Reframing Health
as more than Health-care
Recognizing the importance of self-management
and the role individuals have
in d...
Improving health-care
is a “wicked problem”
No consensus on “the problem”

No “stopping rule”

No clear-cut formula for ju...
Wicked problems can only
be resolved by reframing
This talk describes a growing trend, broadening...

health to well-being...
What is health?




                  R 4
Traditional frame: illness
Today, health is often seen
as the absence of disease
or infirmity.


                              R 6
Traditional health-care
        focuses on acute problems


 Goals Eliminate or minimize
       acute disease and infirmiti...
Health-management focuses
        on chronic conditions


 Goals Eliminate or minimize          Manage chronic conditions;...
Behavior does not change
on a physician’s orders
“Take medication as directed”

“Walk 10,000 steps”

“Get 8 hours of sleep...
Pathology-focused solutions
fail to see the whole person
Narrow focus on
asthma, CHF, or diabetes,...

Pill reminders

Tra...
HCP-patient relationships
are not symmetrical
We call individuals patients

Doctors and nurses are professionals

Professi...
In wicked problems,
we share a “symmetry
of ignorance”
           —Horst Rittel




                           H 12
The tools of acute-care
are ill-suited to chronic-care
The American Heart Association reports,
“The No. 1 problem in treat...
Reframing: Well-being
Health is a state
of complete physical,mental,
and social well-being
and not merely the absence
of disease or infirmity.
—W...
Health is “a resource for life,
not the objective of living”
—World Health Organization (WHO), 1986




                  ...
Well-being depends on
       more than health-care

Goals Health: complete physical,
      mental and social well-being


...
Well-being is a means,
       not an end
Goals Quality of everyday living



Means Health: complete physical,             ...
What is self-management?
Goals Quality of everyday living



Means Health: complete physical,
      mental and social well...
Some data
The norm:
         complex self-management
                    49.2                                                       ...
Projected rise in chronic
         disease from 2003 to 2023
          70
                                                ...
Chronic health conditions
are often interrelated
A survey of 120,000 employees found:



No chronic conditions   23%      ...
Making this real
People care about Life ...




                             R 25
... and cope with Health




                           R 26
Diabetes
~24m adults have diabetes (mainly type 2)
~10m have 1 additional chronic illness
~ 6m have 2 or more additional c...
Chron’s Disease
~500,000 adults



Medications                  Health Status                      Context
Humira         ...
Implications for design
A billion little experiments:
each of us figuring out
what’s working for us now
                                         Go...
trial and error ≈
           experiment ≈
quality management ≈
                        ≈ design

                         ...
An enabling infrastructure:
sensors+big data+services
                                                Dialogue




       ...
Industrial Age Medicine
Encouraged

              More costly


                            Tertiary    Professional Care
...
Information Age Health-care
Encouraged

              Less costly


                            Individual self-care

    ...
Convergence for health



  Biology        Computing




                             H 35
Patient-driven health-care

“A collaborative co-care model is starting to evolve
for health-care delivery... the patient’s...
Health frame eras summary
          Traditional                      Emerging
          Health-care frame                S...
...summary continued
Relies on   Medical establishment      Individual, family, and friends
                              ...
Design frame eras summary
           Traditional                Emerging
           Designer frame             Meta-design...
Patients become designers
                creates conditions in which




Meta-Designer
                                  ...
Questions to ask yourself
People focus on life,
not health
Are you framing the problem broadly enough?
- Understand full context of person’s life,
 ...
Health is multi-factorial

How well are you addressing the user’s unique situation?

Is your system supporting all key fac...
Health is dynamic

Is your system meant for on-going or episodic use?

Is it designed to evolve?

- Design for ongoing, co...
Continuous learning enables
continuous adjustment
To what extent does your system support self-learning?
- Provide auto-an...
Special thanks to
Paul Pangaro
Shelley Evenson




Rajiv Mehta
rajivzume@gmail.com
650 823 3274




Hugh Dubberly
hugh@dub...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Rajiv Mehta and Hugh Dubberly at BayCHI: Reframing Health As More Than Healthcare

3,273 views
3,191 views

Published on

http://www.baychi.org/calendar/20100309/#1

Rajiv Mehta, Zume Life, and Hugh Dubberly, Dubberly Design Office:

Reframing Health As More Than Health-care: Recognizing the importance of self-management and the role individuals have in designing their own well-being

Significantly improving the design of product and services for health requires a dramatic shift in thinking, from a paternalistic view of patient to a respectful view of person, and from a narrow goal of alleviating sickness to a holistic goal of supporting wellbeing. Noting that it is a wicked problem, we will expand the frame of health from traditional health-care to a resource for living. We will describe the varied challenges people face in executing their self-defined health self-management efforts and in conducting tiny self-experiments. Finally we will discuss the required change in design approach, challenging designers to focus on meta-design and to enable users to be the ultimate designers of their own health & wellness systems.

Published in: Education

Rajiv Mehta and Hugh Dubberly at BayCHI: Reframing Health As More Than Healthcare

  1. 1. Reframing Health as more than Health-care Recognizing the importance of self-management and the role individuals have in designing their own well-being Rajiv Mehta & Hugh Dubberly
  2. 2. Improving health-care is a “wicked problem” No consensus on “the problem” No “stopping rule” No clear-cut formula for judging solutions Every solution is a “one-shot operation” No clear-cut list of alternative solutions Each person’s situation is unique —after Horst Rittel R 2
  3. 3. Wicked problems can only be resolved by reframing This talk describes a growing trend, broadening... health to well-being health-care to self-management the role of patients to that of experiment designers This trend parallels a shift in design practice, enabling... users to be designers H 3
  4. 4. What is health? R 4
  5. 5. Traditional frame: illness
  6. 6. Today, health is often seen as the absence of disease or infirmity. R 6
  7. 7. Traditional health-care focuses on acute problems Goals Eliminate or minimize acute disease and infirmities Means Medicine and therapies administered by HCPs with patient’s consent; patients have little say in means H 7
  8. 8. Health-management focuses on chronic conditions Goals Eliminate or minimize Manage chronic conditions; acute disease and infirmities avoid or slow deterioration leading to acute problems Means Medicine and therapies Medicine and therapies administered by HCPs prescribed by physicians with patient’s consent; and administered by patients, patients have little say in who may have other priorities means or may reject means H 8
  9. 9. Behavior does not change on a physician’s orders “Take medication as directed” “Walk 10,000 steps” “Get 8 hours of sleep” “Snacks/sweets only on days beginning with S”... Result: poor compliance R 9
  10. 10. Pathology-focused solutions fail to see the whole person Narrow focus on asthma, CHF, or diabetes,... Pill reminders Trackers for diet, exercise, mood, pain... Bio-metric devices... Result: modest impact R 10
  11. 11. HCP-patient relationships are not symmetrical We call individuals patients Doctors and nurses are professionals Professionals care for patients Patients passively receive treatment Patients who do not follow a physician’s orders are not in compliance H 11
  12. 12. In wicked problems, we share a “symmetry of ignorance” —Horst Rittel H 12
  13. 13. The tools of acute-care are ill-suited to chronic-care The American Heart Association reports, “The No. 1 problem in treating illness today is patients’ failure to take prescription medications.” That’s blaming patients. Leonard Syme suggests, “We need to pay attention to the things people care about, and stop being such experts about risk factors.” R 13
  14. 14. Reframing: Well-being
  15. 15. Health is a state of complete physical,mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. —World Health Organization (WHO),1948 R 15
  16. 16. Health is “a resource for life, not the objective of living” —World Health Organization (WHO), 1986 R 16
  17. 17. Well-being depends on more than health-care Goals Health: complete physical, mental and social well-being Means Acute care Chronic care Self-management supported by HCPs, friends, and family Other means, such as: - Employer practices - Social policies - Essentials: clean air + water food + shelter education + stability H 17
  18. 18. Well-being is a means, not an end Goals Quality of everyday living Means Health: complete physical, Other goals/means, mental and social well-being such as: - Love of family + friends - Valued work Means Acute care Chronic care Self-management - Financial security supported by HCPs, - Physical security friends, and family - Participation in society - Fun + joy Other means, such as: - Employer practices - Social policies - Essentials: clean air + water food + shelter education + stability H 18
  19. 19. What is self-management? Goals Quality of everyday living Means Health: complete physical, mental and social well-being Means Acute care Chronic care Self-management supported by HCPs, friends, and family Means Medicines + Medicines + People actively involved therapies therapies in their own: ...in relation to their: - monitoring... - bodies - goal-setting... - diet - experimenting... - activities - understanding... - relationships - reflecting... - environment H 19
  20. 20. Some data
  21. 21. The norm: complex self-management 49.2 Millions of people 50 reporting selected conditions 40 36.8 2003 30.3 30 19.2 20 13.7 10.6 10 2.4 0 ns on rs se es rs ke de ce ea et tio ro si n ab an or St s di te Di is on C Di er lD rt C yp ea ta y H H ar en on M lm Pu Source: Milken Institute R 21
  22. 22. Projected rise in chronic disease from 2003 to 2023 70 62% 60 54% 53% 50 39% 41% 40 31% 29% 30 20 19% 10 Population Growth 0 ns on rs se es rs ke de ce ea et tio ro si n ab an or St s di te Di is on C Di er lD rt C yp ea ta y H H ar en on M lm Pu Source: Milken Institute R 22
  23. 23. Chronic health conditions are often interrelated A survey of 120,000 employees found: No chronic conditions 23% 19% 5 or more 8% 4 conditions 1 condition 22% 12% 3 conditions 16% 2 conditions Source: IBI R 23
  24. 24. Making this real
  25. 25. People care about Life ... R 25
  26. 26. ... and cope with Health R 26
  27. 27. Diabetes ~24m adults have diabetes (mainly type 2) ~10m have 1 additional chronic illness ~ 6m have 2 or more additional chronic illnesses Medications Health Status Context Insulin Novolin Physical Symptoms Social Insulin Novolog Fatigue Activities Metformin Frequent urination Social interaction ACE inhibitor Excessive thirst Multi-vitamin Ibuprofen Sudden weight loss Work Blurred vision Workload Cold sweat Therapies Headache Work conditions Foot massage Psychosocial Health Geographic Location Biometrics Mood Anxiety Environmental stressors Blood glucose Stress Blood pressure / pulse Overall Health Weight Medication Notes Exercise Side effects, such as... Various Injection site pain/redness/swelling Rash Shortness of breath Diet Food journal Calorie counting R 27
  28. 28. Chron’s Disease ~500,000 adults Medications Health Status Context Humira Physical Symptoms Social Azathioprine Fatigue Activities Bupropion (depression) Nausea Social interaction Folic Acid Loss of appetite Vitamin B12 Calcium + Vitamin D Abdominal Pain Work Diarrhea Workload Bloody Stools Therapies Rectal Bleeding Work conditions Relaxation exercises Psychosocial Health Geographic Location Biometrics Mood Anxiety Environmental stressors Weight Stress Temperature (as needed) Overall Health Exercise Medication Notes Yoga SIDE EFFECTS Walking Injection site pain/red/swelling Rash Shortness of Breath Diet Joint pain Meticulous food journaling CONTRA-INDICATIONS Cold or Sinus Infections R 28
  29. 29. Implications for design
  30. 30. A billion little experiments: each of us figuring out what’s working for us now Goals Observations compared to goals by... Person takes... Actions affect the... New observations suggest... ...new actions Body affect the Disturbances H 30
  31. 31. trial and error ≈ experiment ≈ quality management ≈ ≈ design H 31
  32. 32. An enabling infrastructure: sensors+big data+services Dialogue Physician Sensors Direct Connection Observations Phone Patient’s PC Web-based Care-giver’s PC Nurse or (Network hub) Applications Health Coach Infusion Patient Sets Dialogue Family and Friends H 32
  33. 33. Industrial Age Medicine Encouraged More costly Tertiary Professional Care Secondary Primary Self-care (off the map) Discouraged Less costly Source: Tom Ferguson, 1995 R 33
  34. 34. Information Age Health-care Encouraged Less costly Individual self-care Family and friends Self-help networks Professionals as facilitators Discouraged More costly Professionals as partners Professionals as authorities Source: Tom Ferguson, 1995 R 34
  35. 35. Convergence for health Biology Computing H 35
  36. 36. Patient-driven health-care “A collaborative co-care model is starting to evolve for health-care delivery... the patient’s role may become one of active participant, information sharer, peer leader, and self-tracker, while the physician’s role may become one of care consultant, co-creator, and health co-ordinator.” —Melanie Swan, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2009 H 36
  37. 37. Health frame eras summary Traditional Emerging Health-care frame Self-management frame Scope Relieve acute conditions Maintain well-being Now Over a lifetime Approach Intervention; treatment Prevention; healthy living Expert-directed Self-managed Apply standards of care Measure, assess, and adjust; iterate Lengthy regulatory pre-approval Learn and adapt as you go Subject Symptoms and test results Whole person, seen in context Response Prescribe medication Improve behavior, environment H 37
  38. 38. ...summary continued Relies on Medical establishment Individual, family, and friends Social networks, others like me HCP as Authority, expert Coach, assistant Dispensing knowledge Learning from patients Patient as Helpless, child-like Responsible adult Taking orders Setting goals, testing hunches Relation Asymmetric, one-way Symmetric, reciprocal Command and control Discussion and collaboration Records HCP’s notes of visit Patient’s notes, data from sensors Sporadic Continuously collected Dispersed between offices Connected; aggregated Managed by HCPs Controlled by patients H 38
  39. 39. Design frame eras summary Traditional Emerging Designer frame Meta-designer frame Scope Stand-alone products Integrated systems of hardware, software, networked applications, and human services Manufactured, duplicated Configured, customized Single-function tools Languages, platforms, APIs, construction kits, kits of parts Function Aid consumption Aid production Approach Simplify Increase choice Make it easy Make it rich and subtle Dumb-down (de-skill) Create an environment for learning H 39
  40. 40. Patients become designers creates conditions in which Meta-Designer creates conditions in which acts on Designer User learns from learns from responds to Artifact Products Tools Languages (tools for making tools) H 40
  41. 41. Questions to ask yourself
  42. 42. People focus on life, not health Are you framing the problem broadly enough? - Understand full context of person’s life, not just the micro-activity (e.g. taking a pill, recording weight) Is your system alleviating or increasing the user’s workload? - Minimize bio-cost of initiating and using self-management tools Whose needs are you addressing first and foremost? - Appreciate centrality of self-directed goals; user as final authority of personal goals and deciding “what’s best” R 42
  43. 43. Health is multi-factorial How well are you addressing the user’s unique situation? Is your system supporting all key factors, including non-medical factors? - Design flexible frameworks, customizable by users to their own needs - Accommodate, don’t dictate, user’s choice of tools, therapies, interests - Enable people to design their own well-being R 43
  44. 44. Health is dynamic Is your system meant for on-going or episodic use? Is it designed to evolve? - Design for ongoing, constantly changing, tiny self-experiments - Support control and tracking of non-experimental variables R 44
  45. 45. Continuous learning enables continuous adjustment To what extent does your system support self-learning? - Provide auto-analysis of user’s own health experience over time - Support user self-analysis (e.g. visualization) How does your system enable learning from others’ experience? - Support learning from “others like me” - Support auto-identification of “others like me” R 45
  46. 46. Special thanks to Paul Pangaro Shelley Evenson Rajiv Mehta rajivzume@gmail.com 650 823 3274 Hugh Dubberly hugh@dubberly.com 415 468 9799

×