://www.american-gymnast.com/technically_correct/ motion for the ensuing activity and stretch during coolparalletteguide/titlepage.html) without the benefit of the down to improve flexibility.wall. After you can hold a handstand for several minutes There’s a lot of material to work with here. We highlywithout benefit of the wall or a spotter it is time to recommend an adult gymnastics program if there is onedevelop a pirouette. A pirouette is lifting one arm and in your area. Our friends at www.drillsandskills.com haveturning on the supporting arm 90 degrees to regain a gymnastics-conditioning page with enough material tothe handstand then repeating this with alternate arms keep you busy for years (http://www.drillsandskills.com/ 19 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  20. 20. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continuedskills/cond). This is among our favorite fitness sites. Start your weightlifting career with the deadlift, clean, squat, and jerk then introduce the “clean and jerk” andEvery workout should contain regular gymnastic/ snatch.There are many excellent sources for learning thecalisthenic movements that you’ve mastered and other deadlift, clean, squat, and jerk but for the clean and jerkelements under development. Much of the rudiments of and the snatch we know of only one outstanding sourcegymnastics come only with great effort and frustration and that is a couple of videotapes produced by World– that’s O.K. The return is unprecedented and the most Class Coaching LLC (http://www.worldclasscoachingllc.frustrating elements are most beneficial -long before com/) These tapes are not only the best instructionyou’ve developed even a modicum of competency. available anywhere they are as good as any instructional tape we’ve seen on any subject. Much of the materialWeightlifting on the tapes, both in terms of pedagogy and technical“Weightlifting” as opposed to “weight lifting”, two words, understanding, is unique to the producers.You need bothand “weight training” refers to the Olympic sport, which tapes, “The Snatch” and “The Clean and Jerk.”includes the “clean and jerk” and the “snatch.” Olympic Much of the best weight training material on the Internetweightlifting, as it is often referred to, develops strength is found on “powerlifting” sites. Powerlifting is the sport of(especially in the hips), speed, and power like no other three lifts: the bench press, squat, and deadlift. Powerliftingtraining modality. It is little known that successful is a superb start to a lifting program followed later by theweightlifting requires substantial flexibility. Olympic more dynamic clean and the jerk and finally the “clean &weightlifters are as flexible as any athletes. jerk” and the “snatch”.The benefits of Olympic weightlifting don’t end with The movements that we are recommending are verystrength, speed, power, and flexibility. The clean and jerk demanding and very athletic. As a result they’ve keptand the snatch both develop coordination, agility, accuracy, athletes interested and intrigued where the typical fareand balance and to no small degree. Both of these lifts offered in most gyms (bodybuilding movements) typicallyare as nuanced and challenging as any movement in all of bores athletes to distraction.Weightlifting is sport; weightsport. Moderate competency in the Olympic lifts confers training is not.added prowess to any sport.The Olympic lifts are based on the deadlift, clean, squat, Throwingand jerk. These movements are the starting point for Our weight training program includes not onlyany serious weight-training program. In fact they should weightlifting and powerlifting but also throwing workserve as the core of your resistance training throughout with medicine balls. The medicine ball work we favoryour life. provides both physical training and general movementWhy the deadlift, clean, squat, and jerk? Because these practice. We are huge fans of the Dynamax medicine ballmovements elicit a profound neurodendocrine response. (www.medicineballs.com) and the throwing exercisesThat is, they alter you hormonally and neurologically. The elaborated in the Dynamax training manual that comeschanges that occur through these movements are essential with their balls. The medicine ball drills add anotherto athletic development. Most of the development that potent stimulus for strength, power, speed, coordination,occurs as a result of exercise is systemic and a direct agility, balance, and accuracy.result of hormonal and neurological changes. There is a medicine ball game known as Hoover Ball.Curls, lateral raises, leg extensions, leg curls, flyes and It is played with an eight-foot volleyball net and scoredother body building movements have no place in a serious like tennis. This game burns three times more caloriesstrength and conditioning program primarily because they than tennis and is great fun. The history and rules ofhave a blunted neuroendocrine response. A distinctive Hoover Ball are available from the Internet (http://www.feature of these relatively worthless movements is that hooverassoc.org/hooverballrules.htm).they have no functional analog in everyday life and theywork only one joint at a time. Compare this to the Nutritiondeadlift, clean, squat, and jerk which are functional and Nutrition plays a critical role in your fitness.Proper nutritionmulti-joint movements. can amplify or diminish the effect of your training efforts. 20 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com
  21. 21. CrossFit Training Guide | CrossFitWhat is Fitness? ...continuedEffective nutrition is moderate in protein, carbohydrate, with nutrition and moves to metabolic conditioning,and fat. Forget about the fad high carbohydrate, low fat, gymnastics, weightlifting, and finally sport. This hierarchyand low protein diet. 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein, and largely reflects foundational dependence, skill, and to some10% fat may work for your rabbit, but it won’t do anything degree, time ordering of development. The logical flow isfor you except increase your risk of cancer, diabetes, and from molecular foundations, cardiovascular sufficiency,heart disease or leave you weak and sickly. Balanced body control, external object control, and ultimatelymacronutrient and healthy nutrition looks more like mastery and application.This model has greatest utility in40% carbohydrate, 30 % protein, and 30% fat. Dr. Barry analyzing athletes’ shortcomings or difficulties.Sears’ Zone Diet (http://www.drsears.com/) still offers We don’t deliberately order these components butthe greatest precision, efficacy, and health benefit of any nature will. If you have a deficiency at any level of “theclearly defined protocol. The Zone diet does an adequate pyramid” the components above will suffer.job of jointly managing issues of blood glucose control,proper macronutrient proportion, and caloric restriction Integrationthe three pillars of sound nutrition whether your concernis athletic performance, disease prevention and longevity, Every regimen, every routine contains within its structureor body composition.We recommend that every one read a blueprint for its deficiency. If you only work your weightDr. Sears book Enter the Zone. We will cover nutrition in training at low reps you won’t develop the localizedgreat detail in an upcoming issue of the CFJ. muscular endurance that you might have otherwise. If you work high reps exclusively you won’t build the sameSport strength or power that you would have at low rep. There are advantages and disadvantages to working out slowly,Sport plays a wonderful role in fitness. Sport is the quickly, high weight, low weight, “cardio” before, cardioapplication of fitness in a fantastic atmosphere of after, etc.competition and mastery.Training efforts typically includerelatively predictable repetitive movements and provide For the fitness that we are pursuing, every parameterlimited opportunity for the essential combination of our within your control needs to be modulated to broaden theten general physical skills. It is, after all, the combined stimulus as much as possible.Your body will only respondexpression, or application, of the ten general skills that to an unaccustomed stressor; routine is the enemy ofis our motivation for their development in the first progress and broad adaptation. Don’t subscribe to highplace. Sports and games like soccer, martial arts, baseball, reps, or low reps, or long rests, or short rests, but striveand basketball in contrast to our training workouts for variance (http://www.cbass.com/EvolutionaryFitness.have more varied and less predictable movements. But, htm).where sports develop and require all ten general skillssimultaneously, they do so slowly compared to our So then, what are we to do? Work on becoming a betterstrength and conditioning regimen. Sport is better, in weightlifter, stronger-better gymnast, and faster rower,our view, at expression and testing of skills than it is runner, swimmer, cyclist is the answer. There are anat developing these same skills. Both expression infinite number of regimens that will deliver the SPORT goods.and development are crucial to our fitness. Sportin many respects more closely mimics the Generally, we have found that three daysdemands of nature than does our training. WEIGHTLIFTING on and one day off allows for a maximumWe encourage and expect our athletes & THROWING sustainability at maximum intensities.to engage in regular sports efforts in One of our favorite workout patternsaddition to all of their strength and GYMNASTICS is to warm-up and then perform threeconditioning work. to five sets of three to five reps of a fundamental lift at a moderatelyA Theoretical Heirarchy of METABOLIC CONDITIONING comfortable pace followed by aDevelopment ten-minute circuit of gymnasticsA theoretical hierarchy elements at a blistering paceexists for the development NUTRITION and finally finish with two toof an athlete. It starts ten minutes of high intensity 21 of 94 ® CrossFit is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. Subscription info at http://store.crossfit.com © 2006 All rights reserved. Feedback to feedback@crossfit.com

×