The Respiratory Apparatus


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Lecture on Respiratory Organs based on Gray's Anatomy and Ellis' Clinical Anatomy 11th edition. Text and Pictures not mine. Lecture given to BS Biology students of USLS

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The Respiratory Apparatus

  1. 1. The Respiratory Apparatus Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract Lectured by Bien Nillos, MD Reference: Gray’s Anatomy and Ellis Clinical Anatomy 11 th edition
  2. 2. The Respiratory System <ul><li> to take oxygen into the lungs and output carbon dioxide and a small amount of oxygen </li></ul>
  3. 4. Surface Landmarks <ul><li>The following bony prominences can usually be palpated in the living subject (corresponding vertebral levels are given in brackets): </li></ul><ul><li>• superior angle of the scapula (T2); </li></ul><ul><li>• upper border of the manubrium sterni, the suprasternal notch (T2/3); </li></ul><ul><li>• spine of the scapula (T3); </li></ul><ul><li>• sternal angle (of Louis)— the transverse ridge at the manubrio-sternal junction (T4/5); </li></ul><ul><li>• inferior angle of scapula (T8); </li></ul><ul><li>• xiphisternal joint (T9); </li></ul><ul><li>• lowest part of costal margin—10th rib (the subcostal line passes through L3). </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>The manubrium corresponds to the 3rd and 4 th thoracic vertebrae and overlies the aortic arch, and that the sternum corresponds to the 5th to 8th vertebrae and neatly overlies the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>The spinous processes of all the thoracic vertebrae can be palpated in the midline posteriorly, but it should be remembered that the first spinousprocess that can be felt is that of C7 (the vertebra prominens). </li></ul><ul><li>The position of the nipple varies considerably in the female, but in the male it usually lies in the 4th intercostal space about 4in (10cm) from the midline. The apex beat, which marks the lowest and outermost point at which the cardiac impulse can be palpated, is normally in the 5th intercostal space 3.5in (9cm) from the midline </li></ul><ul><li>The trachea is palpable in the suprasternal notch midway between the heads of the two clavicles. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Surface Marking of the Trachea <ul><li>The trachea commences in the neck at the level of the lower border of the cricoid cartilage (C6) and runs vertically downwards to end at the level of the sternal angle of Louis (T4/5), just to the right of the mid-line, by dividing to form the right and left main bronchi. In the erect position and in full inspiration the level of bifurcation is at T6. </li></ul>
  6. 9. Lung Coverings – Pleural Cavity <ul><li>The parietal pleura  is the outer-most covering of the lung which is adhered to the inner thoracic wall, while the visceral pleura is the lining which is directly adhered to the lung itself. The space between these two pleuras is know as the pleual cavity </li></ul>
  7. 12. <ul><li>The cervical pleura can be marked out on the surface by a curved line drawn from the sternoclavicular joint to the junction of the medial and middle thirds of the clavicle; the apex of the pleura is about 1in (2.5cm) above the clavicle. </li></ul>
  8. 13. <ul><li>The lines of pleural reflexion pass from behind the sternoclavicular joint on each side to meet in the midline at the 2nd costal cartilage (the angle of Louis). The right pleural edge then passes vertically downwards to the 6 th costal cartilage and then crosses: </li></ul><ul><li>• the 8th rib in the midclavicular line; </li></ul><ul><li>• the 10th rib in the midaxillary line; </li></ul><ul><li>• the 12th rib at the lateral border of the erector spinae. </li></ul>
  9. 14. <ul><li>On the left side the pleural edge arches laterally at the 4th costal cartilage and descends lateral to the border of the sternum, due, of course, to its lateral displacement by the heart; apart from this, its relationships are those of the right side. </li></ul><ul><li>The pleura actually descends just below the 12th rib margin at its medial extremity— or even below the edge of the 11th rib if the 12th is unusually short; obviously in this situation the pleura may be opened accidentally in making a loin incision to expose the kidney, perform an adrenalectomy or to drain a subphrenic abscess </li></ul>
  10. 17. Surface Anatomy of the Lungs <ul><li>The apex of the lung closely follows the line of the cervical pleura and the surface marking of the anterior border of the right lung corresponds to that of the right mediastinal pleura. On the left side, however, the anterior border has a distinct notch (the cardiac notch) which passes behind the 5th and 6th costal cartilages. </li></ul><ul><li>The lower border of the lung has an excursion of as much as 2–3in (5–8cm) in the extremes of respiration, but in the neutral position (midway between inspiration and expiration) it lies along a line which crosses the 6th rib in the midclavicular line, the 8th rib in the midaxillary line, and reaches the 10th rib adjacent to the vertebral column posteriorly </li></ul>
  11. 19. <ul><li>The oblique fissure, which divides the lung into upper and lower lobes, is indicated on the surface by a line drawn obliquely downwards and outwards from 1in (2.5cm) lateral to the spine of the 5th thoracic vertebra to the 6th costal cartilage about 1.5in (4cm) from the midline. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be represented approximately by abducting the shoulder to its full extent; the line of the oblique fissure then corresponds to the position of the medial border of the scapula. </li></ul>
  12. 21. <ul><li>The surface markings of the transverse fissure (separating the middle and upper lobes of the right lung ) is a line drawn horizontally along the 4 th costal cartilage and meeting the oblique fissure where the latter crosses the 5th rib </li></ul>
  13. 23. Surface Anatomy of the Diaphragm <ul><li>the dome-shaped septum dividing the thoracic from the abdominal cavity. It comprises two portions: a peripheral muscular part which arises from the margins of the thoracic outlet and a centrally placed aponeurosis </li></ul>
  14. 25. Origins of the Diaphragm <ul><li>1. A vertebral part from the crura and from the arcuate ligaments. The right crus arises from the front of the bodies of the upper three lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral discs; the left crus is only attached to the first two vertebrae. The arcuate ligaments are a series of fibrous arches, the medial being a thickening of the fascia covering psoas major and the lateral of fascia overlying quadratus lumborum. The fibrous medial borders of the two crura form a median arcuate ligament over the front of the aorta </li></ul>
  15. 27. <ul><li>2. A costal part is attached to the inner aspect of the lower six ribs and costal cartilages. </li></ul><ul><li>3. A sternal portion consists of two small slips from the deep surface of the xiphisternum. </li></ul>
  16. 28. Insertion of the Diaphragm <ul><li>The central tendon , into which the muscular fibres are inserted, is trefoil in shape and is partially fused with the undersurface of the pericardium. </li></ul>
  17. 29. <ul><li>The diaphragm receives its entire motor supply from the phrenic nerve (C3, 4, 5) whose long course from the neck follows the embryological migration of the muscle of the diaphragm from the cervical region </li></ul>
  18. 30. <ul><li>Central part of the diaphragm receives it sensory input via the phrenic nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral part of the diaphragm receives it sensory input via the lower intercostal nerves. </li></ul>
  19. 31. Openings of the Diaphragm <ul><li>1. The aortic (at the level of T12 ) which transmits the abdominal aorta, the thoracic duct and often the azygos vein; </li></ul><ul><li>2. The esophageal ( T10 ) which is situated between the muscular fibres of the right crus of the diaphragm and transmits, in addition to the esophagus, branches of the left gastric artery and vein and the two vagi; </li></ul><ul><li>3. The opening for the inferior vena cava ( T8 ) which is placed in the central tendon and also transmits the right phrenic nerve. </li></ul>“ I ate (8) 10 eggs at 12 am”
  20. 32. The respiratory tract - Larynx <ul><li>organ of voice  is placed at the upper part of the air passage </li></ul><ul><li>situated between the trachea and the root of the tongue, at the upper and forepart of the neck </li></ul><ul><li>it presents a considerable projection in the middle line </li></ul><ul><li>forms the lower part of the anterior wall of the pharynx, and is covered behind by the mucous lining of that cavity </li></ul>
  21. 34. <ul><li>The larynx has a triple function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that of an open valve in respiration, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that of a partially closed valve whose orifice can be modulated in phonation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that of a closed valve, protecting the trachea and bronchial tree during deglutition. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coughing is only possible when the larynx can be closed effectively. </li></ul>
  22. 35. <ul><li>The structures which form its framework are the epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid and the arytenoids </li></ul>
  23. 36. <ul><li>Three of the four strap muscles of the neck, the omohyoid , sternohyoid and thyrohyoid , find attachment to it, only the sternothyroid failing to gain it </li></ul>
  24. 37. <ul><li>The epiglottis is a leaf-shaped elastic cartilage lying behind the root of the tongue. It is attached anteriorly to the body of the hyoid by the hyoepiglottic ligament and below to the back of the thyroid cartilage by the thyroepiglottic ligament immediately above the vocal cords. </li></ul>
  25. 39. <ul><li>The thyroid cartilage is shield-like, being made up of two lateral plates meeting in the midline in the prominent ‘V’ of the ‘ Adam’s apple ’, the laryngeal prominence, which is easily visible in the postpubertal male. </li></ul>
  26. 41. <ul><li>The cricoid is signet-ring shaped, deepest behind. It is the only complete ring of cartilage throughout the respiratory tract. Inferiorly, it is attached to the trachea by the cricotracheal membrane. </li></ul>
  27. 42. <ul><li>Passing forward from the arytenoid to the back of the thyroid cartilage, just below the epiglottic attachment, are two folds of mucosa . The upper is the vestibular fold , containing a small amount of fibrous tissue and forming on each side the false vocal cord. The lower fold (the vocal fold or cord) contains the vocal ligament </li></ul>
  28. 45. Muscles of the Larynx <ul><li>The cricothyroid is the only external muscle of the larynx and tenses the vocal cord (the only muscle to do so), by a slight tilting action on the cricoid. It is supplied by the superior laryngeal nerve . </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to the superior nerve causes some weakness of phonation due to the loss of the tightening effect of the cricothyroid muscle on the cord. </li></ul>
  29. 46. <ul><li>Other laryngeal muscles: thyroarytenoid, posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid, the aryepiglottic, thyroepiglottic and interarytenoid muscles </li></ul><ul><li>supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve </li></ul><ul><li>All these muscles have a sphincter action, except the posterior cricoarytenoid </li></ul>
  30. 47. <ul><li>The larynx can be inspected either directly, by means of the rigid or fibreoptic laryngoscope , or indirectly through a laryngeal mirror . </li></ul><ul><li>The base of the tongue, valleculae, epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds and piriform fossae are viewed, then the false cords, which are red and widely apart, then, between these, the pearly white true cords </li></ul>
  31. 48. The Trachea <ul><li>about 4.5in (11.5cm) in length and nearly 1 in (2.5cm) in diameter. It commences at the lower border of the cricoid cartilage (C6) and terminates by bifurcating at the level of the sternal angle of Louis (T4/5) to form the right and left main bronchi. </li></ul>
  32. 50. Relations of the Trachea – Cervical Portion <ul><li>anteriorly— the isthmus of thyroid gland, inferior thyroid veins, sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles; </li></ul><ul><li>laterally—the lobes of thyroid gland and the common carotid artery; </li></ul><ul><li>posteriorly—the oesophagus with the recurrent laryngeal nerve lying in the groove between oesophagus and trachea </li></ul>
  33. 52. Relations of the Trachea – Thoracic Portion <ul><li>anteriorly—commencement of the brachiocephalic (innominate) artery and left carotid artery, both arising from the arch of the aorta, the left brachiocephalic (innominate) vein, and the thymus; </li></ul><ul><li>posteriorly—esophagus and left recurrent laryngeal nerve; </li></ul><ul><li>to the left— arch of the aorta, left common carotid and left subclavian arteries, left recurrent laryngeal nerve and pleura; </li></ul><ul><li>to the right—vagus, azygos vein and pleura </li></ul>
  34. 54. The Bronchi <ul><li>The right main bronchus is wider, shorter and more vertical than the left. It is about 1 in (2.5cm) long and passes directly to the root of the lung at T5. </li></ul><ul><li>Before joining the lung it gives off its upper lobe branch, and then passes below the pulmonary artery to enter the hilum of the lung. </li></ul><ul><li>It has two important relations: the azygos vein , which arches over it from behind to reach the superior vena cava, and the pulmonary artery which lies first below and then anterior to it. </li></ul>
  35. 57. <ul><li>The left main bronchus is nearly 2 in (5cm) long and passes downwards and outwards below the arch of the aorta, in front of the esophagus and descending aorta. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the right, it gives off no branches until it enters the hilum of the lung, which it reaches opposite T6. </li></ul><ul><li>The pulmonary artery spirals over the bronchus, lying first anteriorly and then above it. </li></ul>
  36. 58. The Lungs <ul><li>Each lung is conical in shape, having a blunt apex which reaches above the sternal end of the 1st rib, a concave base overlying the diaphragm, an extensive costovertebral surface molded to the form of the chest wall and a mediastinal surface which is concave to accommodate the pericardium </li></ul>
  37. 59. <ul><li>The right lung - slightly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes—upper, middle and lower, by the oblique and horizontal fissures. </li></ul><ul><li>The left lung - has only an oblique fissure and hence only two lobes. </li></ul>
  38. 61. Surfaces of the Lungs <ul><li>1. costal surface  ( facies costalis; external or thoracic surface ) is smooth, convex, of considerable extent, and corresponds to the form of the cavity of the chest, being deeper behind than in front. It is in contact with the costal pleura, and presents, in specimens which have been hardened  in situ,  slight grooves corresponding with the overlying ribs. </li></ul>
  39. 62. <ul><li>2. mediastinal surface  ( facies mediastinalis; inner surface ) is in contact with the mediastinal pleura. It presents a deep concavity, the  cardiac impression,  which accommodates the pericardium; </li></ul><ul><li>Above and behind this concavity is a triangular depression named the  hilum,  where the structures which form the root of the lung enter and leave the viscus. </li></ul>
  40. 64. Blood Supply to the Lungs <ul><li>Mixed venous blood is returned to the lungs by the pulmonary arteries ; the air passages are themselves supplied by the bronchial arteries , which are small branches of the descending aorta </li></ul>
  41. 65. <ul><li>The bronchial arteries , although small, are of great clinical importance . They maintain the blood supply to the lung parenchyma after pulmonary embolism, so that, if the patient recovers, lung function returns to normal </li></ul>
  42. 66. <ul><li>The superior and inferior pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood to the left atrium (of the heart), while the bronchial veins drain into the azygos system </li></ul>
  43. 67. The Alveoli <ul><li>lined by a delicate layer of simple squamous epithelium, the cells of which are united at their edges by cement substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Outside the epithelial lining is a little delicate connective tissue containing numerous elastic fibers and a close net-work of blood capillaries, and forming a common wall to adjacent alveoli </li></ul>
  44. 69. <ul><li>To reach the blood, oxygen must diffuse through the alveolar epithelium, a thin interstitial space, and the capillary endothelium; </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 follows the reverse course to reach the alveoli. </li></ul>
  45. 70. Two types of alveolar epithelial cells. <ul><li>Type I cells - have long cytoplasmic extensions which spread out thinly along the alveolar walls and comprise the thin alveolar epithelium. </li></ul><ul><li>Type II cells - are more compact and are responsible for producing surfactant, a phospholipid which lines the alveoli and serves to differentially reduce surface tension at different volumes, contributing to alveolar stability. </li></ul>
  46. 73. Respiratory Route <ul><li>Nose or Mouth  Naso(oro)pharynx  Larynx  Trachea  Bronchus (Main)  Secondary Bronchi  Bronchiole  Alveolar Ducts  Alveolar Sac </li></ul>
  47. 75. <ul><li>Pulmonary Edema </li></ul>
  48. 76. <ul><li>Pneumothorax </li></ul>
  49. 77. <ul><li>Tumor (Pancoast Tumor?) </li></ul>
  50. 78. <ul><li>COPD lung (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) </li></ul>
  51. 79. “ Our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this small planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children's future. And we are all mortal.” - JFK