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THE EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM IN THE REALIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES
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THE EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM IN THE REALIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

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This study was on the effective implantation of the New Senior Secondary Curriculum in the realization of educational objectives. This study population comprised (10) ten secondary school in Ogun State, Nigeria. These secondary schools are five public secondary school and five secondary school. Fifty subjects were randomly selected from the population. However related literatures were reviewed form textbooks, journals and post researches. The research instruments were questionnaire which was statically analyzed with contingency table while the hypotheses were both tested at 0.05 level of significance using the mean statistic. It was discovered that there is a significant relationship between the new senior secondary school curriculum and the realization of educational objectives. Therefore, the finding reveals that the federal and state government should make it a point of duty to build infrastructure facilities including functional workshops in all the senior secondary school across the nation with adequate provision of workshop equipment, instructional materials and tools to make teaching and learning of trade subjects entrepreneurship (furniture making, cosmetology, marketing, tourism And GSM maintenance etc) meaningful Thus, students will be expose to varieties of opportunities and to engage in practical works, which is the major aspect of the New Senior Secondary Curriculum.

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  • 1. THE EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THENEW SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLCURRICULUM IN THE REALIZATION OFEDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVESBYBayo Soneye, NCE, B.Sc. Ed, M.Ed, Ph.D (in view)Lecturer, Diploma ProgrammeRedeemer’s UniversityLagos, Nigeria+2348034971806bayosoneye2010@gmail.comRose Agbonluare (Miss), NCE, B.Sc. (in View)Teacher, Civic EducationLagos, NigeriaRose.agbonluare@facebook.com+23481327672441
  • 2. ABSTRACTThis study was on the effective implantation of the New Senior SecondaryCurriculum in the realization of educational objectives. This study population comprised(10) ten secondary school in Ogun State, Nigeria. These secondary schools are fivepublic secondary school and five secondary school. Fifty subjects were randomly selectedfrom the population. However related literatures were reviewed form textbooks, journalsand post researches. The research instruments were questionnaire which was staticallyanalyzed with contingency table while the hypotheses were both tested at 0.05 level ofsignificance using the mean statistic. It was discovered that there is a significantrelationship between the new senior secondary school curriculum and the realization ofeducational objectives. Therefore, the finding reveals that the federal and stategovernment should make it a point of duty to build infrastructure facilities includingfunctional workshops in all the senior secondary school across the nation with adequateprovision of workshop equipment, instructional materials and tools to make teaching andlearning of trade subjects entrepreneurship (furniture making, cosmetology, marketing,tourism And GSM maintenance etc) meaningful Thus, students will be expose tovarieties of opportunities and to engage in practical works, which is the major aspect ofthe New Senior Secondary Curriculum.2
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENTSPageTitle PageCertification iDedication iiAcknowledgement iiiAbstract ivTable of Content vCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1.1 Background to the Study 11.2 Statement of Problem 41.3 Purpose of Study 51.4 Significance of Study 61.5 Research Questions 61.6 Research Hypotheses 71.7 Scope of Study 71.8 Definition of Terms 8CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1 The Concept and Meaning of Curriculum 92.2 National Policy on Education:Secondary Education Section 122.3 The Concept of Vocational and Technical Education 142.4 Nigeria Secondary Education Goals and Objectives 172.5 Curriculum for Wealth Creation and Self Employment 222.6 Secondary Education Implementation in Nigeria2.7 Functional Curriculum Theory 312.8 The New Senior Secondary School Curriculum 352.9 Summary of the New Senior Secondary Curriculum 38CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 Design of the Study 423.2 Population of the Study 423.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure 433
  • 4. 3.4 Research Instrument 433.5 Validation of Instrument 433.6 Reliability of the Instrument 443.7 Administration of Instrument 443.8 Methods of Data Collection 453.9 Problems Encounter during Data Collection 45CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS4.1 Introduction 464.2 Research Questions/Hypotheses Analysis and Results 464.3 Discussion of Result 494.4 Summary of Findings 52CHAPTER FIVE: IMPLICATION, RECOMMENDATION, SUGGESTIONS5.1 Introduction 545.2 Implication of Study 545.3 Recommendation 555.4 Suggestions for Further Research 575.5 Conclusion 57AppendixReferences 59Questionnaire 624
  • 5. CHAPTER ONEINTRODUTION1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDYIn this era of globalization and technological revolution, education is consideredas a first step for every human activity. It plays a vital role in the development of humancapital and it linked with an individual well being and opportunities for better living.Thus, it ensures the acquisition of knowledge and skills that enable individual to increasetheir productivity and improve their quality of life. Nigeria, having realized theeffectiveness of education as a powerful instrument for national progress, developmentand continuously adjusting her educational philosophy and methodology to march theideals and challenges of changing economic and social structure of modern society.If secondary education is properly planned, executed and encouraged, it could beused to develop innate genius in the youth and enhance their capacity to stand bythemselves. Thus, secondary education could be used as investment that could yield richproductive dividends in a very near future, which could have far reaching effects onnational development. Paradoxically, access to secondary school in Nigeria over anyother kinds of education created a pool from which the firms recruit staff largely and paidthem better than other groups. To push pen behind an office desk became the dream of aneducated Nigerian on completion of secondary school and anything else became5
  • 6. derogatory human dignity. The attitude on a wider base was an educational policy thatkept the nation under developed. The whole truth is that secondary school education fromthe onset till today, appeals colonial dependent.Secondary education would have prepared an individual with courage and soundmind not too easily deflected by emotion of the moment. Majority of Nigerian youths areidle and some are involved in various vices due to unemployment. They do not have therequired skills to either fit into many type of jobs that are available or create jobs. TheMinistry of Education noted that the poor quality of graduates is worrisome.The Federal Government has said that the introduction of the new seniorsecondary school curriculum was to include subjects such as information technology,woodwork, craft Art, and more which in a sense, should guarantee development, selfemployment and professionalism among secondary school leaver in the nearest future.Buttressing the government’s announcement, the public relations officer, Ministry ofEducation Mr. Kabio Mammud disclosed that the new curriculum was fashioned by theNigeria Educational Research and Development Council {NERDC} to ensure a gradualphasing out of the current curriculum. Mammud stressed that the need for a newcurriculum was a question that Nigeria needed not to go far to get the answer. Accordingto him the standard of education in the country had gone down. Adekoya (1999) claimedthat for the Nigeria youth to be empowered economically they should be given the6
  • 7. necessary skills acquisition and for this to be done the curriculum should be effectivelyimplemented. To ensure a positive future Nigeria, the youth who are believed to be thefuture for leaders of the country ought to be well equipped with basic skills to drive theeconomy.Curriculum is a vehicle through which education is attained. The secondaryschool curriculum as presently implemented is far from achieving the goals of secondaryeducational system. Several authors have noted that the national policy on education waswell structured and the contents were adequately defined but the implementation calls forquestion investigation gathered shows that students potentials are not properly channeledas schools lack basic infrastructural facilities necessary for effective curriculumimplementation, there are inadequate specialist teachers, and where available focus moreon theoretical aspect leaving out the practical component. This situation calls foreffective implementation of the new senior secondary school curriculum in order toidentify the root cause of the problem as well as gaps needed for reformation.The announcement by the Federal Government that it would launch a new seniorsecondary school curriculum has sparked debates about what the curriculum is expectedto achieve. There are also questions about the value of the new curriculum at time whenthe existing curriculum has not even been implemented to satisfactory level. Yet there are7
  • 8. people who argue that a new senior secondary school curriculum does not hold the key toNigeria’s social and economic transformation.The idea that secondary school graduate would be equipped with relevant skills incommunication technology deserve national support. One objective of the newcurriculum is to generate secondary school graduates who are sufficiently equipped fortertiary education. The students are expected to possess, at the end of their studiespractical knowledge and professional skills that could be usefully applied to the socio-economic development of the nation. The executive secretary of the Nigeria EducationalResearch and Development Council (NERDC) professor Godwill Obioma, said studentwould be required to study five compulsory courses including English language, generalmathematics, computer studies and information and communication technologies as wellas one trade or professional subject from list of 34 official trade subjects. He also saidthat the introduction of 34 vocational subjects marked a radical departure from thesubsisting curriculum in which accent was not placed on professional skills acquisition.To achieve the lofty objectives, set out in the new curriculum, it is important to maketechnologies widely accessible to secondary students and teachers.1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM8
  • 9. The effective implementation of the new senior secondary school curriculum in therealization of educational objectives. Therefore the problems which the research intendsto verify are:i. Students who have completed the secondary education wish to continue withhigher education.ii. Students do not have necessary skills to empower themselves.iii. Secondary education seems inadequate to make school leavers competent andself-reliant.iv. The possible solution to the unemployable youth can raise the economicproductivity of the country.v. The impact of the new senior secondary school curriculum on education.1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDYThe overall aim of the study is to assess the effective implementation of the newsenior secondary school curriculum in the realization of educational objectives with theview to identify the root cause of the problem on curriculum implementation.Specifically, the aims are to:i. Determine the appropriateness of the new senior secondary curriculum in terms ofthe goals, content, method in meeting the philosophy of Nigeria secondaryeducational system.9
  • 10. ii. Find out type of training method used in implementing the curriculum in Nigeriasecondary schools.iii. Determine number of skill based subjects taught in secondary schoolsiv. Asses infrastructural facilities available in Nigeria senior secondary schools.v. Asses availability of specialist teachers in senior secondary schools.1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDYThis study is significant in many ways. Most importantly it will sensitize policymakers, educational administrators and curriculum planners on the need to plan towardeffective curriculum implementation in Nigeria secondary schools. This will go a longway in minimizing the rate of unemployment among young secondary school leaversthereby marking them well adjusted individual who will raise the economic productivityof the country. The findings and recommendations of this study will provide point ofreference to ministries of education and the Nigerians Educational Research andDevelopment Council (NERDC) will find the result of the study valuable particularly inthe current government effort towards implementation of the new senior secondarycurriculum.1.5 RESEACH QUESTIONSi. Does students who have completed the secondary education wish continue withhigher education?10
  • 11. ii. Does students have necessary skills to empower themselves?iii. Does secondary education seem inadequate to make school leavers competent andself-reliant?iv. Does the possible solution to the unemployment youth raise the economicproductivity of the country?v. Does the new senior secondary school curriculum has impacts on education?1.6 RESEACH HYPOTHESESHo There is no significant relationship between the effective implementation ofthe new senior secondary school curriculum and the realization of education objectives.Hi There is a significant relationship between the effective implementation of thenew senior secondary school curriculum and the realization of educational objectives.1.7 SCOPE OF STUDYThis study is limited to some selected senior secondary schools in Obafemi Owode localgovernment Area of Ogun state, Nigeria.A total of ten secondary schools comprising both public and private were drawn fromObafemi Owode Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.i. Community High School Ibafoii. Adesan Olu Community High School Moweiii. Ofada Comprehensive High school Ofada11
  • 12. iv. Owode Community High School Owodev. Orile Igbore Community High School Orile Igborevi. Christ Tower International college Ibafo.vii. Hebron College Moweviii. Redeemer’s High School Mowe.ix. Trinity College Ofodax. Champions International Schools Magboro1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMSEffective: It means producing the result that was wanted or intended.Implementation: It is refers to as putting into effect a plan already mapped out.Realization: It refers to the act of achieving what one had planned, hoped or aimed for.Skilled based subjects: As used in the study, these are designed to teach students skillswhich will empower them for job creation and self reliance.Educational objective: It is a statement of learner outcomes of an education activity thatis measurable and achievable within the designated time frame.Entrepreneurial skills: Skills that will enable individual to create employment or start upbusiness.Curriculum: is the total package of what is to be taught or learnt.Entrepreneurial Skills: skills that will enable individual create employment or start upbusiness.12
  • 13. Learner: it is used in the study to refer to secondary school students.Youth: It is identified in this study as young people between the ages of 10-24 years ofage.CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEWIn this chapter relevant conceptual and empirical literature are reviewed under thefollowing dimensions:1. The concept and meaning of curriculum2. National policy on education: Secondary Education Section3. Concept of vocational and Technical Education4. Nigeria Secondary Education Goals and Objectives5. Curriculum for wealth creation and self Employment6. Secondary Education Curriculum implementation7. Theoretical Framework – Functional Curriculum Theory8. The New Senior Secondary School Curriculum9. Summary of the New Senior Secondary School Curriculum2.1 THE CONCEPT AND MEANING OF CURRICULUMThe encyclopedia of educational research (1969) gives the following definitionsof curriculum as all the experience a leaner has at school under the guidance of the13
  • 14. teacher. To him the teacher plays a vital role in translating curriculum objectives. Thedictionary of education defines curriculum as the total learning activities or educativeexperience offered by an institution through its total institutional programmers designedto achieve the prescribed objectives. Historically, the word curriculum was derived fromthe latin root currus which means a race course or a chariot. Currus originates from wordcurrer’s (to run). This the term curriculum in its original context means runaway orracecourse. Offorma (2005) sees curriculum as a planned leaning experience offered to alearner in school, adding that it is a program of studies made up of three componentsprogram of studies, program of activities and programme of guidance. Hence themeaning of the term curriculum has also been changed to meet the needs of education ofdifferent courses of studies. Curriculum is an organized plan of course outlined with theobjectives and learning experience to be used for achievement of these objectives. In awider perspective, it is a way of preparing individuals to become productive citizens anduseful member of the society to which they belong. Thus, curriculum is a tool ofeducation to educate and humanize the whole man.Modern interpretation sees the curriculum as all the knowledge and experiencegot by a child in and out of the school walls, either on the time table or outside it i.e. theexperiences the learner has regardless of when or how they take place (MoronkolaAkinsola & Abe 2000) curriculum means a written description of what happens in the14
  • 15. course. Prescriptive view of a curriculum is defined as a plan for action or writtendocument that include strategies for achieving desired goals or ends.FUNCTIONAL CURRICULUM THEORYJackson (1992) defines curriculum as:a) A course especially a specified fixed course of study in a school or college as oneof leading to a degree.b) The whole body of courses offered in an educational institution or by adepartment thereof curriculum is the knowledge which, organized ordinarily alongsubject matter lines, ultimately must be masters by students.Bobbit defined curriculum in two ways:1) It is the entire range of experience both undirected and directed concerned inunfolding the ability of the individual or2) It is a series of consciously directed training experience that the schools use forcompleting and perfecting the unfoldment. The curriculum expect primarily is viewed asa principal He is concerned with the teacher’s role in planning and implementing thecurriculum at three levels i) classroom ii) school (iii) district.The teacher should be involved in every phase of curriculum making includingthe planning of specific goals, materials, content and methods. Teacher should have acurriculum coordinating body to unify their work and develop relationship with15
  • 16. supervisors and other teachers. Curriculum has attracted a lot of competing definitionsbecause of the different angles of which writers see it Elizabeth valiance write:The curriculum field is by no means clear as a discipline of study and as a field ofpractice curriculum lacks clear boundaries (quoted in Oliva 1992).The functions of the school described in the proceeding section should alreadyhave affirmed the importance of curriculum. Curriculum is more than the textbooks. Its ismore than a course of study. It is a situation through which teachers and schooladministrators effect behaviouaral changes in all those who pass through the school. Theschool performs its functions through the combination of operation or experiences whichit designs to achieve societal ends.Curriculum needs to be seen as the reconstruction of knowledge and experience,systematically developed with the guidance of the school or relevant agencies which willenable the learner to have better mastery of learning experience for the learner’s and thesociety’s well-being.2.2 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION: SECONDARY EDUCATIONSECTIONEducation has been universally accepted as a major indication of a community’ssocial well being standard of living and social justice. In an attempt to define andmeasure levels of living on international scale, the United Nations research institutes forsocial development recognize eight variables in addition to education as social indication.16
  • 17. In an attempt to use education for the benefit of all citizen in Nigeria, in term of itsrelevance to the needs of the individual and desired society the Federal Government in1973 summoned a seminar of distinguished educational experts under the chairmanshipof chief S.O Adebo to deliberate on all aspects of all aspects of a national policy oneducation. The recommendations of this seminar formed the twelve section of thenational policy on education first published in 1977 and revised in 1981, 1998, and 2004.The broad aims of secondary education within the overall national objective as containedin section 4 subsection 18 of the policy (1981, p 16) are:a) Provide an increasing number of primary school pupils with no opportunity foreducation of a higher quality, irrespective of sex or social, religious and ethnicbackground.b) Diversify its curriculum to cater for difference in talents opportunities and rolespossessed by or open to students after their secondary school course.c) Equip students to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology.d) Develop and project Nigeria culture art and language as well as the world’scultural heritage.e) Raise a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the dignity oflabour and appreciate those values specified under our board national aims andlive as good citizensf) Foster Nigeria unity with an emphasis on the common lies that unite use in ourdiversity.17
  • 18. g) Inspire its students with a desire for achievement and self improvement both atschool and in late life.Since the national policy on education came into operation, it has becameuniversally accepted as the reference point for the development of secondary education inNigeria. Acceptable though the expression “able” and “willing” used in relation to thosethe expected to enter senior secondary school needs modification in order that the policyimplementation would being a greater degree of social justice and equal educationalopportunity to ensure the identification and development of talent vital to therequirements of a highly complex technological society. Questions need to be askedwhether equality of educational opportunity and selective senior secondary school can gotogether.Secondly, the expression “able” and “willing” for those going to senior secondaryappears equally questionable in a policy which aims to minimize, if not completelyremove drop outs.2.3 THE CONCEPT OF VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATIONVocational and technical education is that aspect of education that gives itsrecipients an opportunity to acquire practical skills as well as some basic scientificknowledge (Nigeria national policy on education 1981). Oni (2007)18
  • 19. Quoted pudding (1994) who defined vocational technical education as that type ofeducation which fits the individual for gainful employment in recognized occupation assemi skilled worker or technicians or sub – professionals.Vocational education could be regarded as that aspect of education whichprovides the recipients with the basic knowledge and practical skills needed for entry intothe world of work as employees or as self employed (Oni 2007).Vocational education nurtures skills that are necessary for agricultural, industrial,commercial and economic development and thus builds a self – reliant nation Oni (2007).Quoted Adeyemi (1997) who depicted vocational education as that aspect of the totaleducation process that focuses on individual occupation, while Olaitan (2007 explainedvocational education as that type of education, which is considered with the developmentof skills knowledge and attitude necessary for success to any occupation. Vocationaleducation according to Oni (2007) includes technical education. While vocationaleducation provides for the training or retraining designed to prepare individuals to enterinto a paid employment in any recognized occupation, technical education is composedof theoretical and practical instruction. Such instruction is said to be usually given tothose who need to be employed in commerce and industry or in any type of enterprisewhich involves the use of tools and other machinery for their operational services.Two of the aims of vocational education as stated in the Nigeria national policy oneducation (NPE, 1981, P.28) are: to give training and impact necessary skills leading to19
  • 20. the production of craft men. Technicians and other skilled personal who will beenterprising and self – reliant and to enable Nigeria young men and women to have anintelligent understanding of the increasing complexity of technology. The above aims ofvocational technical education were stated three decades ago. Today according to Oni(2007),The nation skill lacks quality vocational technical education programmes intechnical institution. He however suggested the need to establish good vocational andtechnical institution to provide the required training and impact the necessary skillsleading to production of craftmen, technical and skilled personal who will be enterprisingand self reliant. Quality vocational technical education is also essential in Nigeriainstitution to sustain the nation’s population where quality of life is still very poor. Theunited nation educational scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) noted thatrevitalizing this important sector is among the ways to improve economic opportunitiesfor the youth.According to Dike (2009) vocational and technical education is designed todevelop occupational skills to give individuals skills to live, learn and work as productivecitizen in a global society. Oni further agrues that vocational and technical educationholds the key to national development. For Aina (2009), it is an education for skillbuilding and skill identity which ultimately becomes a means of live hood. According toObanya (2007) vocational and technical education is part of integral development of the20
  • 21. three Hs: the head, the heart and the head which must not be neglected, as doing that willamount to a denial of individual’s integrated personality development, further adding thatany meaningful programme of technical / vocational education is to be predicted on asound general education2.4 NIGERIA SECONDARY EDUCATION GOALS AND OBJECTIVESThe broad aims of secondary education within the overall Nigerian education within theoverall Nigerian educational policy are1. Preparation for useful living within the society2. Preparation for higher education.Education is described as the totality of life experience that people acquire andwhich enable them to cope with and derive satisfaction from living in the world(Babafemi 2007).This is said to enable people achieve social competence and optimumindividual development. It is on this premise that it is believed that the quality of anation’s education is proportional to the level of its prosperity. Economically advancednations of the world are distinguished by the excellence of their educational system.Following the political independence of Nigeria, there was a realization that thetype of education our colonial masters left with us needed a critical re- examination of theworth of content, objectives, relevance, methods, administration, evaluation and so forth.According to Ezeobata (2007), this period saw a state of affairs in Nigeria educationwhere every subject had to prove its usefulness. After affirming the federal government’s21
  • 22. recognition of education as “an instrument par excellent for effecting nationaldevelopment” as well as “a dynamic instrument of change” the document reiterated thefive main national objectives as stated in the secondary national development plan.These objectives are the building of:1) A free and democratic society2) A just and egalitarian society3) A united, strong and self – reliant nation4) A great and dynamic economy5) A land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens.It further spelt out the values it believes Nigerian education should inculcate in itsrecipients. They include:1. Respect for the worth and dignity of the individuals2. Faith in man’s ability to make rational decisions3. Moral and spiritual values in interpersonal and human relations4. Shared responsibility for the common good of society5. Respect for the dignity of labour and6. Promotion of the emotional, physical and psychological health of allchildren.Its usefulness to retain a place in the school curriculum. This was said to have led thenNational Educational Research (NERD) to convey a historic curriculum conference atLagos in 1969. This conference recommended new set goals and provided direction for22
  • 23. major curriculum revision upon which the national policy on education of 1977andrevised policy in 1981 and 2004 were based. Against this background of nationalaspirations, an educational system commonly referred to as the 6-3-3-4 system ofeducation emerged. The system consisted of six years of primary school education, threeyears of junior secondary school (JSS), three years of senior secondary school (SSS) andfour year of post secondary education (Omotayo, Ihebereme and Maduewesi 2008).The implementation of the 6-3-3-4 education system began in 1982 and broughtmany reform into the educational system in Nigeria. Among the innovations is thevocationalization of the secondary school curriculum in Nigeria. At the junior secondarylevel pre- vocational subject were introduced into the senior secondary level. The focusof the prevocational was to expose student at the junior secondary school level to theworld of work through exploration. Such exposure would enable students at the juniorsecondary school make intelligent career choice and also intelligent consumptionpatterns. Among the prevocational subject are practical agriculture, home economics, andbusiness studies introductory technology is an integration of components of wood workmetal work, basic electronics, applied electricity, water flow technology, airflowtechnology, food preservations, automobile technical drawing, physics. Rubbertechnology, chemistry plastics, basic building technology and ceramics. While businessstudies has typewriting, shorthand, bookkeeping office practise, commerce and computerscience as components Fafunwa (2002) stated that specific objectives of the juniorsecondary school education are to develop in the students manipulation skill (manual23
  • 24. dexterity invention respect for dignity of labour and above all healthy attitude towardsthings technical.At the senior secondary level, recommended vocational / technical subjectsinclude: Agricultural science, clothing and textile, home management, food and nutrition,Typewriting and shorthand, principle of accounts commerce, woodwork technicaldrawing, Basic electronics, building construction, applied electricity and auto mechanics(senior secondary curriculum).The most significant aspect of the national policy on education as noted by Dike(2009) is the new focus it gives to Nigerian educational system, the need for theindustrialization of the nation in which technical and vocational education play crucialroles and realization to change from white collar job oriented educational system toscience, vocational and technical oriented educational system which prepares individualto be self – reliant and useful to the society. This is said to have informed the federalgovernment to lay emphasis on technical education. Dike (2009) further noted that thefive national goals cannot be realized without developing technical or vocationaleducation, a well rooted technical education that will definitely transform the economic,social and political life styles of our nation from the third world to be the first worldclass.According to Ajala (2002) the new national policy on education has all thenecessary ingredients for landing Nigeria into the future technologically, socially andmorally adding that the policy if the nation to launch itself among the great nation’.24
  • 25. Babafemi (2007) sees the 6-3-3-4 system of education as a step in the right directiontoward the technological development of the nation describing it as laudable programmescapable of ushering in educational revolution in Nigeria, he however remarked that thecurrent situation on ground is far from this ideal as the system seems to be suffering frompoor and shoddy implementation.In more specific terms the secondary school is intended, among other things toraise a generation of people (youth) who can think for themselves, respect the views andfeelings of other, respect the dignity of labour and appreciate those values specified underbroad national aims and live as good citizens (National Policy on Education(1998).In line with the above Akande (1999) in study titled “present Nigeria secondaryschool curriculum and goals of Nigeria secondary education” formulated hypothesis onthe influence of secondary school curriculum on goal of Nigeria education. Akande used120 students as sample for the study and further applied the independent t-test statisticaltool at 0.05 alpha level, to check whether a significant influence of secondary schoolcurriculum on the goals of Nigeria secondary school education exists. At the end of theanalysis, it was found that there is a positive influence of the curriculum on the goals ofNigeria secondary education. This in any case implied that the present Nigeria secondaryschool curriculum meets the goals of Nigeria’ education.Uyanya (1989) stated that the most important thing the ever happened to Nigeriais the 1981 national policy on education, which emphasize the acquisition of vocationalskill and self – reliance. Puyate (2004) quoted sower (1971) who observe that vocational /25
  • 26. technical education is a means towards industrialization of Nigeria. Olaitan (2007)defines vocational or technical education as the aspect of education which is a skillacquisition oriented form of training, based on application of mathematics and scientificknowledge in specific field for self actualization and development.The 6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria is job oriented. It place premium onmanual activities, technical proficiency, respect for dignity of labour and economicefficiency it is to provide the child with basic tools to prepare him for job creation andwealth generation. Anwuka (2005) summarized the secondary education curriculum asimmense and profound for teaching and learning.2.5 CURRICULUM FOR WEALTH CREATION AND SELF EMPOLYMENTCurriculum development is vital to educational success and nation building.Nations expend vast amounts of time and resources on designing what ought to belearned in schools in order to elevate social consciousness and improve economicviability. Nigeria is no exception. Since its independence in 1960, Nigeria has struggledwith designing and implementing a sustainable educational curriculum that adequatelyprepares its children for adulthood. Several years later, the country faces the rising tide ofan educated but unemployable workforce, as Nigerian students graduate from secondaryand tertiary institutions without essential work place skills. Based on inarticulate policies,inadequate research and poor planning, curriculum implementation has becomeineffective and lacks any useful feedback mechanism anchored in review, analysis and26
  • 27. redesigned processes. School curriculum is expected to equip learners with skills that willmake them self reliant, prepare them to enter into jobs and progress in them. Recognizingthe importance of this the Phelps stoke commission of 1925 and the national curriculumconference of 1968 advocated for vocational as well as technical education as a way ofadvancing entrepreneurial education in the country. The extent to which extent to whichthis has been achieved is however questionable as evidence from various studies showthat there is no link between our school system and entrepreneurship education (Offorma)2005. The diversity and wealth of its human capital provides Nigeria a uniqueopportunity to position itself as a regional and international contender in globaleconomics and development. Does not adequately prepare students for the demands of acompetitive, talented workforce. Despite meaningful public policy created to address theneeds of Nigeria students, there remains systemic shortcomings that fail to realizegovernment goals.The curriculum is expected to prepare people for entrepreneurship. It shouldprepares people to be self employed for entrepreneurship. In various enterprises (Offorma2005). There is growing dependence of our youth on white collar jobs which are difficultto come by these days. Job employers do not emphasize certificate but what one can doand urged youth to seek self reliance through self employment.Adekoya (2004) examined influence of practical skill acquisition and socioeconomic empowerment of youth in Nigeria, using random sample of 150 students. Thefinding revealed that youth practical skill acquisition significantly influence their socio-27
  • 28. economics empowerment in the larger society. This implied that the joblessness of theNigerian youth today stems from their non-acquisition of skills. This has furtheraggravated the youth negative behaviour in the society as most of the problems of youthviolence, armed robbery, thuggery and ethnic-political clashes in Nigeria where youth arefound in large numbers could be traced to the high rate of unemployment.The Nigeria educational system is expected to attend to the challenge ofequipping the youth with skills for self employment and wealth creation. This can beachieved through effective implementation of vocational and technical curricular.2.6 SECONDARY EDUCATION CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATIONIN NIGERIAMany educationists have discussed the issue of curriculum implementation inAfrica identified as the major setback for attaining goals of education in Africa (Obanya2007).Curriculum implementation entails putting into practice the officially prescribedcourses of study, syllabus and subjects (Chikumbi and Makamure 2000). Putting thecurriculum into operation require an implementation agent. The teacher is identified asthe agent in the curriculum implementation process. Curriculum implementationtherefore refers to how the planned or officially designed course of study is translated bythe teacher into syllabus, scheme of work and lessons to be delivered to students.Implementation is said to take place the teacher constructed syllabus the teacher28
  • 29. personality, the teaching environment interact with the learner implementation furthertake place the learner acquires the planned or intended experiences, skills, knowledge,ideas and attitudes that are aimed at enabling the same learner to function effectively atthe society. The learner is therefore seen as the central figure of curriculumimplementation process. Obanya (2004) defined implementation of curriculum as day today activities which school management and classroom teachers under-take in the pursuitof the objective of any given curriculum. Obanya (2007) contends that effectivecurriculum is the one that reflects what “the learner” eventually takes away from aneducational experience, which he termed curriculum Obanya noted that in many cases,there would be gap between the intended curriculum and the learned curriculum anddefined effective curriculum implementation as concerned with narrowing such a gap asmuch as possible.The teacher teaching method and infrastructural facilities are reviewed to see howthey influence curriculum implementation in Nigeria secondary educationThe teacher: The importance of teacher in curriculum planning, development andmost importantly implementation cannot be over emphasized. Teacher most times are notinvolved during policy formulation even through they are expected to implement thiscurriculum. A major setback in effective curriculum implementation is the problem ofunqualified teachers especially specialist teacher in area like vocational and technicalsubjects. In recent times, curriculum is designed up to implementation without adequatemanpower to translate these documents into reality. Sofalahan (1998) noted at junior29
  • 30. secondary school level, due to shortage of teachers the requirements of two Nigerialanguages are no longer strictly observed. In addition introductory technology, creativeand cultural arts, local crafts which are manifested in the poor implementation of thecurriculum. Ajibola (2008) also pointed out that most of the teachers are not qualified toteach the subject introduced in the curriculum.Amugo (1997) studied the relationship between availability of expert teacher andimplementation of secondary school curriculum in Nigeria. Her simply consisted of 50secondary school teachers who were randomly selected from the population of teachers inLagos and Imo state. She hypothesized that there will be no significant relationshipbetween availability of teachers and curriculum implementation in Nigeria and thatavailable specialist teacher only use theory methods in their classroom work without thepractical aspect. The result of the study shows there exists a significant relationshipbetween the availability of subject teacher and implementation of skilled based secondaryschool curriculum in Nigeria. Amugo, therefore concluded that quality and quantity ofteachers in Nigerian schools significantly affect the implementation of curriculum inNigeria schools, especially at the secondary school level.Teaching method:The primary goal for teaching vocational and technical education is to teach students bothpractical and theoretical of the subject matter but unfortunately, this is said not to be so inour school (omo-ojugo and Ohiole Ohiweri 2008). Several authors have identified factorscausing this problem to include the lack of adequate instructional materials or poor30
  • 31. ineffective teaching method. Kiboss(2002) has singled out the expository approach saidto be the dominant teaching method commonly used for instruction in schools. Theexpository approach, according to him is instruction in which the teacher stands most ofthe time giving verbal explanations in the form of talk and chalk while the students listenand write notes from the board. Kiboss describe such teaching method as inadequate andlimited that tend to negatively affect the learner’s views of practical concepts andassociated methods. Kiboss and Oguniyi (2003) opine that unless urgent measures aretaken to curb the problem, the poor attitude toward vocational and technical education inNigeria educational system will continue to persist.Traditional, teacher-centered method of teaching to little to advance conceptualunderstanding and critical thinking. In Nigeria, however evidence shows that this is thedominant pedagogical mode. Oduolowu (2007) mentions that among other outdatedinstructional techniques, rote learning, which focuses on the ‘memorization andregurgitation of facts” is still in use. Ajibola (2008) points out that this form of instructionand learning hampers creativity and does little to faster innate abilities for problemsolving and decision making. He calls for the need to incorporate child centeredapproaches in curriculum development. These approaches faster co-operation, tolerance,self reliance and self expression. According to Ajibola, when teaching and learning isdirected toward the needs of the child, there is an accompanying tendency to make surethat he fully understands the material he is being taught. The focus is no longer on howmuch a student can remember, but how he understand what meaning he makes of his31
  • 32. understanding and whether he can apply the knowledge and meaning in real worldsituations. This is the measure of an effective educational system. Amuseghan (2007), indiscussing English language instruction at the senior secondary school (SSS) level pointsout the most teachers are “ more concerned with disseminating facts, information andprinciples on how to do this or that … than teaching language skills or allowing studentsto do and learn, practice and engage in language activities aimed at acquiringcommunicative skills or competence”Akuezuilo ((2007) stated that the basic science and technology curriculum,including vocational is very practical in nature and should ideally be taught throughmethods that maximize the active participation of the learner but lamented the lack offacilities in schools. Lack of specialist teachers, according to Akuezuilo equally hindersthe curriculum whose key implementers are not well trained and oriented to the teachingof such curriculum.Aloa (2001) carried out a study on the effective implementation of Nigeriasecondary school curriculum. Two hundred (200) sample were used to respond toquestionnaires constructed in other to find out whether the Nigeria secondary schoolsystem is well implemented or not. The response showed that 160 of the sampledstudents teachers were of the opinion that the curriculum of Nigeria secondary schoollacks effective implementation, while 40 respondents agreed that the curriculum iseffectively implemented. This result corresponds with the assumptions widely held byAdams and Onyene (2001) that the Nigeria secondary school curriculum implementation,32
  • 33. which is the focal point in curriculum design, does not give the students the necessaryskills to earn a living in the society.In support of the above finding Adeleke (2006) believes that one of the problemof Nigeria secondary school curriculum content is effectively finishing of a product(implementation) Adeleke opined that the poor implementation of the secondary schoolcurriculum in Nigeria has caused the missing link between the goals of Nigeria educationand the achievement of the goals.Offorma (2005) quoted Nwagwu (2003 as noting that the vocational and technicalsubject are not effectively implemented as most of the subject are not offered due to lackof teachers, workshops for practical works and further notes that where there are teachersthe delivery is usually theorized because of lack of competence on the pat of the teacheror due to lack of equipment, thus students graduate without any hands on experience.Mohammed (2005) opined that their has been tremendous expansion of education inNigeria in terms of numbers but regretted that the growth has not matched with quality inthe type of education being delivered to Nigerians and further observed that there aremany computer ‘s science graduates who are computer “illiterates” as they cannot usethe computer effectively.On the factors that can be attributed to the cause of poor implementation ofNigeria curriculum at the secondary school level, Anyanwu (200) tested a hypothesiswhich stated that there will be no significant relationship between teaching method andimplementation of Nigeria secondary curriculum 150 participants were involved in the33
  • 34. study and the Pearson product moment statistic was used to check if there is a significantrelationship between the methods applied teachers in the class the consequentimplementation of the school curriculum. The result a positive relationship betweenteaching method and curriculum implementation. The implication of this result is theteacher as one of the main stakeholders of the school curriculum do not seen to promotethe effective implementation of Nigeria secondary school curriculum due to many factorsranging from lack of specialist teachers to lack materials and non – availability ofequipments in the school.In analyzing the above result, Uzodinma (2004) posited that implementation hasbeen the bane of curriculum designed in Nigeria. According to him, Nigeria has a verygood curriculum based on the lefty ideas embedded in the 6-3-3-4 system of education inNigeria, which youth are to be educated and employed in for stages depending on theirlevels of cognition and skills. Uzodinma observed that 6-3-3-4 education system failsbecause it was not duly implemented in Nigeria due to faulty of teaching that is centeredn theory only.From the foregoing, it is apparent that Nigerian secondary school teachers usetheoretical method in the teaching and learning process and pay less attention to thepractical aspect meant to empower the youth for posterity and for wealth creation. Inorder for Nigerian students to meet the demands of Nigerian society and global realities,curriculum development must involve appropriate method of teaching and learningInfrastructural facilities:34
  • 35. Ajayi (1999) in a study on “relationship between infrastructure availability andcurriculum implementation in Nigeria secondary schools and curriculum implementationin these schools. But in a review of this study Anyakogu (2002)opined that a relationshipdid exist between the availability of school facilities and implementation of schoolcurriculum. As he put it without the availability of functional infrastructures in theschools the skilled based curriculum will not be effectively implemented in Nigeria,youth would lack skill acquisition and economics in Nigerians youth would lack skillacquisition and economic empowerment. This is because youth lack the ability to carryout some meaningful work due to lack of acquisition of basic skills that promote effectivework performance.It is also noted most of the equipments, tools and workshop facilities are eitherbroken down or damaged or dilapidated and they are not replaced neither renovated(Puyate 2006)2.7 FUNCTIONAL CURRICULUM THEORYTheory connotes interpreting established knowledge that is real and factual i.e. itis practical, valuable but not speculative and not something we can refer to as commonsense. A valid educational theory is one of morally acceptable assumption about aims,correct and checkable assumptions about knowledge and verified assumption about theeffectiveness of methods.35
  • 36. The theoretical framework of the study is hinged on Obanya ‘s (2004) functionalcurriculum theory which it can contribute to the world pool of knowledge, idealsinventions, human and financial capitals and become fully participating member of theglobal economy, it has to embrace a curriculum that is tripartite in nature and practical.This could be done following these goals setting:a) Developing the deepest sense of pride in being African through a deepunderstanding of the pride of Africa, the mother tongue or community language, theAfrican world view, Africa’s contribution to world view, Africas contribution to worldcivilization over the ages, the nature and literature of Africa, past and presentcontemporaryAfrican’s plan for its future in the emerging global community.b) Access to a wide world of people, knowledge, techniques, ideas and practices, theofficial language and their literature mathematics, science and technology, informationtools and methods of social analysis western and orient philosophies and religion.c) Personal development for contribution to social transformation and vocationalactivities, entrepreneurship, creativity communication and interpersonal conduct, selfawareness etc.These three goals should be pushed simultaneously from the beginning with theirhorizons broadcasting in responses to the level of maturity of the learner. Elements fromany of the goals can also be utilized to inject functional value to existing programmes.According to Obanya, functional content education simply says that the situation in36
  • 37. which the child is growing and the one she/he is going to live in should determine theway education is carried out, including what is taught and how it is be taught and learned.The school is concern with the survival and advancement of the society it servesand which maintains it. The experience which it plans must be acknowledge as veryimportant operations in five respects.First, the determination of educational directions is very vital very manyexperience are upon to human beings in any community some are worthwhile; others arenot. Being aware of these experience and selecting the ones that should be offered tolearners is a primary function of curriculum development. The first exercise also involvesdetermining the type of society people expect and the type of experience that will preparethe individual member to build the expected environment for growth.The second function of curriculum is to help determine the principle andprocedures which will help educators in selecting and arranging instructionalprogrammes.The third function is the application with a view to bringing about the expectedgoals. The fourth function of curriculum is to examine and determine what change havebeen brought about as a result of the educational effort and whether or not these havebeen along the expected ends or goals. If efforts are not to be wasted, it is helpful, atevery stage to determine how much of the expected condition has been attained.The fifth function which is the determination of what action should, in the light ofwhat has been attained, and should be taken next.37
  • 38. These functions of curriculum represent the basic components in the sequence ofcurriculum development. Curriculum development is process of implementing thetheoretical plan to attain educational ends.Functional education state that the purpose of education is acquire skills ofadapting to it and acting to influence it thereby contributing to its development. The laterfunctions require specific skills which education should seek to inculcate. According toObanya (2004). The nation of functional skills education has already been applied tovarious aspects of education. In basic literacy programs, it refers to the application ofreading and writing to solving day to day problems including the improvement of onesliving conditions. In the education of people with disabilities, it refers to the skillsrequired to overcome disabilities required to consolidate the habits of scientific behavior.In the training of teachers, its means the aptitudes and abilities needed to promotelearning to get the best out of learner.The conceptual framework of the present study was to show the symbioticrelationship between curriculum package, its implementation. The youth acquires skillsfor self employment and becomes economically empowered leading to self improvementand the growth of the economy and national development. This is represented in figurebelow:38
  • 39. (Independent Variable) (Dependent Variable)InterveningInput Variables 1stOutput 2ndOutputEffectiveimplementationof curriculumpackage*Learnerability*Learnerinterest*Learnerresponsiveness*LearnertalentSkillacquisitionfor self-employmentand socio-economicempowermentof youthGrowth of theeconomy andnationaldevelopment2. 8 THE NEW SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUMThe announcement by the federal government that it would launch a new seniorsecondary school curriculum effective from September 2011 has sparked about what thecurriculum is expected to achieve. There are also questions about the value of a newcurriculum at a time when the existing curriculum has not even been implementation to asatisfactory level. And yet there are people who argue that a new secondary schoolcurriculum does not hold the key to Nigeria’s social and economic transformation. Thevanguard edition of Monday 14 March 2011 reported that one objective of the newcurriculum is to generate secondary school graduates engaging in jobs that help to reducepoverty, create employment opportunities and therefore generate national wealth.The executive secretary of Nigeria educational research and development council(NERDC) professor Godwill Obiema, said student would be required to study fivecompulsory courses including English, mathematics, computer studies, information and39
  • 40. communication technologies as well as one trade or professional subject from a list of 34official trade subjects. He said “by June 2014, graduates from the SSCE are expected toposses relevant ICT skills and enterprises culture and become well prepared for theirworld of work or higher education as may be applicable.”Secondary school must be exposed to new technologies if they have to learn howto use the technologies after graduation. Teacher must also be trained in order to equipthem with the skill necessary to train the students. A major obstacle is how to removeinstitutional and situational barrier that prevent students and teachers from accessing newtechnologies. In Nigeria there are serious barricades to communication technology use ineducational and socio economic contexts these obstacles reflects problems associatedwith lack of infrastructure support lack of access to technologies, lack of trainingopportunities and skill development and the overall perception of technologies as statussymbols. Can we really equip secondary schools with computers for example, when wecannot guarantee stable electricity supply? The assumption seems to be that ifgovernment acquire a couple of desktops and laptop and distributes these in schools, wecould be right on the way to technological transformation.Some people have agued that there is no need to change the existing secondaryeducation curriculum. They believe that significant improvements should be made to thelevel of funding and infrastructure support provided to schools both of which should helpto advance teaching and learning in secondary schools.40
  • 41. Other critics of the new curriculum also point to factors that could undermine theobjectives of the new curriculum such as poor salaries and allowances that are paid toteachers, disruption in the academic calendar changes of education ministers which donot provide sufficient time for planning and implementation of new programmes. Lack ofcould undermine the new secondary education curriculum.Secondary school education in Nigeria should be driven by a curriculum thatmakes it compulsory that primary and secondary schools must offer some basic course incomputer appreciation. Getting school students exposed to new technologies gettingschool them to appreciate the basic applications of new technologies should engage theattention of education planners. Many students at primary and secondary school level ofeducation do not know how to use computer because they don’t have them in theirschools and at home.If the essence of the new curriculum is to get students to learn specific trades andprofessional skills that there are good grounds to support the construction of newsecondary education curriculum. Educational curriculum at any level must be deemed tobe relevant of it undergoes revision that are designed to identity solution to nation’sproblems.Nigeria is a part of global community. We cannot isolate ourselves from the restof the world. Communication technologies are now the basic tools for survival in thiscentury and beyond. Secondary schools ran start by teaching students basic computerappreciation courses. It should be an accelerated computer education programme that41
  • 42. targets the young ones. Computer appreciate clubs could be formed in schools. Theprimary role of the clubs will be to teach students the essential elements of computerawareness and understanding. The public needs a lot of education and enlightenmentabout the values of communication technologies.2.9 SUMMARY OF THE NEW SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLCURRICULUMThe Federal Ministry of Education has introduced new curriculum for seniorsecondary school students starting with 2011/2012 SS1 students.The curriculum is broadly divided into three categories as: compulsory cross-cutting core subjects, field of specialization and elective. There are four fields ofspecialization as follows: Humanities, Science & Mathematics, Business Studies andTechnology. Subjects under each of the fields are as follows:42
  • 43. Core subjects Humanities Science/Math’sBusiness studies Technology1. English 1.NigerianLanguage.1. Biology 1. Accounts 1. Technicaldrawing2. Mathematics 2. lit- in eng 2. chemistry 2. Storemanagement1. 2. basis2. electricity3.3. Trade 3. Geography 3. Physics 3.Officepractice3. Metal work4. Computerstudies4.government 4. Furthermath’s4. Insurance 4. Electronics4. 5. Civic5. education5. CRS 5. Agriculture 5. commerce 5. Mechanics6. IRS 6. Physicaleducation6. buildingConstruction7. History 7. Healtheducation7. wood work8. visual art 6. 8.Home7. management9. music 9. food &Nutrition10. Arabic 10. clothing& textiles11. French12. EconomicsImplementation/Strategy1. The new curriculum takes effect from September 2011. However, the old SScurriculum is to be phased out systematically over a period of three years i.e.September 2011 to June 2014.2. All students are to offer all 5 core compulsory subjects43
  • 44. 3. Students are to choose 3 or 4 subject from their field to specialization i.e.humanities, science / math’s business studies or technology.4. Students are to choose their compulsory entrepreneurship from the available listof 35 trades.5. Student may choose one selective subjects outside their field of specializationprovided that the total number of examinable subjects is not more than nine (9)6. In summary, student must offer 5-core subject, 3-4 subjects from field ofspecialization and one selective subject. Thus, the researcher advise student tochoose from the list of subject combination below:Humanities Science/ math’s Business studiesCore subject 1. English Lang2. Mathematics3. Trade4. Computer/Ict5. Civic Edu.1. English lang.2. Mathematics3. Trade4. Computer5. Civic Edu.1. English lang.2. Mathematics3. Trade4. Computer5. Civic EducationSpecialization 6. Yoruba / French7. Lit-In- English8. Government9. Geo/Agri/F&N6. Biology7. Physics8. chemistry9. Further math’s6. Account7.Insurance8. Commerce9. Further math’sElective 10. CRS/eco/ v.artMusic10. Td/F&N / agric 10. EconomicsThe entrepreneurship: According to the new curriculum, every student mustchoose one trade from a list of 35 trades. However, after much consultation, the school44
  • 45. has carefully selected two trade from which every student can make a choice. These are:Carpentry & Joinery and Garment making.The researcher, sincerely hope that this summary notes would go a long way togive a brief explanation of the new curriculum as well as the view of the school.45
  • 46. CHATER THREERESEARCH METHODOLOGYINTRODUCTIONThis chapter deals with the method used in carrying out this research work that isthe effective implementation of the new senior secondary school curriculum in therealization of educational objective (A case study of some selected senior secondaryschool in Obafemi Owode local government area of Ogun state).3.1 DESIGN OF THE STUDYA descriptive research was used in carry out this study a descriptive research isone that give a vivid description of a situation and event or an area of interest. To achievethis the research employs the use of questionnaire with a view of obtaining adequateinformation from the respondents.3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDYFor the purpose of this study, the researcher made use of ten selected seniorsecondary schools in Obafemi /Owode local government area in Ogun state. Ten teachersfrom each school were randomly selected to give a total of hundred respondents46
  • 47. 3.3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURESFor the facts that it is not possible to give questionnaire to all the teachers of theten selected secondary school, one hundred teachers were randomly selected ten (5) fromeach school. That is out of the total population of each school five teachers representedthe total population.3.4 RESEACH INSTRUMENTThe research instrument use for the purpose of this study is the questionnaire. It ismade up of 20 items this instrument was chosen by the researcher to be able to geteffective implementation of the new senior secondary school curriculum (NSSSC) in therealization of educational objectives.The rating scales were:Agreed (A)Strongly Agreed (A)Disagreed (D)Strongly Disagreed (S.D)3.5 VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENTThe questionnaires were well constructed and were distributed to the teachers ofthe 10 selected secondary schools. The teachers were adequately questionnaire wasadministered. Therefore this instrument is valid for this study. Five (5) students were47
  • 48. selected from each of the five schools to give a total number of fifty (50) teachers in all.Hence it is believed that the response of this teacher should be able to determine theeffective implementation of the new senior secondary school curriculum (NSSSC) in therealization of educational objectives.3.6 RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENTThis research instrument is questionnaire, it is reliable because the researchquestion were well constructed to suit the topic and also it deals with the effectiveimplementation of new senior secondary school curriculum (NSSSC) in the realization ofeducational objectives.Hence with the response of all the fifty (50) teacher from the selected secondary schools,it is assumed that the effective implementation of secondary school curriculum and itsrealization on educational objective will be adjudged.3.7 ADMINISTRATION OF INSTRUMENTIn administrating the research instrument, the following steps were taking; theresearcher visited the various schools on different occasions. This is to familiarize herselfwith the teaching staff before administering the questionnaire to themThe questionnaire were strictly administered among the senior secondary school teachersof each of the selected school in Obafemi Owode local government area of Ogun state.48
  • 49. 3.8 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTIONThe instrument used is questionnaire. The teacher who answered the questionwere randomly selected from their classes. The teachers also took part in distributing andadministering the questionnaire to other teachers. They were educated on the purpose ofthe research report and how to fill the questionnaire. They were further told to work ontheir own and be honest, fair and also to give the right information about themselves thismeasure enable the teacher to provide accurate information to be reliable.3.9 PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED DURING DATA COLLECTIONThe researcher encountered some problems during data collection. The first visitto school was fruitless because that day was the mid term break, money and time waswasted. Another problem is that, at first class teachers were busy during the distributionof the questionnaire; they do not know what to do. The researcher had to consult the headteacher for them to suspend their lesson that period to fill the questionnaire and continuethe lesson later.49
  • 50. CHAPTER FOURDATA ANALSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS4.1 INTRODUCTIONThis chapter presents the results of data collected from respondents, with differenttable showing the responses of the respondents.4.2 RESEARCH QUESTION / HYPOTHESES ANALSIS AND RESULTSTable 1: Students who have completed the secondary education wish to continue withhigher education.X 4 3 2 1F 35 45 70 50 200Fx 140 125 140 50 455x 2.27The above table revealed that the calculated x value of 2.27 is less than the tablevalue of 5.0. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationshipbetween the new senior secondary school curriculum and students who wish to continuewith higher education is rejected. This implies that there is a significant relationshipbetween the new senior secondary school curriculum and students who wish to continuehigher education.50
  • 51. Table 2: students do not have necessary skills to empower themselvesX 4 3 2 1F 40 78 36 46 200Fx 160 234 72 46 512x 2.56The above table revealed that the calculated x value of 2.56 is less than thedecision rule value of 5.0 therefore, the null hypothesis that there is no significantrelationship between the new senior secondary school curriculum and students who donot have necessary skills to empower themselves is rejected. As a result of this, there is asignificant relationship between the new senior secondary school curriculum and studentswho do not have necessary skills to empower themselves.Table 3: Secondary education seem inadequate to make school leavers competent and selfreliantX 4 3 2 1F 30 51 51 68 200Fx 120 153 102 68 443x 2.21Since the calculated x value of 2.21 is less than the decision rule of 5.0 therefore,the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the new seniorsecondary curriculum and the significant relationship between the new senior secondary51
  • 52. school curriculum and the secondary education which seems inadequate to make schoolleavers competent self reliant is rejected. As a result of this there is a significantrelationship between the new senior secondary school curriculum and secondaryeducation which seems inadequate to make school leavers competent and self reliant.Table 4: The possible solution to the employable youth can raise the economicproductivity of the country.X 4 3 2 1F 61 13 34 32 200Fx 244 219 68 32 563x 2.82The above table revealed that the calculated x value of 2.82 is less than decisionrule value of 5.0 therefore, the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationshipbetween the new senior secondary school curriculum and the solution to theunemployable youth that can raise the economic productivity of the country is rejected.This indicates that there is significant relationship between the new senior secondaryschool curriculum and the solution to the unemployable youth that can raise the economicof the country.Table 5: Does the new senior secondary school curriculum has impact on education52
  • 53. X 4 3 2 1F 87 59 19 35 200Fx 348 177 38 35 598x 2.99The above table shows that the calculate x value of 2.99 is less than 5.0 value ofthe decision rule. The null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between thenew senior secondary school curriculum and it’s impact on education is rejected. Thusthere is significant relationship between the new senior secondary school curriculum andits impact on education.4.3 DISCUSSION OF RESULTThis section aims at discussing the result of the finding of the research with oneview of giving meaningful interpretation to them. Consequently, each hypothesis isdiscussed in relation to the data presented with a view of accepting or rejecting suchhypothesis.HYPOTHESIS ONEThis finding indicates that the new senior secondary school curriculum could bemore relevant with students who have completed the secondary education and wish tocontinue with higher education. This is probably because with the effective53
  • 54. implementation of the new senior secondary curriculum students who completed thesecondary education would have acquire more skill appropriate for them to continue withhigher education. My finding support Obanya (200) who contends that effectivecurriculum is the one that reflects what the learner eventually from the educational;experience, which he termed “the learned curriculum” and that infrastructural facilitiesare viewed to see how they influence curriculum implementation in Nigeria secondaryeducation.HYPOTHESIS TWOThe finding revealed that students do not have necessary skill to empowerthemselves. The new senior secondary curriculum could enhance learner ability andinterest in order to inculcate in them the skill acquisition for self employment and socioeconomic empowerment. There are many desirable attributes of the new senior secondaryschool curriculum which are concerned with students who do not have necessarySkill to empower themselves. There is a symbiotic relationship between the curriculumpackage, the implementation and the youth who acquire skill for self employment andbecomes economically empower leading to self improvement and the growth of theeconomy and national developmentHYPOTHESIS THREE54
  • 55. This finding indicates that the new senior secondary school curriculum could berelevant in making school leavers competent and self reliant. It was found out that thepurpose of education is to acquire skills of adapting to it and acting to influence it therebycontributing to its development (Obanya 2004). Therefore the relationship between thenew school leavers is to enhance competency and self reliant. The new senior secondaryschool curriculum is therefore advised to be implemented to put up more programmes tofacilitate competency and self reliant.HYPOTHESIS FOURThis finding shows that the new senior secondary school curriculum could beused to provide solution to the unemployed youth who can raise the economicproductivity of the country. Adekoya (2004) examined the influence of practical skillacquisition and socio economic empowerment of youth in Nigeria. This implies that thejoblessness of the Nigeria youth stems from their non acquisition of skills. In the newsenior secondary school curriculum, student are expected to possess at the end of theirstudies, practical knowledge and professional skills that could be usefully applied to thesocio – economic development of the nation.HYPOTHESIS FIVE55
  • 56. This finding indicates that the new senior secondary school curriculum could haveimpact of Nigeria education. The new curriculum is to make secondary school graduatessufficiently equipped for tertiary education, and also to make technologies widelyaccessible to secondary school students and teachers. The effective implementation of thenew curriculum could lead to the secondary school leavers engaged in jobs that help toreduce poverty and create employment opportunities.4.4 SUMMARY OF FINDINGSThis study is the effective implementation of the new senior secondary school curriculumin the realization of educational objectives.The findings of this study include the followings:1) There is a significant relationship between the new senior secondary schoolcurriculum and students who wish to continue with higher education.2) There is a significant relationship between the new senior secondary schoolcurriculum and students who don’t have necessary skills to empower themselves.3) There is a significant relationship between the new senior secondary schoolcurriculum and the secondary education which seems inadequate to make schoolleaver competent and self – reliant.4) There is a significant relationship between the new senior secondary schoolcurriculum and the solution to the unemployable youth that can raise theeconomic productivity of the country.56
  • 57. 5) There is significant relationship between the new senior secondary schoolcurriculum and its impact on educationCHAPTER FIVE5.1 INTRODUCTION57
  • 58. This chapter summarizes the implications of the study, recommendation and suggestionsfor further studies.5.2 IMPLICATION OF THE STUDYThe implication of this study include the following:1) Since this study found positive relationship between new senior secondary schoolcurriculum and students who wish to continue with higher education, therefore, studentsshould have clear knowledge of the concept of the new curriculum, then take greaterdelight in it and make it more functional in their respective schools2) Another interesting aspect of my finding is that positive relationship was foundbetween the new senior secondary school curriculum and students who do not havenecessary skills to empower themselves. It is therefore mandatory to implement the newcurriculum in other to provide adequate opportunity for skill learning and practicalexperience needed for self-employment.3) It was also revealed that there was a positive relationship between the new seniorsecondary school curriculum and the secondary education which seems inadequate tomake school leavers competent and self-reliant. Each school is required to include arange of skill based subject to cater for individual differences and designed to makestudents competent and self-reliant.58
  • 59. 4) This study found that the new senior secondary school curriculum might be thepossible solution to the unemployable youth that can raise the economic productivity ofthe country, if it is well implemented.5) This study found a significant relationship between the new senior secondarycurriculum and its impact on education. Therefore private and public schools shouldwork hand in hand to foster growth in Nigeria education by ensuring proper developmentof students potentials and providing conducive learning environment necessary forachieving the goals of the new curriculum.5.3 RECOMMENDATIONResults of the research study reveled several remarkable findings based on the findings,the following recommendation were made:1) The Federal and State Government should make it a point of duty to build infractural facilities including functional workshops in all senior secondary schools acrossthe nation with adequate provision of workshop equipment, instructional materials andtools to make teaching and learning of skill based trade subject meaningful. This waystudents will have the opportunity to engage in practical works, which is the major aspectof the curriculum.59
  • 60. 2) Students should be encourage to have interest in the skill based (vocational andtechnical) subjects, hence should be accorded appropriate recognition. There is need for achange in the mind set of youth to see self employment as an option and be preparedpsychological and emotionally for it. This will enable them to be more motivated inidentifying entrepreneurial opportunities.3) With the recent emphasis on the need the youth self employment, the FederalGovernment is equally expected to create the enabling environment that will promoteentrepreneurship by ensuring constant power supply in the country, without this youthwill become discouraged and return to idleness4) The best of theories in education has opined that no educational system could riseabove the level of quality of its teachers. Vocational and technical teacher must be highlytrained and acquire enough skill to be able to communicate their skills to studentseffectively.5) It is a known fact that society accord inferior status to vocational and technicaleducation. Therefore, the negative attitude of many parents toward vocational andtechnical education should be changed. Adequate enlightenment campaigns should becarried out to emphasize their importance in light of the prevailing economiccircumstance of the nation and the unemployment rate which is on the increase.6) Practical projects work in technological subjects should be made compulsory forSSS3 students as part of their requirements for graduation. Each student is to produce60
  • 61. marketable product or service and such product should be put up for exhibition. This willfurther create motivation for entrepreneurship.7) Teacher should be supported through continuing professional development andmotivation to enable them prepare the youth for success in the competitive globaleconomy.8) Parents, teachers, Principals, policy makers and other education stakeholdersshould be made aware of the findings of this study, during such fora as parent teachersassociation (PTA) meeting, town hall meeting, seminars, conferences and workshops.5.4 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEACHThe finding of this study have opened up several noteworthy areas for futureresearch some of which include:1. Research on technical & vocational institution to asses their training programmes2. Research on suitability of Nigeria environment for entrepreneurship.3. Determines of link between skill acquisition and desire for self employment.5.5 CONCLUSIONThe finding of the study revealed that the formal Nigeria secondary schoolcurriculum is fairly but not effectively implemented. Evidence yielded by the studyrevealed the following factors as the root cause of the problem: theory based teachingmethod, insufficient specialist teacher, lack of infrastructural facilities and workshop for61
  • 62. practical work lack of entrepreneurial knowledge. Further evidence yielded by the studysuggest there is seemingly gradual progression toward achieving the goals of secondaryeducation system, however the fundamental challenges as highlighted in the study shouldbe effectively addressed for the curriculum to fully equip the youth with the necessaryentrepreneurial knowledge, skills value and attitude for them to live as competentmember of the society and contribute to nation building.However, the old senior secondary school curriculum which has phased out in2011 to be replaced with the new senior secondary school curriculum(NSSSC) withstrong emphasis on the need for skill acquisition, job creation and wealth generation,among other objectives.This study is considered timely and useful in providing the much needed data thatwill assist the federal government of Nigeria through its curriculum development agency,Nigeria Educational Research and development council (NERDC) to gauge the level ofsuccess of current implementation and better able to plan towards an implementation thatwill instill basic skill in Nigeria youth to ensure their socio-economic empowerment andthe realization of educational objectives.REFERENCES62
  • 63. Adekoya, M.N., 2004, The Importance of Communication in CurriculumImplementation, Lagos: University PressAdeleke, M.H., 2006, An Appraisal of Curriculum Implementation in Nigeria, Lagos:Macus PublicationAjayi, S.N., 1999, Evaluation of Nigeria’s Educational Goals, Lagos: MemphisPublishersAjibola, M.A., 2008, Innovations and Curriculum Implementation for Basic Education inNigeria: Policy Priorities and Challenges of Practices and Implementation, ResearchJournal of International Studies. Issue 8 (November, 2008) pp 51-58Alao, N., 2001, Problems of Curriculum Content Implementation in Nigeria, Ibadan:University PressAnyanwu, S.O., 2000, Effective Curriculum Content Implementation and NigeriaEducational Goals, Ibadan; University PressBabafemi, T.O.A., 2007, An Assessment of the Implementation of the 6-3-3-4 System ofEducation in Nigeria: A Case Study of Ilorin, Kwara State.Chikumbi T.J. and Makamure, R., 2000, Curriculum Theory, Design and Assessment:The Commonwealth of Learning, Module 13, www.col.int/stamp/module13.pdf(Accessed 17 August, 2009)Dike, V.E., 2009, Technical and Vocational Education: Key to Nigeria’s Development,http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/articles/victor-dike/technical-and-vocational-education-ket-to-nigerias-development.html (Accessed 20 June, 2009)63
  • 64. Ezeobata P.A., 2007, An Evaluation of the Religious Knowledge Programme of TeacherTraining College in Anambra State, Onitsha, Nigeria: Department of Education,University of Nigeria, NsukkaFafunwa, A.B., 2002, History of Education in Nigeria, Ibadan: NPS EducationalPublishers LtdNigeria Educational Research and Development Council, The New Senior SecondarySchool Curriculum Structure at a glance September 2011Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1981, National Policy on Education, Abuja: 2ndEditionFederal Republic of Nigeria, 2004, National Policy on Education, Abuja: 4thEditionObanya, P., 2007, Thinking and Talking Education, Ibadan: Evans Brothers (NigeriaPublishers) LtdObanya, P., 2004a, The Dilemma of Education in Africa, Ibadan: Heinemann EducationalBooks Nigeria PlcObioma, G., 2009, The New 9-year Basic Education Curriculum and the newly approvedSenior Secondary School Curriculum Structure Speech Delivered by Executive SecretaryNigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) at the Sensitizationand Advocacy Workshop organized for Civil Society Organisation and the Media,Lagos, March 9-1164
  • 65. Ofoha D., Uchegbu C.N., Anyikwa B and Nkemdirin M, (2009) A Critical Appraisal ofMode of Implementation of Nigerian Secondary School Curriculum: Towards Socio-Economic Empowerment of Youth (Published Research Work)Oni, C.S., 2007, Developing Vocational Education through Computer Literacy inNigerian Junior Secondary School,http/www/ncsu.edu/meridian/simmer2007/oni/index.htm (Accessed 14 September, 2009)Puyate, S.T., 2008, Constraints to the Effective Implementation of Vocational EducationProgramme in Private Sec. Schools in Port-Harcourt Local Government Area, Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 9 (2), 59-71Urevbu, A.O., 2005, ‘The Quality of Primary Education in Nigeria: Problems andProspect for the 21stCentury’, Paper Presented at the Curriculum Organisation of Nigeria,University of BeninUyanya,, R.E., 1989, Teachers’ Motivation and Work Ethics, Nigerian Journal ofTechnical Education, 6(1), 10-15Uzodinma, M.U., 2004, Can Nigerian Effectively Implement her Curriculum Content?Owerri: Uzor Press LtdQUESTIONNAIRE65
  • 66. Tai Solarin College of Education,Omu-Ijebu (Ibafo campus),Ogun State.Dear Respondents,REQUEST FOR COMPLETION OF PROJECT QUESTIONNAIREI am a final year students of the above named institution. I am undertaking aresearch on the “Effective implementation of the New Senior Secondary SchoolCurriculum in the Realization of Educational Objectives”.It is on this note that I request you to answer the attached questionnaire. Thisexercise is solely for academic purpose. I therefore guarantee that the informationsupplied will be treated confidentially and used only for this study.Thanks for your co-operationYours faithfully,Agbonluare Rosemary.66
  • 67. QUESTIONNAIRE ON THE EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEWSENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM IN THE REALIZATION OFEDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVESSECTION APlease tick () where appropriate.1. Name of School: _______________________________________________2. Sex: Male Female3. Position: Principal Vice Principal H.O.D.Subject Teacher Class Teacher4. Qualification: M.Ed/M.Sc Ed B.Ed/B.Sc EdNCE Others5. Years of experience: 21 – 30 11-20 1 – 10SECTION BThe instrument below is a Likert rating scale questionnaire. It is designed in a four pointsrating scale, viz:SA = Strongly Agree = 4A = Agree = 3D = Disagree = 2SD = Strongly Disagree = 167
  • 68. Please tick as you deem appropriate in the column belowS/N STATEMENT SA A SD D1. Students who have completed the secondary education donot wish to continue with higher education2. Students preferred to stop at secondary school level3. Students acquired more skills appropriate for life-time insecondary school4. Secondary education is the foundation for highereducation5. Students do not have necessary skills to empowerthemselves6. Students are more expose to skills empowerment subjects7. Secondary school students are taught vocational subjects8. More students lose interest on vocational subjects9. Secondary education seems inadequate to make schoolleavers competent and self-reliant10. Secondary education is self-reliant11. Secondary education can build a self-reliant nation12. Secondary school leavers are competent in nationsbuilding13. Unemployment youth cannot raise the economicproductivity of the country14. Youth that are unemployed influence the socio-economicdevelopment of the country15. Unemployable youth are not skilled to empowerthemselves16. More youth are self-reliant through self-employment17. The new senior secondary curriculum has impact oneducational objectives18. The new senior secondary school curriculum does not68
  • 69. hold key to Nigeria socio-economic transformation19. Secondary school students are exposed to newtechnologies20. The new senior secondary school curriculum will changethe Nigeria educational system69

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