THE IMPACT OF APPLICATION OF INFORMATION  AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN   THE ADMINISTRATION OF POLYTECHNICS IN  ...
CERTIFICATIONThis is to certify that this research project entitled THE IMPACT OF APPLICATION OFINFORMATION        AND    ...
DEDICATIONThis research project is dedicated to the Holy Spirit, who has been the source of myinspiration. Also to my depe...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSMy profound gratitude goes to the Almighty God for His continual guidance, shelter,provisions and support....
career. Thank you all (Tai Solarin College of Education, Ibafo Campus, Federal College ofEducation Abeokuta, Mowe Campus a...
ABSTRACTThe study was on the Impact of Application of Information and Communication Technology(ICT) in the administration ...
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                           PageTitle page                ...
2.8    Historical background of polytechnic education in Nigeria             252.9    Application of computers to institut...
CHAPTER ONE                                     INTRODUCTION1.1    INTRODUCTIONInformation and Communications Technology (...
The availability of the internet has giving rise to an electronics approach to the educationalsystem called e-leeringTerti...
As such, the primary function of management is to take decisions facture leaching to theachievement of organizational obje...
The purpose of this study is to model a critical analysis of the impact of information andcommunication technology (ICT) i...
1.6    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYThis study is significant to the extent that findings would assists the federal and State ...
iv.    Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic Itoriv.     Gateway (ICT) polytechnic Saapade1.9    OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMSADMINI...
15
CHAPTER TWO                         REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1    INTRODUCTIONInformation and Communications Technolo...
with exactness. Information is whatever is capable of censing a human mind to change itsopinion about the current state of...
information available. The use of internet has revolutionized access to information for thebusiness world, libraries, educ...
2.3    OVERVIEW OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS       TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATIONInformation an...
ICT helps administrators to perform schools duties effectively, to increase and provideinformation to the finger tips of a...
purchases and supply. While e-procurement has impact on cost reduction, efficiency /productivity, effectiveness and transp...
especially through relevant lifelong learning programmes. They should receive specialtraining in the methods and problems ...
giving access to administrative units, faculties and                                       departments, managing computer ...
and students administrative services (Leung el-d, 2005). ICT tools such as e-tutor and e-student system could provide sign...
x.      Monitoring pupils progress      xi.     Record keeping (e.g. data base entry)      xii.    Special educational wee...
requirements, assessments, expectations and sources of help; the opportunity to enroll, payfees and complete all administr...
maintenance of supplies and materials, communication and transportation services, health andsafety.The basic principles th...
D.   Division of Labour: Since it is not possible for a head of an institution to perform all     tasks and functions alon...
against the standards so as to determine the level o efficiency and effectiveness.     Standardization serves labour and t...
polices and programmes relating to staff welfare should be incorporated to allow job       satisfaction for the members of...
iii.    LoyaltyD.     The principle of change, which are       i.      Adaptability       ii.     FlexibilityE.     Bureau...
vi.     Assisting the staff of developing themselves       vii.    Defining the tasks to be carried out       viii.   Main...
2.8    HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF POLYTECHNIC EDUCATION IN       NIGERIAOn attaining independence in 1960, the Nigeria gover...
and structure as a powerful way to change and influence people behavior. There are twomajor kinds of administrative struct...
2.9    APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS TO INSTITUTIONAL ADMINISTRATION       IN NIGERIAAdministration our charged with the respon...
iii.   World Processing: Computer offers immensurable cost relief services to       administrators in the aspect of word p...
All these are better influences by information technology2.10    RELEVANCE OF ICT TO ADMINISTRATION OF INSTITUTIONSScholar...
iv.      ICT have capacity to handle large quality of data, process them, store them and release         them when needed ...
3.3    POPULATION OF STUDYThe population consists of all Polytechnics in Ogun State Nigeria. The Polytechnics are:1.     F...
The study involved different categories of senior academic/administrative officers (Rector,Registrar, Dean of Schools, H.O...
The questionnaire was administered personally by the researcher to the personnel(administration). Before the administratio...
8+6+4+2       20          =      = 5.0   4          4                         42
CHAPTER FOUR                  DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS4.1    INTRODUCTIONThis chapter presents the results ...
Table 2: Relationship between ICT and quality of decision making in the administration ofpolytechnics       x             ...
Table 4: Relationship between ICT and administration of human resources in polytechnics       x              4            ...
Hypothesis OneThis finding indicates that information and communications technology could be morerelevant in providing sol...
Hypothesis ThreeThis finding indicates that ICT could be relevant in administrative competence of personnel inpolytechnics...
facilitate speed in data management by creating rapport faster by saving the data into digitalcontent; and saving the time...
CHAPTER FIVE                   SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1     INTRODUCTIONThis chapter summarizes the impli...
5.                            This study found the significant relationship between ICT and       speed in data management...
1.     This study was carried out in Ogun State Polytechnics. I am theefore, recommending       that a similar instrument ...
REFERENCESAbe, T.O. and Adu, E.T. (2007): Impact of Information and Communication Technology       (ICT) on Teacher Educat...
Bof F, Previtali P. (2010): National models of public (e) – procurement in Europe journal of       e-government      studi...
NOUN (2009): Application of management information systems (MIS) in education, National      Open University Press, Kaduna...
QUESTIONNAIRE                                                        Victoria Open University of Nigeria,                 ...
QUESTIONNAIRE ON THE IMPACT OF APPLICATION AND       COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF               POLY...
A      =      Agree                  =      3D      =      Disagree               =      2SD     =      Strongly Disagree ...
A      =      Agree                  =      3D      =      Disagree               =      2SD     =      Strongly Disagree ...
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Bayo soneye m.ed project

  1. 1. THE IMPACT OF APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF POLYTECHNICS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA BY SONEYE SEMIU ADEBAYO MATRIC NO: NOU100032296 A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, ABEOKUTA, INPARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTERS DEGREE IN EDUCATION DECEMBER 2012 1
  2. 2. CERTIFICATIONThis is to certify that this research project entitled THE IMPACT OF APPLICATION OFINFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN THEADMINISTRATION OF POLYTECHNIC IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA was carried out bySONEYE, Semiu Adebayo in the School of Education, National Open University of NigeriaAbeokuta for the award of Masters Degree in Education._____________________ _____________________DR. FOLAJIN, S.O. SIGNATURE / DATEPROJECT SUPERVISOR________________________ _____________________PROGRAMME LEADER SIGNATURE / DATE_____________________________ _____________________PROF. BADMUS ADEMOLA SIGNATURE / DATEDEAN SCHOOL OF EDUCATION________________________ _____________________EXTERNAL EXAMINER SIGNATURE / DATE 2
  3. 3. DEDICATIONThis research project is dedicated to the Holy Spirit, who has been the source of myinspiration. Also to my dependable wife, Mrs. Endurance Amishetu Adesayo Soneye and tomy beloved children, Adebayo Soneye (Jnr.), Adedayo Soneye and Adetayo Soneye.To number one student of National open University of Nigeria Chief Aremu OkikiolaOlusegun Obasanjo (Former President Federal Republic of Nigeria). 3
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSMy profound gratitude goes to the Almighty God for His continual guidance, shelter,provisions and support. I also wish to express my indebtedness to my loving and caringmother Mrs. Grace Abiola Soneye for her motherly advice and encouragement. I reallyappreciate your spiritual assistance and I say a big thank you. I also wish to acknowledge theefforts and concern of my darling wife Mrs. Endurance Amishetu Adesanyo Soneye and mybeloved children Adebayo Soneye (Jnr.), Adedayo Soneye and Adetayo Soneye for theirsincere passion and interest for my professional career.I am also grateful to my Senior Professional Colleagues; Dr. Farayola of Adeniran OgunsanyaCollege of Education Otta Ijanmt in Lagos. Mr. Kunle Aina (Residence Supervisor) TaiSolarin College of Education, Ibafo Campus, Pastor Odumo (Co-ordinator) Federal College ofEducation Osiele Abeokuta Mowe Campus, Mr. Oke (Principal) Community High SchoolIbafo, Ogun State for there support and encouragement.My sincere appreciation goes to my Project Supervisor Dr. S.O. Folajin for his guidance,encouragement, corrections, suggestions and opinion which were quite informed andenhanced the quality of this research project. Also, I appreciate the concern and contributionof my past and present counselor Mrs. Omotayo (NOUN Lagos Centre), Dr. (Mrs.) Aina(NOUN Abeokuta Centre).Finally, I wish to express my appreciation to all my past and present students at variousoutreach centre for their contributions and support towards the realization of my profession 4
  5. 5. career. Thank you all (Tai Solarin College of Education, Ibafo Campus, Federal College ofEducation Abeokuta, Mowe Campus and Moshood Abiola Polytechnic Mowe Campus.May the good Lord continue to grant you knowledge, wisdom and understanding in all yourendeavours Amen. 5
  6. 6. ABSTRACTThe study was on the Impact of Application of Information and Communication Technology(ICT) in the administration of Polytechnic in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study populationcomprised 5 polytechnics in Ogun State, Nigeria. These polytechnic were one FederalPolytechnic, one State owned Polytechnic, one Private owned Polytechnic and two ICTPolytechnics. Sixty subjects were randomly selected from the population. However, relatedliteratures were reviewed from textbooks, journals and past researches. The researchinstruments were questionnaire which was statically analyzed with contingency tables whilethe hypotheses were both tested at 0.05 level of significance using the mean statistic. It wasdiscovered that there is a significant relationship between Information and CommunicationsTechnology (ICT) and the administration of polytechnic. Therefore, the finding revealed thatthe proprietors of polytechnics (Federal Government, State Government and privateindividuals) should procure more ICT facilities and equipment to enhance efficiency andeffectiveness in polytechnic administration of polytechnic. This study suggested thatadministrators of polytechnics should place greater emphasis on ICT in their respectiveinstitutions to foster capacity building of human resources, material resources and financialresources. 6
  7. 7. TABLE OF CONTENTS PageTitle page iCertification iiDedication iiiAcknowledgement ivAbstract viTable of contents viiCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1.1 Introduction 11.2 Rationale / theoretical frame work 21.3 Statement of the problem 31.4 Purpose of the study 41.5 Research questions / hypothesis 41.6 Significance of the study 51.7 Limitations of the study 51.8 Dedication of the study 51.9 Operation definitions of terms 6CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1 Introduction 82.2 Basic concepts of information and communications technology 82.3 Overview of information and communications technology application in educational administration 112.4 Application of information and communications technology in polytechnic financial administration 122.5 Applicability of information and communications technology (ICT) In students and staff administration 152.6 Administration and Basic principles of administration 182.7 Leadership role of institutional administrator 23 7
  8. 8. 2.8 Historical background of polytechnic education in Nigeria 252.9 Application of computers to institutional administration in Nigeria 272.10 Relevance of ICT to administration of institutions 29CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 Introduction 313.2 Research Design 313.3 Population of Study 313.4 Sampling Procedure 323.5 Instrumentation 323.6 Data Collection 333.7 Data Analysis Techniques 33CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS4.1 Introduction 354.2 Research Questions/Hypotheses analysis and results 354.3 Discussion of results 384.4 Summary of findings 40CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1 Introduction 425.2 Implication of the study 425.3 Recommendation 435.4 Suggestions for further studies 435.5 Conclusion 44 References 45 Questionnaire (Appendix) 48 8
  9. 9. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION1.1 INTRODUCTIONInformation and Communications Technology (ICT) is technology that supports activitiesinvolving the creation, storage manipulation and communication of information, together withthe related methods, management and application.In other words, ICT enables us to record, store, process, and retriever and transmitinformation. It encompasses modern technology technologies such as computer,telecommunication, facsimile and micro-electronics. Older technologies such as documentfilling systems, mechanical accenting machines, printing and care drawings are also includedin the term information technology. Information and communication technology in today’sworld refers to those technologies that determine the efficiency and effectiveness with whichwe communication and the devices that allow us to handle information.Information and communication Technology (ICT) has becomes a key tool in acquiring,processing and disengaging knowledge.It has becomes an imperative tool for investing developing of a nation in the 21 st century therevolutionary impact of ICT on all sphere of the society has not spared the educational sector.Education is a pre- requisite of today knowledge-based economy the production and use ofnew knowledge required a more educated population, ICT is playing a major role theacquisition and diffusion of knowledge which are fundamental aspects of the educationprocess. It is offerings increasing possibilities absent teaching and for invocation in teachingactivities through being able to deliver learning cognitive activities any where at anytime. 9
  10. 10. The availability of the internet has giving rise to an electronics approach to the educationalsystem called e-leeringTertiary educational institutions have always being at the fore front of new scientificdiscoveries and innovation brought about by the activities of teaching learning and research.E-learning is becoming increase singly primmest in tertiary education, e-learning is beingdelivered on the platforms of ICT infrastructure promise to widen access to education and atreduced cost, Apart from electronics learning ICT infrastructure are being widely use tosupport teaching, learning, administration and research activities in tertiary instillation, suchinfrastructure include personal computers, specialized software, handheld devices, interactivevolute board, intranet and visual literary.1.2 RATIONALE / THEORETICAL FRAME WORKThe internet is now widely used as a medium of communications arrange administrationresearchers and student in higher institutions. There are many desirable attributes ofinformation communication of information and technology (ICT). Each of them concerns theeffective prevision of information to the recipient. These include purpose accuracy factorial,volume of information volume of detail and presentation of informationThe term Administration is regarded as the process of utilizing human and imperial resourcesin accomplishing designating objectives; this could be done by organization, direction co-coordinating and evaluating programmer in a bid to actives goals or objectives. In a suchsocial process, there is always a structure inerrably comprising the subordinates and superordinals 10
  11. 11. As such, the primary function of management is to take decisions facture leaching to theachievement of organizational objectives. The types of decisions management malies willdetermine it information needs, however the numerous crises in they are higher instatementcould have been prevents if information and communication Technology will promote issueson student admission student records and transcript examination records and transcript,examination records, teaching, research and community services it has also been observedthat the monitoring and evaluation of staff, physical plant planning curriculum development,financial management and information dissemination will increase the efficiency of thepolytechnic administration, if information and communication Technology facilities areadequately and properly initialized.1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMThe basic problem of this study is to examine the relational between information (ICT) andadministration of polytechnicsi. ICT can be applied directly to provide solution to specific administration problemsii. ICT enhances qualitative and quantitative decision-molding and information managementiii. ICT encourages skill acquisition and competency of administratingiv. ICT guarantees effective administrative practices in record keeping, information management, personal administrant and resource allocation.v. ICT here capacity to hurdle quality of date, process them, solve them, process them, store them and release them when needed even at the fastest speed.1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 11
  12. 12. The purpose of this study is to model a critical analysis of the impact of information andcommunication technology (ICT) in the administration of polytechnic in Ogun State Nigeriamoreover ICT have substantial roles to play in network institutional administration ofpolytechnics in Nigeria.1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS / HYPOTHESESThis study will make use of these various research questions / hypotheses below:i. Does ICT provide solution to specific problems of administration?ii. Does ICT enhance qualitative and quantitative decision-making in the administration of polytechniciii. Does ICT encourages shill acquisition and competency of administrationiv. Does ICT guarantees effective administration practices of human and in trial resources?v. Does ICT have capacity to handle quantity of date for processing with fastest speed?H01. There is no significant relationship between information and communications technology and solving administration problem.H02. There is no significant relationship between information and communications and quality of decision marking in the administrative of polytechnics.H03. There is no significant relationship between information and communications technology and administrative competence in polytechnics.H04. There is no significant relationship between information and communications technology and administration of human resources in polytechnicsH05. There is no significant relationship between information and communications technology and speed in data management in polytechnics. 12
  13. 13. 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYThis study is significant to the extent that findings would assists the federal and State ministryof education, National Education Agencies and Foreign and International bodies inimplementing its educational policies and compliance with E-leering and E-administration ofpolytechnics, moreover, this study is amide el-sealing sometimes to the implementation andapplication of the impact of information and communications of polytechnics in Ogun StateNigeria.1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYThis research is concluded within the frame wary of the state objectives it is not indented tocarry out a complete evaluation of the impact of application of information andcommunication technology in the administration of polytechnics of Ogun State, NigeriaDue to time and francium constraints, the researcher would do the questionnaireadministration on selected polytechnics in Ogun State, Nigeria.1.8 SCOPE / DELIMITATION OF THE STUDYThis study is restricted to the impact of application of Information and CommunicationTechnology in the administration of polytechnics in Ogun State Nigeria. However the scopeof this research work would be invited to an assessment of five selected polytechnics theselected polytechnics and listed below:i. Federal polytechnic Ilaroii. Moshood Abiola Polytechnic Ojereiii. Allover Central Polytechnic Ota 13
  14. 14. iv. Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic Itoriv. Gateway (ICT) polytechnic Saapade1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMSADMINISTRATION: is a social process concerned with identifying maintaining,motivating, controlling and unifying formally organized human and material resources withinan integrate system designed specifically to activate predetermined objectives.APPLICATION: is the usage of computer software designed to assist the users to performspecific task related to records keeping and retrieval.ELECTRONIC ACCOUNTING: Is conceded with the possibility of captioning transactionson-line which is measured, recognized and reported electronically.ELECTRONIC LEARNING: (E-learning) is an electronic delivery and administration oflearning opportunities and support via computer network and web-based technology.ELECTRONIC PROCUREMENT: is a collective term for a range of different technologicthat can be used to annotate the internal and external process associated with the saucing andordering process of goods and service.INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: This is refers to thosetechnologies that determine the efficiency and effectiveness with which we communicate andthe devices that allow us handle information.POLYTECHNIC: This is an instruction concerned with the provision of technicalknowledge and vocational sculls necessary for the world of word to increase opportunity forproductive worth and sustainable livelihood. 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1 INTRODUCTIONInformation and Communications Technology or information and communication technology,usually abbreviated as (ICT), is often used as an extended synonym for informationtechnology (IT), but is usually a more general term that stresses the role of unifiedcommunications and the integration of telecommunications such as telephone lines andwireless signals, as well as necessary software, storage and audio-visual systems, whichenable users to create access, stone transmits and manipulate information. In other words, ICTconsists of IT as well as telecommunication, broadcast media all types of audio and videoprocessing and transmission and network based control and monitoring functions.The term ICT was first used in 1997 in a report by Dennis Stevenson to the UK governmentand promoted by the new National Curriculum documents for the UK in 2000.2.2 BASIC CONCEPTS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGYInformation and Communications Technology (ICT), is a composite term which embodiesthree important concepts. To understand all the three concepts, Information means manythings to many people, depending on the context. Scientifically, information is processed data.Information is processed data. Information can also be loosely defined as that which aidsdecision making. Information through abstract, could also be visualized as a commodity,which could be bought or sold. According to (de Walterville and Gilbert 2000) definesinformation as any potentially useful fact, quantity or value that can be expressed uniquely 16
  17. 17. with exactness. Information is whatever is capable of censing a human mind to change itsopinion about the current state of the real world.Communication refers to the transfer or exchange of information from person to person orfrom one place to another. When an action produces a reaction, whether positive or negative,communication has taken place. Other writers in the field of communication studies havedefined communications as: a process, a transfer of information, ideas, thoughts andmessages. It involves a sender, a receiver, a cattle and a language that is understood by boththe sender and the receiver. A process involving the passing of messages through the use ofsymbols which all parties in the communication encounter understand. It involves theexchange of ideas facts opinions attitudes and beliefs between people. It is not a one-wayaffair. There must be a sender to transmit the message and receiver to make appropriatedecisions on how the rest of the exchange should continue (James et al, 2004).Technology refers to the use of scientific knowledge in invent tools that assist human beingsin their efforts to overcome environmental hazards and impediments to comfort. In thisregard, technology refers to the things like the computer, telephone, cell phone, GSM handset,television, radio etc. the acquisition, analysis, manipulation, storage and distribution ofinformation, and the design and provision of equipment and software for these purposes (deWatterville and Gilbert 2000). Thus, ICT and information technology (IT) are similarconcepts that can be used interchangeably. IT implies communications and therefore itbecomes obvious that the two terms are synonymous.Internet, according to Hargiltai (1999) defines the internet technically and functionally asfollows: “the internet is a worldwide network of computers, but sociologically it is alsoimportant to consider it as a network of people using computers that make vast amounts of 17
  18. 18. information available. The use of internet has revolutionized access to information for thebusiness world, libraries, education and individuals. A few of the most popular include E-mail(electronic mail), World Wide Web (WWW) FTP (File Transfer Protocol) use net and Telnet.The internet and its technology continues to have a profound effect in promoting the sharingof information especially in academic world, making possible rapid transactions amongbusiness, and supporting global collaboration among individuals and organizations.World Wide Web (WWW) can be described as a literary of resources available to computerusers through the global internets. It enables users to view a wide variety of informationincluding magazine, archives, public and college library resources and current world andbusiness news. WWW researchers are organized so that users can easily move from oneresource to another.However, information and communication technology or information and communicationtechnologies are sometimes used with technologies in the plural. Originally, only informationand communications technology (with communications in the plural) was considered correctsince ICT refers to communications (in the sense of a method, technology or system ofsending and receiving information specifically telephone lines, computers and networks) notcommunication. The act of sending or receiving information by speaking, writing, phoning,emailing, etc. information and communications technology is professionally acclaimed termsused in any research work. 18
  19. 19. 2.3 OVERVIEW OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATIONInformation and communications technology (ICT) are indispensable tools in theadministration of polytechnic education. Electronic management (e-management) facilitatesdecision making in an organization.(Hastim et al 2010) development of ICT in administration of schools as suggested byinternational institute for communication and development (IICD) “needs to be strengthenedin order to manage and plan activities more effectively. Information is mostly in hardcopyformat and is not easily accessibly. Data about teachers’ salaries, students grade, the numberof pupils peer class and statistical information in general and scattered and are not readilyavailable” (IICD 2007).School administrators need to be equipped with knowledge, competencies and should have adeep understanding of educational and social dimension of ICT integration. Educationalunderstanding or dimension includes application of ICT in curricular, technical managementand financial aspects, while social dimension referred to understanding how ICT are appliedin day-to-day social interaction (Tinio 2003).Studies on the application of ICT in the administration of education reveals majorachievements; a study on the use of e-learning software among future school heads ineducational management and leadership reveals that e-headship succeeded in promotingteaching ad learning strategies to a higher degree (Moh’d et al, 2009). E-school managementsystem application has been perceived by it users (Rectors, administrative staff and lecturers)to help create the report faster by saving the data into the digital contents and saving the timeto preparing the lecture note. 19
  20. 20. ICT helps administrators to perform schools duties effectively, to increase and provideinformation to the finger tips of administrator and build very conducive atmosphere for work.2.4 APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY IN POLYTECHNIC FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATIONThe record of purchases, budget, grants administration, cash flow, audit and other financialtransactions carried proper documentation for reference purpose. These records were kept inhardcopies before the introduction of ICT. Fortunately, the availability and accessibility ofICT and their integration in financial sector makes it possible and easy for accountants andfinancial administrators to process all transaction online via the system called an e-accounting. Electronic accounting (e-accounting) as the name implies, makes it possible fortransactions to be captured, measures, recognized and reported electrically (Razae el at 2009).E-procurement is another new paradigm taking lead into financial administration as a result ofdevelopment in information technology. E-procurement according to Bof and Prevatali(2010) “is a collective term for a range of different technologies that can be sued to automatethe internal and external processes associated with the sourcing and ordering process of goodsand services”. They further states that “on-line purchases and payment for goods and servicesin virtual market constitute crucial elements of e-procurement. Successful adoption leads topotential benefits, which include the reduction of transaction costs, operational efficienciesand a better foundation for decision making”. considering the specialized nature ofpolytechnic systems, and its peculiarity in terms of requirement for different varieties oftraining materials or consumables, e-procurement system can fit and beneficial in dealing with 20
  21. 21. purchases and supply. While e-procurement has impact on cost reduction, efficiency /productivity, effectiveness and transparency, its adaptation in polytechnic system is essential.Development of ICT in polytechnic administration using tools such as e-accounting and e-procurement will to a greater extent make significant impact on the growth and developmentof the programme. “The benefits of e-procurement in public organizations will be the follow:1. Accelerations of execution of procedures2. Reducing the time of the purchasing process3. Reducing the expenses of announcements management4. Simplification of process, resulting from a re-engineering of such process5. The direct and constant monitoring of public spending by conducting comparative analysis between the purchasing of similar products in different administrations.6. Professional growth of employees7. The opportunity to spend time out of routinely administration tasks (automated by new tools) through activities with higher adopted value to the functions specific purchases (e.g. marketing intelligence)8. A major transparency due to the uniformity of access to information without discrimination since the tender documents are online, to the standardization of procedures to ensure that processes can be more easily controlled toy external actors in time and according to the quality of services provided in that each supplier will not be discriminated against (for example information asymmetries)” (Bof and Previtali, 2010).The above benefits are in line with UNESCO and ILO (2002) recommendations that“administrators should keep up to date with new administrative techniques and friends, 21
  22. 22. especially through relevant lifelong learning programmes. They should receive specialtraining in the methods and problems associated with the specific features of polytechnicprogrammes such as flexible entry and re-entry patterns, continuous training in the workplace,and relevance to the needs of the world of work. This preparation should include:a. Management methods appreciated to educational administration, including techniques that utilize information and communications technologyb. Financial planning methods that facilitate the allocation of available resources, given the objectives and priorities of the various programmes and ensure their efficient utilization.c. Contemporary human resources management and development methods (UNESCO and ILO 2002).ADMINISTRATIVE USES OF ICT USE OF ICT SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS Accounting Budgeting, purchasing, grants administrations, cash flow, account receivable, account payable, audits Staff administrative services Human resources management assessing staffing needs, recruiting staff, monitoring staff performance, keeping records, communicating with staff. Human resources development conducting needs assessment, needs analyses and training needs analyses, delivery and assessing employee training Student administrative services Recruiting and selecting students, advising students, supporting prior learning assessment and recognition, registration, recording attendance and fee payment. Support services Providing programme information calendar featuring programme and course descriptions, pre-requisites and other requirements, keeping records to comply with freedom of access to information, maintaining web site, 22
  23. 23. giving access to administrative units, faculties and departments, managing computer and e-mail accounts for facilities and students. Research and evaluation Conducting institutional research, programme evaluation and student assessment of facultires, statistical analyses.Source: chinien (2003)2.5 APPLICABILITY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN STUDENTS AND STAFF ADMINISTRATIONStudents administrative services using information technology application packages are toonumerous to mention in this area of ICT dispensation. Its application into both applied andphysical science is evident in the wealth of literature on ICT. Information andcommunications technology simplify the administrative support levels of their academic invarious levels of their academic pursuit. Students services like records, admission /recruitment, class schedules, attendance, registration, time tabling and accessing result can berealized via network of computers and other communication avenues called student portal(Horn and Siew 2011).The inventory management, personal records maintenance and library systems are areas thatare mostly affected in the field of technical and vocational education and training. This isessence connected to the peculiar nature of the field and its desire to prepare worker withcertain competencies and employability seals. Facilities managements, tools and equipmentinventory and workshop schedules make it necessary for polytechnics to deploy and fullyintegrate ICT in its day-to-day operations, students of polytechnics should be able to book fortools and machineries needed to carry out certain experiments online or by using ICT.Therefore, polytechnic institutions should have to embrace the use of technology in both staff 23
  24. 24. and students administrative services (Leung el-d, 2005). ICT tools such as e-tutor and e-student system could provide significant atmosphere in the preparation of technical educationgraduate to face the challenges for the world to work in the 21st century (Seng 2007).Several ICT and computer aided administration application packages highly enriched withcurrent and emerging technologies are readily available and can be found to support studentsactivities in schools and colleges. Among these latest ICT tools, radio frequency identification(RFID) system appeared to be one. According to Akpir and Kaptan (2010), “RFID is a termthat is used to describe a system that transmits the identity of an object or person in the formof a unique serial numbers using radio waves. Apart from its numerous applications that aidacross human endeavour, RFID application in educational administration includes “automaticperson identification system (APIS), class / laboratory. literary attendance management, static/ dynamic authorization, submission of workings / announcement and e-money usage.The following are ways in which teachers use ICT to support their work:A. Resources / material preparation i. Lesson planning ii. Report writing iii. Curriculum planning iv. As a lesson resources (e.g. website) v. Time tabling vi. School policy development vii. Reprographics / photocopying viii. Presentation of demonstrations ix. Marking and assessment 24
  25. 25. x. Monitoring pupils progress xi. Record keeping (e.g. data base entry) xii. Special educational weeds coordination xiii. Development planning xiv. Exam entries and results xv. Records of achievement xvi. Extra curriculum activitiesB. Registration i. Staff appraisal / supervision or monitoring ii. Monitoring attendance iii. On-line communities iv. Financial records v. Continuing professionals development / training vi. Budgeting vii. Partnership links (contact outside the school) viii. Pupil contact (for example, council / internet) ix. Staff contact (for example arranging though email / internet) x. On-line purchasing of services and / or goodsC. Parent / Career Contact (for examples, e-mail) Source: Selwood (2005).ICT network enables students to have access to course materials and support servicesanywhere anytime. Wonacolt (2002) states that “Distances students must rely on secure,easily accessible ICT for clear, detailed information about enrolment, modules, courses, 25
  26. 26. requirements, assessments, expectations and sources of help; the opportunity to enroll, payfees and complete all administrative procedures, regular contact and timely response andfeedback from instructions, a variety of methods communicate with teacher (e-mail, onlinechat bulletin boards), enrolment information linked to application forms, and onlineassessments (Wonacott, 2002).Staff administrative support service is achievable through effective ICT integration. Due tothe distinct nature of polytechnic system, administration support requires ICT tools embeddedin them special features meant to take care of the management of training facilities, tools andequipments both in hard and soft copies.Horn and Siew (2011) note that ICT tools such as Facility Management System (FMS), FileBooking System (FBS), Building Control Management System (BCMS) and ResourcesTracking and Management System (RTMS) could help both staff and students to useuniversity or polytechnic facilities conveniently.2.6 ADMINISTRATION AND BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATIONThe administration of an institution of higher education has the responsibility for bringingtogether its various resources and allocation them effectively to accomplish goals. (Blunt andCollins 1994) referred to institutional administration as all those activities carried out toprovide for both the long-range viability of the institutional administration is to promoteefficiency and provide for the institutions organization efficiency and continuity.However, administration consists of those activities that are related to the generaladministrative operations and services of an institution. These activities include: theadministrative of personnel programme, fac8ilities and space managements, purchase and 26
  27. 27. maintenance of supplies and materials, communication and transportation services, health andsafety.The basic principles that are essential for the realization and administration of foundinstitution are identified and discussed below.A. Principles Of Single Executives: The effectiveness of an organization is enhanced by having executive head. The executive has to provide central coordination for all activities of an institution. It is not uncommon to have several teachers in an organization but one of them would serve as the coordinating head of the institution. This is because, it would be impossible to achieve the goals of an institution where central leadership is divided. This principle enhances responsibility and accountability. In a school for instance, there were different department and faculty heads is well as sectional / want heads but one central administration (Rector – in case of a polytechnic). Thus, the organization of every institution reflects the structure and line of interaction.B. Principle of Unity of Purpose: The effectiveness of an institution is enhanced by clear definition of goals and purpose. It is obvious that unless goals are clearly defined in a complex institution like school system, there is a likelihood of conflict among members of groups within the system.C. Unity of Command: This principle emphases that order and instructions to a staff in any institution should come from only one-superior officer so as to afford organization efficiency. Organization efficiency is pronounced when members know what are expected of the and to whom they are responsible. Thus, this principle averts conflict and confusion, which often lead to poor performance. 27
  28. 28. D. Division of Labour: Since it is not possible for a head of an institution to perform all tasks and functions alone, there is need, therefore, to divide or break the work down into number of task, such that other are charged with the responsibilities of carrying out those tasks. This principles leads to specialization and engineers high efficiency and productivity.E. Span of Control: This is otherwise known as span of administration, management or supervision. Institutional administrator can only be effective and efficient in the centre of achieving goals and objectives of the institution when he has order him the required number of staff that can be directed or supervised. Span of control must not be too large and / or too small. It is determined by a number of interacting factors such as: i. Administrator’s ability and competency ii. Nature of the job iii. Experience of the administrator iv. Qualification v. Physical / technicality of the organization vi. Stability of operationF. Delegation of Authority and Responsibility: This principle demands that all responsibilities must be accompanied with commensurate authority. The effectiveness of the institution is enhanced when the administrator delegates works to his / her subordinates and with appropriate authority to carry them out successfully. This principle equally strengthens confidence of the subordinates as well as preparing them for administrative functions.G. Standardization: This is the development of a uniform standardized procedure for routines administrative operation and measuring the performance of an individuals 28
  29. 29. against the standards so as to determine the level o efficiency and effectiveness. Standardization serves labour and the procedure is essential for data collection and the establishment of management information systems.H. Stability: The vacate behind this principle is that an institution should continue with policies and programmes until the results or outcomes can be evaluated. It emphasizes that constant changes of policies that are not based on sound institutional principles would render the organization in effective and committed resources became wasted.I. Flexibility: This principle makes provision for innovative ideas and changes. The need for flexibility of administrative and organization increase in the period of rapid change and development. School policies, programmes and procedures must be broad in order to allow innovations and accommodation necessary change when the need arises.J. Security of Tenure: Institutional effectiveness is guaranteed when there is provision for security of staff. Although individual needs vary the need for security is universal. The need has to be met regardless of the nature organization.K. Defined Structure: The principle maintains that a defined and definite structure should be establishment such that a clear system of selecting members and leaders would be known. There is also the need to state and define in unequivocal term, the functions of each staff.L. Proper Setting: Proper setting and conduciveness of and institution determine to a greater extent the efficiency and effectiveness of such institution and the promotion of individual professional development.M. Personal Policies: As a complement to the processing principle of proper setting, good personnel policies evolve from good personal administration. Good and effective 29
  30. 30. polices and programmes relating to staff welfare should be incorporated to allow job satisfaction for the members of staff and increased productivity.N. Evaluation: This allows the review of performance and the juxta position of both plan and implementation to know what have been achieved and what has not been achieved. Evaluation should be a constant system to enable the institution achieves its objectives and goals.However, the order institutions and their structures had demanded a versatile principleapplicable for the survival of the organization and individual employee as well, sinceeverything seems dynamic society, people as well as organization, in this vein, the generaladministration principles would rather be effective for the attainment of the corporate andindividual goals within a system.Thus, the general administrative principles are classified into five which include:A. The fundamental principles, which are: i. Responsibility ii. Delegation of authority iii. communicationB. The Humanitarian principle which are i. democracy ii. justice iii. human relationC. The prudential principles, which are i. Economy ii. Responsibility and authority 30
  31. 31. iii. LoyaltyD. The principle of change, which are i. Adaptability ii. FlexibilityE. Bureaucratic principles, which are i. Discussion of work ii. Hierarchy iii. Impersonality in official matters iv. Record keeping2.7 LEADERSHIP ROLE OF INSTITUTIONAL ADMINISTRATORInstitutional administrator as a leader has sound fundamental role to play both ethnic andoutside the organization. Some of these roles are structured, programmes or routine-based,while some are tout based on his value judgment and intuition. Apart from managing all theresources (human, material and finance) at his disposal, administration also guides andcoordinates all efforts of staff towards achieving the present goals and objectives.In the modern time, the leadership role of administrator is classified under the following:A. Administration / Management Roles includes: i. Planning staff activities ii. Organizing activities and time table iii. Management and maintenance of physical structure equipment and other facilities iv. Maintenance of proper order and discipline among staff v. Management and control of institutional finance and eltor business 31
  32. 32. vi. Assisting the staff of developing themselves vii. Defining the tasks to be carried out viii. Maintenance of good working conditions for staff and establishment of high word among them; ix. Keeping all statutory records of the establishment and x. Socialization or / and orientation of new staffB. Academic Roles of Administrator include: i. Planning and development of curriculum in relation to the aims and objectives of the system ii. Discussing emerging issues, theories and changes brought about by new development in the system iii. Supervising the instructional activities of the staff; iv. He encourages staff development, conferences and ettor staff training programmes; and v. Establishing method of evaluating, examining and reporting staff progress.C. Community / Public-Based Roles include: i. Ascertaining the composition and the character of the institution – community ii. Supplying of necessary information to the public absent the institution; and gathering useful information from the community; iii. Participating in community development projects; and iv. Inching known and interpreting institutions government policies and programmes to the people.All these roles are necessary for an administrator to achieve the goals of the institution and thelevel of discharge of these roles determines the effectiveness of the administrators as leaders. 32
  33. 33. 2.8 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF POLYTECHNIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIAOn attaining independence in 1960, the Nigeria government accepted the recommendation ofAshby Commission to expand technical and vocational education ameliorate acute shortage totechnical man power. The polytechnic education through students’ industrial works andimproves on the immediate and log term prospects of polytechnic graduates (Oloyo 2008).Furthermore, it is important to write that the purpose of polytechnic education as contained inDecree No. 16 of 1985 includes, among others, the provision of technical knowledge andvocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economicdevelopment; provision of qualified and well-equipped personnel for the improvement andsolution of environmental problems for the use and convenience of man, provision of trainingto import the necessary skills leading to the production of craftsmen, technicians,technologists and engineers and other skills personnel who would be enterprising and self-reliant, and to enable men and women to have intellectual understanding of the increasingcomplexity of technology plays in the world as restated by Oloyo (2008). Polytechniceducation, therefore, is expected, according to the national policy on education (FederalRepublic of Nigeria 1998) to be the main vehicle for technical education in Nigeria at thetertiary level of education.The Organizational Structure of PolytechnicThe structure of my institution is like the architectural plan of a building (Newman 1972).Structure can be described as a designed frame work or arrangement of things, it implies theframework within which people act. Edger and James (1977) described institutional designs 33
  34. 34. and structure as a powerful way to change and influence people behavior. There are twomajor kinds of administrative structure common to all institutions. According to (Obilede1989) these structures are Flat and Tall structures. It is noteworthy that the type of span ofcontrol adopted will influence the shape of the organizational structure.The organizational structure of the polytechnic indicates that there are four academic schoolsand nine service units that make up the components of the institution. Headship of all thecomponents report direct to the Rector, the chief Executive of the institution. The serviceunits are the Registry (the central hub of the administration), the literary. The Bursary, theworks of services, medical centre, the physical and academic planning unit, the Directorate ofStudents Affairs, Poly Consult & industrial services, the internal audit. The academic schoolform where the academic programme are mounted are the schools of Applied Engineered,Environment and Management Studies. Headed by a Dean, each school consists of not lessthan four departments. For the purposes of control and coordination, the departments. For thepurposes of central and coordination, the departments link with the central administrationthrough respective Deans.Furthermore, polytechnic institute is managed by committee system as provided in the FederalPolytechnic Act (1990) or Decree 33 (179). The principal officers in Polytechnic include:1. Rector2. Deputy rector (administration)3. Deputy rector (academics)4. Registrar5. Librarian6. Bursar 34
  35. 35. 2.9 APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS TO INSTITUTIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIAAdministration our charged with the responsibilities of planning, organizing, decision-making, supervision, monitoring, record / information management, resources allocation,policy formulation, controlling, coordinating and directing, to mention a few. These functionsseem to be interwoven, complex and mending, yet they must be performed for the institutionto progress. Effective administration practice would require the use of ICT, in the context ofthe emerging information society.An administrator’s user of micro computer would be examined under their broad categories.These are data analysis, word processing and communication.i. Data Management: Administrators are custodians of data or records of activities, finance events, resources (human and non-human) staff records, students data, and so on. This statistical information about the institutions is required by administrations for decision-making and planning purposes. Proper handling and prompt access to these records are necessary for achieving the school goals. Without compromise or bias, a computer is viable and versatile enough to handle all these records with an advantage of prompt access, correction, and easy manipulation. There is also potentials and relative, secrecy of information.ii. Data Analysis: Analysis and manipulation of data become virtually daily administrative practices. This is contingent upon the changing trend of information as a result of finding of research. An epic of data and information is required by administrative so as to be effective. ICT have offered all its takes to get these done with appreciable ease and convenience. 35
  36. 36. iii. World Processing: Computer offers immensurable cost relief services to administrators in the aspect of word processing. Word processing programmes enable administrators to compose, address, edit and produce written copy in a wide variety of formats. These written reports form a versatile tool for written communication.iv. Data and Information Communication: In either simple or complex institutions, departments or sections can be indeed or connected together through computer networking system. This arrangement enhances quick and continuous interactions and monitoring of activities in all units within the system. For instance, messages can be sent and receives through e-mail, modern ICT enables administrators to receive or send information via telephone lines to and fro another computer anywhere in the world. In recent times, internet has made access to information and research activities possible for administrators.v. ICT and Decision Making: Decision-making is the dynamic element that activate and sustains administrative process (Harrison 1987). It relies on information absent the alternative choices. The quality of information in any decision, situation determines the quality of decision. ICT enhance decision making process by providing quality or situation. The decision making process includes: • Problem identification • Developing alternative • Choosing the best alternative • Implementing the decision • Control and evaluation of decision outcome • All these are better 36
  37. 37. All these are better influences by information technology2.10 RELEVANCE OF ICT TO ADMINISTRATION OF INSTITUTIONSScholars have propounded varies theories of administration and management but according toHigh (1978) there exist at least four boundary conditions which help to define the domain ofapplicability.They are as follows:1. That administration theory can not be directly applied to provide solution to specific managerial problems.2. That administrative theory is value-free and cannot be used to validate ‘ought’ statements3. There are differences in outlook and the practitioner which effectively invites communication and interaction4. General theory has to be adapted to the special characteristics of educational administration.With these shortcomings, ICT application in an institutional administration offers a betteralternative. The relevance inherent in the use of ICT in institutional administration includes:i. ICT can be applied directly to provide solution to specific administrative problems.ii. Through its analytical quality, computer can be used on data that are available.iii. Since computer operations are subject to computer users interest and manipulation, the problem of different outlook between the system and the user is removed, computer user can make use of any package that is suitable for the problem at hands. 37
  38. 38. iv. ICT have capacity to handle large quality of data, process them, store them and release them when needed even at the fastest speeds.v. ICT enhance qualities and qualitative decision-making and information managements.vi. In encourages skill acquisition and competency of administrators andvii. The use of ICT guarantee effective administrative practices in record keeping, information management, personnel administration and resources allocation. It also saves time and prevents unnecessary wastages in administration. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 INTRODUCTIONThis chapter outlines the content of the methodology used in the course of collecting data aswell as other related issues. It contains data collections, method adopted and characteristics ofpopulation of study, sampling and data analysis.Thus, the chapter will concentrate on the methodology of tools used, justification of themethod used and the method of analyzing the data.3.2 RESEARCH DESIGNThe study used the survey research design. The survey design was used in the study because itwas considered appropriate for collecting data from a given population with an intention todetermine the opinion, attitudes and perception of personnel considering the variables understudy. 38
  39. 39. 3.3 POPULATION OF STUDYThe population consists of all Polytechnics in Ogun State Nigeria. The Polytechnics are:1. Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Ogun State.2. Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Ojere, Ogun State.3. All Over Central Polytechnic, Ota, Ogun State.4. Grace Polytechnic, Omu-Ijebu, Ogun State.5. Marvic Polytechnic Odeda, Ogun State.6. The Polytechnic Ijebu-Igbo, Ogun State.7. Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic Saapade, Ogun State.8. Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Igbesa, Ogun State.9. Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Itori, Ogun State.10. Ogun State. Institute of Technology, Igbesa3.4 SAMPLING PROCEDUREThe random sampling technique was used in selecting five polytechnics in Ogun State,Nigeria. Each of the polytechnics was selected based on their ownership and control. Thepolytechnic were:1. Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro2. Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Ojere3. All over Central Polytechnic, Ota4. Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Saapade5. Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Itori 39
  40. 40. The study involved different categories of senior academic/administrative officers (Rector,Registrar, Dean of Schools, H.O.D’s, Administrative Officers and Lecturer) from each of theselected polytechnic3.5 INSTRUMENTATIONA structured questionnaire titled the impact of application of information and communicationtechnology in the administration of polytechnic (IAICTA) was used to gather informationfrom the subjects. The instruments consist of two sections A and B. Section A sought data onthe demographic characteristics of the respondents as regard their sec, marital status, name ofinstitution, academic qualification and work experience. Section B requested data on factorsthat determine the impact of application of information and communications technology in theadministration of polytechnic. Twenty structured items rated on 4 point. Likert attitudinalrating scale of strong agreed (SA) agreed (A) strong disagreed (SD) and disagreed (D) wasusedThus: Strong Agree Agree Strong Disagree DisagreeThe respondents were required to tide each item in the appropriate column that mostlyrepresents their opinion based on their degree of agreement or disagreement with thestatement.3.6 DATA COLLECTION 40
  41. 41. The questionnaire was administered personally by the researcher to the personnel(administration). Before the administration of the questionnaire, the objectives of the researchwork were clearly explained to the subject. The polytechnics were systematically classifiedfor easy access of administration and collection. A total of 63 copies of the questionnairewere administered in the frame selected polytechnics. The respondents were given five daysto complete the questionnaire after which they were collected.3.7 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUESThe research questions were assumed using percentages after construction of contingencytable for the items with regard to the research questions. The hypotheses were all tested at0.05 level of significance using the mean statistic. The mean was used to answer the researchquestions.The formula used is shown below: fx X =∑ fwhere X = mean score f = frequency of response x = the numeric value Σ = summationDecision ruleThe mean value of 5.0 was used as the decision rule, the mean value of 5.0 and above wasaccepted and those with mean below were rejected.The mean value was arrived at 5.0 by adding the score and dividing then by number ofoccurrences.For examples 41
  42. 42. 8+6+4+2 20 = = 5.0 4 4 42
  43. 43. CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS4.1 INTRODUCTIONThis chapter presents the results of data collected from respondents, with different tablesshowing the responses of the respondents and their responses.4.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS / HYPOTHESES ANALYSIS AND RESULTSHypotheses I: There is a significant relationship between information and communicationstechnology and solving of administrative problemsTable 1: Relationship between ICT and administrative problem solving x 4 3 2 1 f 146 81 0 3 240 fx 584 243 0 240 840 X 3.5The above table revealed that the calculated X value of 3.5 is less than the table value of5.0, therefore, the null hypothesis that there is no significant between information andcommunications technology and solving of administrative problems is rejected. This impliesthat there is significant relationship between ICT and solving of administration problems.Hypothesis II: There is no significant relationship between information and communicationstechnology and quality of decision-making in the administration of polytechnics. 43
  44. 44. Table 2: Relationship between ICT and quality of decision making in the administration ofpolytechnics x 4 3 2 1 f 114 122 0 4 240 fx 456 366 0 4 826 X 3.4The above table revealed that the calculated X value of 3.4 is less than the table value of5.0, therefore, the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between informationand communications technology and solving of administrative problems is rejected. As aresult of this, there is a significant relationship between information and communicationstechnology and quality of decision-making in the administration of polytechnics.Hypothesis III: There is no significant relationship between information and communicationstechnology and administrative competence in polytechnics.Table 3: Relationship between ICT and administrative competence in polytechnics x 4 3 2 1 f 104 115 0 21 240 fx 416 345 0 21 782 X 3.26Since the calculated X value of 3.26 is less than the decision rule value of 5.0, therefore, thenull hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between information andcommunications technology and administrative competence of polytechnics is rejected. Thus,there is no significant relationship between information and communications technology andadministrative competence in polytechnics.Hypothesis IV: There is no significant relationship between information and communicationstechnology and administration of human resources in polytechnics. 44
  45. 45. Table 4: Relationship between ICT and administration of human resources in polytechnics x 4 3 2 1 f 116 81 7 36 240 fx 464 243 14 36 757 X 3.2The above table revealed that the calculated X value of 3.2 is less than the decision rulevalue of 5.0. The null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between informationand communications technology and administration of human resources in polytechnics istherefore rejected. This indicates that there is significant relationship between ICT andadministration of human resources in polytechnics.Hypothesis V: There is no significant relationship between information and communicationstechnology and speed in data management in polytechnics.Table 5: Relationship between ICT and speed in data management in polytechnics x 4 3 2 1 f 126 113 0 1 240 fx 504 339 0 1 844 X 3.52The above table shows that the calculated X value of 3.52 is less than 5.0 value of thedecision rule. The null hypothesis that there is no significant between information andcommunications technology and speed in data management in polytechnics is thereforerejected. Thus, there is a significant relationship between ICT and speed in data managementin polytechnics.4.3 DISCUSSION OF RESULTSThis section aims at discussing the result of the findings of the research with one view ofgiving meaningful interpretation to them. Consequently, each hypothesis is discussed inrelation to the data presented with a view of accepting or rejecting such hypothesis. 45
  46. 46. Hypothesis OneThis finding indicates that information and communications technology could be morerelevant in providing solutions to administrative problems. This is probably because with theapplication of ICT, clearer perception of problems could be seen with a view to providingbetter and more permanent solutions to the problem. It could also make problem solvingfaster than using the traditional means of problem solving. My finding supports Adeyemi(2011) who says that possible solution could be proffered in enhancing the use of informationand communications technology (ICT) in the effective management of universities.Polytechnics administrators are therefore advised to adopt ICT in problem-solving.Hypothesis TwoThe finding revealed that information and communications technology enhances quality ofdecision making in the administration of polytechnics. Quality of decision could be achievedthrough priority of attention to the pressing project of polytechnics be it building of additionallecture hall, procurement of staff, vehicles and building of ICT laboratory.Information and communications technology justifies quality of decision making in all facetsof polytechnics administration. As a result of this, polytechnics administrators are endowedwith skills of prompt attention to desirable projects of all kinds.There are many desirable attributes of information and communications technology (ICT)which are concern with the effective provision of information to recipient, relevance forintended purpose, accuracy, factual, volume of information, volume of detail and presentationof information (Adegun, 2002). The quality of decision making in polytechnic in related toICT can stand the test of time. 46
  47. 47. Hypothesis ThreeThis finding indicates that ICT could be relevant in administrative competence of personnel inpolytechnics. It was found out that using ICT will promote issues on students’ admission,students’ records and transcript, examination records, teaching, research and communityservices (Abe and Adu, 2007). The relationship between ICT and administrative competencewas supported to enhance capacity building.Polytechnic administrators are therefore advised to put up more programmes to facilitatecompetence administrative skills.Hypothesis FourThis finding shows that information and communications technology could be used to exploitadministrative of human resources in polytechnics. Adeyemi (2007) supports the utilizinghuman and material resources in accomplishing designated objectives. Information andcommunications technology could be used to organize, direct, coordinate and evaluateprogrammes in a bid to achieve goals or objectives of administration of polytechnics. ICTjustifies better human relations for effective management of human resources, materialresources and financial resources. It makes personnel to contribute greater achievement ofgoals within the system.Hypothesis FiveThe finding indicates that information and communications technology (ICT) could justifymore speed in data management of polytechnics. ICT helps administrators perform schoolduties effectively. Zain et al. (2004) also affirm that ICT increases and provides informationto the finger tips of administrators. Information and communications technology could 47
  48. 48. facilitate speed in data management by creating rapport faster by saving the data into digitalcontent; and saving the time to preparing the lecture notes.Information and communications technology should be ubiquitous in educationaladministrative offices and mainly helps administrators get a better idea of the size of theeducational system, students dropout and repetition, and the number of students per teacher(Canoy, 2004).4.4 SUMMARY OF FINDINGSThis study is the impact of application of information and communications technology (ICT)in the administration of polytechnics in Ogun State Nigeria.The findings of this study include the following:1. There is significant between information and communications technology and solving of administrative problems.2. There is significant relationship between information and communications and quality of decisions making in the administrative of polytechnics3. There is significant relationship between information and communications technology and administrative competence in polytechnics.4. There is significant relationship between information and communication technology and administrative of human resources in polytechnics.5. There is significant relationship between information and communications technology and speed in data management in polytechnics. 48
  49. 49. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1 INTRODUCTIONThis chapter summarizes the implications of the study, recommendation and suggestion forfurther studies.5.2 IMPLICATION OF THE STUDYThe implications of this study include the following:1. Since this study found positive relationship therefore, polytechnics administrators should have clear knowledge of the concept of ICT, then take greater delight in it and make it more functional in their respective institutions.2. Another interesting aspect of my finding is that positive relationship was found between ICT and decision-making. The administrative implication of this is that, it therefore, becomes mandatory on polytechnic administrators to adopt ICT in decision-making to enable their decision to be reliable and valid.3. It was also revealed that there was positive relationship between ICT and administrative competence in polytechnics. Polytechnic administrators should be well informed about capacity building of human resources at their disposal.4. The study found that staff administrative support service is achievable through effective ICT integration and resource tracking and management system. 49
  50. 50. 5. This study found the significant relationship between ICT and speed in data management in polytechnics. Polytechnic administrators are hereby advised to implore strong and viable data system management.5.3 RECOMMENDATIONBased on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were given as follows:1. The proprietors of polytechnics (Federal Government, State Government and Private individuals) should as a matter of urgency put more ICT facilities and equipments in providing solutions to specific problems of administration.2. The ownership of polytechnic should recognize the impact and applicability of ICT to enhance qualitative and quantitative decision-making in the successful administration of polytechnics.3. National Board for Technical Education should make the compliance of ICT facilities more relevant to encourage skill acquisition and competence of administrators.4. Polytechnics administrators should show more interest in the use of ICT tools to guarantee effective administration of human and material resources within their system.5. Polytechnic administrators should build more confidence in ICT tools in having capacity to handle and process data within a fastest desired speed.5.4 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES 50
  51. 51. 1. This study was carried out in Ogun State Polytechnics. I am theefore, recommending that a similar instrument be used in some other states such as Oyo, Ondo, Osun and Ekiti States.2. A similar study can also be carried out in Federal Polytechnics using a similar instrument.3. The instrument used for this study could be adopted, or adapted for study in the northern states of Nigeria to confirm similarities in findings.5.5 CONCLUSIONConsidering the findings of the study, it was concluded that information and commutationstechnology have significant impact in the administration of polytechnic in Ogun, StateNigeria. The impact were found to be relevant to senior academic & administration officers ofpolytechnics in ICT providing solutions to specific problems of administration, ICT enhancequalitative and quantitative. Decision-making in the administration of polytechnic, ICTencourages kill acquisition and competency of administrators, ICT guarantees effectiveadministrative practices of human and material resources, ICT has capacity to handle qualityof data for processing with fastest speed.For greater reference, ICT therefore should be fully integrated into capacity building of bothacademic and administrative staff of all polytechnics. 51
  52. 52. REFERENCESAbe, T.O. and Adu, E.T. (2007): Impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on Teacher Education in Ikere, Journal of Education, Ikere-Ekiti, vol. 5, NO. pp. 169-175.Adedapo A. (2007): Designing a MIS for effective secondary school administration in Nigeria in special education on information communications technology (ICT IKEJE 138 – 143).Adedapo, A. (2007): Designing a MIS for Effective Secondary School Administration in Nigeria in Special Education on Information and Communication Technology (ICT), IKEJE, 138-143.Adegun O.A. (2002): Communication and administrative effectives of principals of secondary schools in Sewth Western, Nigeria” unpublished Phd Thesis University of Ado-Ekiti Nigeria 86 – 102Adeyemi T.O (2011): Impact of information and communications technology (ICT) on the effective management of universities in south-west Nigeria http://www.scihub.org/AJSMSAribamikan, C.A. (2007). The Relevance of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching of Physical Education and Sports in Special Edition on ICT, IKEJE, pp. 93-98.Asiabeka IP (2010): Access and use of information and communications technology (ICT) for administrative purposes by principals of Government Secondary Schools in Nigeria. The researcher 2 (1): 43:50 Available at http:www.sciencepub.net/researcher 52
  53. 53. Bof F, Previtali P. (2010): National models of public (e) – procurement in Europe journal of e-government studies and best practices. Available outline at http:www.inbmapublishing.com/journals/JEGSBP/2010/315295/315295.pdfCanoy, M. (2004): ICTs in Education: Possibilities and Challenges. Inaugural Lecture of the 2004-2005 Academic Year, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Available at http://www.uoc.edu/inaugural04/eng/carnoy1004.pdf.Faloye, J.O. and Oparah, O.B. (2007): Relevance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education in Ikere, Journal of Education, Ikere-Ekiti, vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 37-42.Kolade-Oje, O.T. and Omodara, O.D. (2007). Developing a Monitoring and Evaluation Plan of Information Communication Technology ICTS in Education System in Special Edition on Information Communication Technology (ICT), Ikeja: pp. 176-181.Kolawole, C. (1997): “Availability and Utilization of Audio-visual Materials for the Teaching of English Language in some Nursery/Primary Schools in Ibadan,” Journal of Educational Studies 1(1), 122-127.Lawsent, I and Vincent, I (1995): Impact of e-Learning on Tertiary Education (on line) Accessed 18 June, 2008 at http://www.info.gov.za/speeches/index.html.Lucey, T. (1995): Management Information Systems, London: DP Publications Ltd., 31-52.Mohammad S.S, Babawero S., Lokman M., Yahaya Buntat., Noraffandy Yahaya, Abdulsalam Y., (2011). Applicability of information and communications technologies (ICTS) in the administration of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is a knowledge-based society academic http://www.academicjournals.org/IJPSMohammad Y. (2006): Factor influencing the implementation of ICT in Jigawa States Schools Nigeria. Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis, University of Ilorin. 53
  54. 54. NOUN (2009): Application of management information systems (MIS) in education, National Open University Press, Kaduna, Nigeria.Oppenheim, A.N. (1992): Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement; London & New York: Pinter Publishers, 70-72, 159-162.Sambo A. (1992): Management information system and university administration, university system news. Quarterly publication by NUC special edition 11, 12 and 16.Sambo, A. (1992): Management Information System and University Administration. University System News: a Quarterly Publication by NUC. Special edition 11, 12 and 16.Song LS (2207): Vocational technical education and economics development – the Singapore experience. ITE paper No. 9 Paper presented to members of a World Bank delegation on an Asian education study visit to the institutes of technical education http://www.ite.edu.sg.labout_ite/ITE_conference paperUNESCO, ILO (2002): Revised recommendation concerning technical and vocational educational (2001). Paris UNESCO; Geneva, Switzerland http//unesdoc.unesco.orgWonacott ME (2002): Blending face the face and distance learning methods in adult and career – technical education. Educational resources information centre (ERIC) http://www.calpro-online.org/eric/docs/pob00032.pdf 54
  55. 55. QUESTIONNAIRE Victoria Open University of Nigeria, Victoria Island, Lagos. Abeokuta Study Centre, Ogun State.Dear Respondents, REQUEST FOR COMPLETION OF PROJECT QUESTIONNAIRE I am a post graduate students of the above named institution. I am undertaking a research on the impact of application and communicationtechnology in the administration of polytechnics in Ogun State, Nigeria. It is on this note that I request you to answer the attached questionnaire. This exerciseis solely for academic purpose. I therefore guarantee that the information supplied will betreated confidentially and used only for this study. Thanks for your co-operation Yours faithfully, Bayo Soneye. 55
  56. 56. QUESTIONNAIRE ON THE IMPACT OF APPLICATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF POLYTECHNICS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIASECTION APlease tide () where appropriate.1. Name of Polytechnic:_______________________________________________2. Sex: Male Female3. Position: Rector Dean of school H.O.D. School officer Lecturer4. Qualification: Ph.D M.sc H.N.D Others5. Years of experience: 31 – above 21 – 30 11 – 20 1 – 10SECTION BThe instrument below is a Likert rating scale questionnaire. It is designed in a four pointsrating scale, viz:SA = Strongly Agree = 4 56
  57. 57. A = Agree = 3D = Disagree = 2SD = Strongly Disagree = 1Please tick as you deem appropriate in the column belowS/N STATEMENT SA A SD D1. ICT providing solution to specific administration problems2. ICT is relevant for facilitating information gathering3. ICT is relevant for enhancing authentic information gathering4. ICT is relevant for reducing boredom5. Enhancing decision making in the administration polytechnic6. Facilitation information dissemination7. Improving skill acquisition8. Preventing effectiveness in administration9. Enhancing better record keeping10. Facilitating competency in discharge of functions11. Preventing financial dishonesty12. Facilitating employment for students13. Making graduate relevant in the world of technology14. Preventing capacity building15. Reducing man-hour in the discharge of duties16. Enhancing monitoring of educational facilities17. Facilitating adequate data storage of academic records18. Enhancing data processing19. Providing storing for your polytechnic data base20. Proving self employment 57
  58. 58. A = Agree = 3D = Disagree = 2SD = Strongly Disagree = 1Please tick as you deem appropriate in the column belowS/N STATEMENT SA A SD D1. ICT providing solution to specific administration problems2. ICT is relevant for facilitating information gathering3. ICT is relevant for enhancing authentic information gathering4. ICT is relevant for reducing boredom5. Enhancing decision making in the administration polytechnic6. Facilitation information dissemination7. Improving skill acquisition8. Preventing effectiveness in administration9. Enhancing better record keeping10. Facilitating competency in discharge of functions11. Preventing financial dishonesty12. Facilitating employment for students13. Making graduate relevant in the world of technology14. Preventing capacity building15. Reducing man-hour in the discharge of duties16. Enhancing monitoring of educational facilities17. Facilitating adequate data storage of academic records18. Enhancing data processing19. Providing storing for your polytechnic data base20. Proving self employment 57

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