Introduction To Gender Analysis

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Report given during my class on Gender, Sexuality and Reproductive Health for my Master in Health Social Science

Report given during my class on Gender, Sexuality and Reproductive Health for my Master in Health Social Science

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  • The frameworks address different aspects of gender equality and therefore are useful in different situations. Harvard and Moser are particularly useful when analysing the division of labour in agriculture and in urban settings; Levy is useful for gender mainstreaming in institutions; GAM is useful when assessing gender differential impacts of projects at community level; Longwe is useful for assessment of empowerment of women due to interventions in all sectors; CVA deals mainly with humanitarian and disaster preparedness issues; POP is an expanded version of Harvard, dealing mainly with refugee issues; SRF is useful when dealing with sustainable development and institutional changeHarvard framework was developed at Harvard university. It is also called the Gender Roles Framework, was developed by the Harvard Institute for International Development in collaboration with the Women In Development office of USAID, and was first described in 1984 by Catherine Overholtand others. It was one of the earliest of such frameworks.[7] The starting point for the framework was the assumption that it makes economic sense for development aid projects to allocate resources to women as well as men, which will make development more efficient – a position named the “efficiency approach" Harvard framework informs planners about the situations, roles, resources, various social, economical and political influencing factors and on the basis of this overall information, planners can design better and efficient projectsIt improves the visibility because it generates the sex dissegrated data

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  • 1. Reported by Bien Eli Nillos,MD For Gender, Sexuality and Reproductive Health DLSU - MAHESOS
  • 2. 2
  • 3. 3 We have brought Food for everyone, Go get from the tree.
  • 4. Do you think this is Equal Opportunity for all animals? Does the same thing happen in development projects? Who will be able to get the Food? What should be done instead? 4
  • 5. Assumptions during Project design and implementation:  Men are the head of household -> Project activities for economic benefits should focus men  Housework or child care is not much efforts -> Women can handle outside work with house work, women‟s priorities go unnoticed  Women do care work -> Interventions related to family health should focus women  Development benefits will automatically reach women 5
  • 6.  In a fishing community it is primarily men who catch fish and women who do the processing. Women smoke the fish and market it.  The women who have long experience of this activity have cultivated kostamente relationships with specific fishermen. These relationships are mutually beneficial. The men are assured of regular outlets for their fish, and the women obtain an established supply of fresh fish for their activities.  Both women and men invested a great deal of time, energy and resources in establishing and maintaining kostamente relationships.
  • 7.  A development agency started a project to enhance the productivity of women‟s activities, based on a detailed analysis of women‟s income-earning activities.  Under this project, women were encouraged to use chorkor fish smoking ovens, which were capable of using fuel more efficiently, and producing a higher quality and quantity of smoked fish each day.  The decision to introduce these ovens was taken following a gender analysis that established the division of labor in the community.
  • 8. Despite the good intention of increasing women‟s income, the project did not succeed in its objectives. The fishermen, perceiving women to be the beneficiaries of outside funds, raised their prices. This undermined the benefits that women gained from their increased productivity, and tended to push up fish prices for the community at large
  • 9.  The project assumed that all women would take up the chorkor oven. However, many women continued to use traditional methods, and for them too fish prices rose, or they had to use the lower quality frozen fish rejected by the industrial fishing fleet.  As more and more women turned to industrial fishing fleets as a source of supply, men started selling their fish directly to the fish processing plant.
  • 10. 1. What lessons about gender analysis can be drawn from this project? 2. Did greater access to resources increase women‟s control over their own lives (empower them)? What else would be needed to achieve this? 3. What alternative analytic approaches could have been taken, and with what likely outcome in changed project design?
  • 11.  a type of socio-economic analysis that uncovers how gender relations affect a development problem.  The aim may just be to show that gender relations will probably affect the solution, or to show how they will affect the solution and what could be done.  Gender analysis frameworks provide a step- by-step methodology for conducting gender analysis Ochola, Washington O.; Sanginga, Pascal C.; Bekalo, Isaac (2010). Managing Natural Resources for Development in Africa
  • 12.  In many developing societies, although not in all, women have traditionally been disadvantaged compared to men. Until recently, studies of these societies for the purpose of planning development covered women narrowly in terms of population, health and family planning.  Relatively little was known about other concerns such as domestic violence or involvement in economic activities. Gender analysis provides more information, bringing benefits to women and to society as a whole. Brouwer, Elizabeth C.; Harris, Bruce M.; Tanaka, Sonomi (1998). Gender analysis in Papua New Guinea
  • 13.  The Women in Development (WID) approach emerged in the 1970s, calling for treatment of "women's issues" in development projects.  Later, the Gender and Development (GAD) approach proposed more emphasis on gender relations rather than seeing women's issues in isolation Van Marle, Karin (2006). Sex, gender, becoming: post-apartheid reflections
  • 14.  An example of the effect of skipping gender analysis is provided by a project that introduced handcarts to a village for use in collecting firewood.  It was thought that the men would use the carts to collect the wood, freeing up the women for other activities. In fact, the men collected the wood for sale, keeping the money.  As they depleted supplies near the village, the women had to travel further to collect wood. Van Marle, Karin (2006). Sex, gender, becoming: post-apartheid reflections
  • 15.  Gender analysis has commonly been used as a tool for development and emergency relief projects.  The socially constructed roles of men and women must be understood in project or program design, as must roles related to class, caste, ethnicity and age.  The techniques are also important in understanding management of natural resources. Vernooy, Ronnie (2006). Social and gender analysis in natural resource management: learning studies and lessons from Asia
  • 16. 17
  • 17. 1. Harvard Analytical Framework 2. Moser Framework 3. Gender Analysis Matrix (GAM) 4. Capacities and Vulnerabilities Analysis Framework 5. Longwe‟s Women Empowerment Framework 6. Social Relations Approach
  • 18. also called the Gender Roles Framework, was developed by the Harvard Institute for International Development in collaboration with the Women In Development office of USAID, and was first described in 1984 by Catherine Overholt and others. It was one of the earliest of such frameworks
  • 19. The starting point for the framework was the assumption that it makes economic sense for development aid projects to allocate resources to women as well as men, which will make development more efficient – a position named the “efficiency approach"
  • 20.  To demonstrate that there is an economic rationale for investing in women as well as men.  To assist planners design more efficient projects and improve overall productivity.  To emphasize the importance of better information as the basis for meeting the efficiency/equity goal.  To map the work of men and women in the community and highlight the key differences.
  • 21. • the activity profile, which answers the question, "who does what?", including gender, age, time spent and location of the activity • the access and control profile, which identifies the resources used to carry out the work identified in the activity profile, and access to and control over their use, by gender • the analysis of influencing factors, which charts factors that influence gender differences in the above two profiles. • the project cycle analysis, which examines a project or intervention in light of gender-disaggregated information
  • 22.  Best suited for project planning, rather than program or policy planning  As a gender-neutral entry point when raising gender issues with constituents resistant to considering gender relations and power dynamics  For baseline data collection  In conjunction with Moser‟s framework, to draw in the idea of strategic gender needs Training Workshop for Trainers in Women, Gender and Development, June 9-21, 1996, Programme Handbook, Royal Tropical Institute, The Netherlands
  • 23.  It is practical and hands-on.  Once the data have been collected, it gives a clear picture of who does what, when and with what resources. It makes women‟s role and work visible.  It distinguishes between access to and control over resources.  It can be easily adapted to a variety of settings and situations.  It is relatively non-threatening, because it relies on "facts" only. Training Workshop for Trainers in Women, Gender and Development, June 9-21, 1996, Programme Handbook, Royal Tropical Institute, The Netherlands
  • 24.  Based on WID (efficiency) rationale, which aims at increasing project/programme efficiency. It does not delineate power relations or decision-making processes. Therefore, the framework offers little guidance on how to change existing gender inequalities. It tends to result in gender- neutral or gender-specific interventions, rather than those that can transform existing gender relations.
  • 25. Tends to oversimplify, based on a somewhat superficial, tick-the-boxes approach to data collection, ignoring complexities in the community; may result in lost opportunities for change Is basically a top-down planning tool, excluding women‟s and men‟s own analysis of their situation
  • 26.  Ignores other underlying inequalities, such as class, race and ethnicity, encouraging an erroneous view of men and women as homogeneous categories  Emphasises separation of activities and resources based on sex or age, ignoring connections and co- operative relations across these categories. This can result in projects that may misbehave or cannot tackle women‟s strategic gender needs.  The profiles yield a somewhat static view of the community, without reference to changes over time in gender relations
  • 27. A planning methodology aimed at the emancipation of women from their subordination and their achievement of equality, equity and empowerment. It can be used for Planning at all levels (e.g. project, policy, community, regional) and examining policy assumptions.
  • 28. Division of labor within the household and community. Needs relating to male-female subordination. Gender differences in access to and control over resources and decision- making. Degree to which policies, programs and projects address practical and strategic gender needs.
  • 29.  Establishing “gender planning” as a type of planning in its own right.  Incorporates three concepts: • women‟s triple role • practical and strategic gender needs • policy approach categories.  Questions the assumption that planning is a technical task – gender planning is both technical and political; assumes conflict in planning process; involves transformative processes; and characterizes planning as debate.
  • 30. Step 1: Selecting local analysts  The sampling procedure used to select local analysts should reflect the needs of the research. Step 2: Introductions and explanations  When interviewing local people to gather data, the researcher should begin by introducing themselves and explaining carefully and clearly the objectives of the research and the tool being used. Check that the local analyst understands and is comfortable with what is going to be discussed.
  • 31.  The framework consists of six tools:  Tool 1 – Gender roles identification / triple role  Using the three categories of reproductive, productive and community-management activities, map the gender division of labor by asking “who does what?” for activities in each.  Using three categories helps highlight community management work that may often be ignored or overlooked in economic analysis. Use a matrix similar to the Activity Profile in the Harvard analytical framework but ensure that the three categories of productive, reproductive and community work are included.
  • 32. Tool 2 – Gender needs analysis Using the idea that women have different needs to men due to their triple role and their subordinate position in many societies, assess the needs of men and women using categories of practical and strategic needs.
  • 33.  Practical gender needs are those which, if met, help women with their current activities. They are a response to the immediate perceived necessities within a particular context and are usually of a practical nature (e.g. water provision, specific training or income earning opportunities to provide for the household).  Their fulfillment, however, will not challenge existing gender divisions of labor or women‟s subordinate position.
  • 34. Strategic gender needs exist because of women’s subordinate social position and would, if met, enable women to transform imbalances of power between men and women. Strategic gender needs are context-specific but may include issues such as legal rights, education, equal wages or domestic violence.
  • 35.  Tool 3 – Disaggregate control of resources and decision making within the household  Examine the differences in the control of and access to resources by asking “who controls what?”, “who decides what?”, and “how?”  Examine the links between the allocation of resources within a household and bargaining processes.  A matrix could be used to record the data similar to the Access and Control Profile used in the Harvard analytical tool
  • 36.  Tool 4 – Plan for balancing the triple role  Examine how a policy, program or project will affect any of the roles women have. Ensure that all women‟s work and responsibilities are considered – concentrating on one role will lead to unrealistic assumptions being made about the other roles. Ask how workloads might increase in any of the three roles. Will workload changes in one particular role affect women‟s other roles? How will women balance their roles if a policy, program or project is implemented? How will changes in policy in one sector affect women‟s roles in other sectors?
  • 37. Tool 5 – Evaluate intervention aims This tool is used to consider how planning interventions transform the subordinate position of women. Examine to what degree they meet practical and/or strategic gender needs. Think about the approach that interventions might fall under.
  • 38.  Welfare (recognizes women‟s reproductive role and seeks to meet their practical gender needs through top-down handouts)  Equity (original WID approach – seeks to gain equity for women in the development process)  Anti-poverty (second WID approach – a toned down version of the equity approach)  Efficiency (third WID approach – preoccupation with ensuring development is more efficient and effective through women‟s economic contribution)  Empowerment (most recent approach that seeks to empower women through greater self-reliance)
  • 39. Policy approaches are not mutually exclusive and may overlap in practice. The tool is mainly used to evaluate what approach has been used in a project, program or policy. It can also, however, be used to evaluate future options. Ask how policies or programs address gender issues. What approach is being adopted?
  • 40.  Tool 6 – Involve women, gender-aware organizations and planners in planning  Examine to what degree women and gender- aware organizations and individuals are involved in the planning process. Involving them to the maximum extent will ensure that women‟s real practical and strategic gender needs are incorporated into the planning process. Examine how women gender-aware organizations and individuals can be directly involved at all stages, from analysis to implementation.
  • 41. Step 4: Ending the process Check again that the local analysts you have spoken with know what the information will be used for. Ask the analysts to reflect on the advantages, disadvantages and the analytical potential of the tool. Thank the local analysts for their time and effort.
  • 42. While the Moser gender analysis framework is primarily a “planning tool” aimed at establishing gender planning as a type of planning in its own right, a recent complementary methodology – a gender audit – aims to describe the impacts of gender mainstreaming in terms of three concepts http://go.worldbank.org/SDR62R2AL0
  • 43.  Evaporation - where good policy intentions are not followed through in practice  “Invisibilization” - where monitoring and evaluation procedures do not document what is actually occurring in practice or „on the ground‟  Resistance - when effective mechanisms prevent gender mainstreaming with opposition being political, and based on gender power relations, rather than on technocratic procedural constraints.
  • 44.  Participatory gender audits have increasingly become seen as important as awareness of the central role that organizational structure and culture play in the design and delivery of gender sensitive policies, programs and project has increased.  Gender audits emphasize the importance of examining systems and processes within institutions to measure the extent to which they live up to the shared values and objectives in terms of gender to which they are committed.
  • 45.  The concept of gender roles may tend to obscure the concept of gender relationships.  It may give a sense of a stable balance, acceptance of each person's normal activities and rights, when in fact there is ongoing negotiation, conflict and compromise.  The framework does not consider evolution of the socioeconomic structure over time.  The framework only addresses gender inequality and does not consider other types of inequality such as caste, class or race "Moser‟s Gender Planning Framework". International Labour Organization: South-East Asia and the Pacific Multidisciplinary Advisory Team.
  • 46.  the triple role concept obscures the distinction between activity and outcome.  E.g. the outcome of child care could be achieved by the mother at home, by a communal crèche or through paid private or state facilities. These are very different in terms of their effect on women March, Candida; Smyth, Inés A.; Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee (1999). A guide to gender- analysis frameworks. Oxfam. p. 55ff.
  • 47. Developed by Rani Parker (1993) •Helps determine the differing impacts of development interventions on women & men. •Provides a community based technique for identification and analysis •Initiates a process of analysis that identifies and challenges gender roles within the community in a constructive manner.
  • 48. To determine differing impacts of interventions on women & men. •At the planning stage →determine potential gender effects •At the design stage → gender considerations may change the design •During monitoring stage →address broader program impacts
  • 49.  Labor → Changes in task, capacity.  Time → Changes in the amount of time ( 3 hours, 4 days, etc ).  Resource → Changes in access to capital (income, land, etc); Changes in control over resource  Cultural → Changes in social aspect (gender roles, status, etc )
  • 50. Can be transformative if done by community  No need for experts except as facilitators  People are the subject of analysis
  • 51. Chaz Bono