Intro to urban planning eng


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  • 世界都市 森林再生 資源開発 国土軸 世界都市 国土開発軸 A reforestation exploitation of resources country axis world city Country development axis
  • We facilitate discussions in this manner in the stakeholder workshops. First, where are we now? This is important question to recognize the reality of the situation of their city. For this question, we, the consultant team provided diagnostic analysis and comparative advantages. The second question is where would we like to be? This calls for participants’ visioning their city in the future. This question is rather difficult to clearly answer. The third question is what issues do we need to address? Since the participants are facing some problems in their city lives, they can easily demonstrate their project ideas. However, the most difficult question is the next one: What action must we take to get there? At present, we are progressing up to the third question.
  • One of the major changes taking place today is the shift of government functions from the historic “provider” of public services to the “manager of providers” of public services . Taking into consideration the financial viability dominated by inherent characteristics of rail transit development versus government’s limited fiscal situation, URMAP recommended to adopt a PPP-based delivery system. In the system, public sector should share part of initial costs and remain responsible for overall project management, whilst private sector should share the remaining costs for completing the system, and operate and maintain the system after completion.   The basic rationale for this change is that when properly implemented, it results in significant benefits, in terms of improved performance and lower costs, to both the government and to the public being serviced. Essentially, it is a shift from a monopoly government provider to a competitive environment. PPP is a broader concept covering PFI, Privatization, Outsourcing, Concession, Joint Venture, Sales Leaseback, Wider Market Initiative , etc. However, what I am presenting is the concept more akin to PFI in UK.
  • Here, I will touch on the VFM maximization by PPP. Obviously, VFM implies the value of public services against the tax money input . More specifically, VFM is measured as the difference of probable total public spending between the two implementation cases under conventional public initiative and PPP. The former public spending is measured as Public Sector Comparators - PSC in terms of Net Present Value, including risk cost, repair / renewal cost, operation / maintenance cost, and construction cost. Whilst, the latter public spending is measured as Life Cycle Cost - LCC in terms of Net present Value, including project formation cost and total service charges. The difference between PSC and LCC is VFM. According to the experiences in UK, average 15 to 17 percent of VFM was produced from the application of PFI.
  • Intro to urban planning eng

    1. 1. Learning Session for UBMPSIntroduction to Urban Planning July 24, 2007 Dr. K. Nagayama Deputy Team Leader, JICA Study Team 1
    2. 2. Learning Session for UBMPS Topics1. What is required by “Urban Planning” ?2. What should “Urban Planning” address ?3. What process is needed for “Urban Planning” ?4. Some Notable Planning Agenda 2
    3. 3. Learning Session for UBMPS Topics1. What is required by “Urban Planning” ?2. What should “Urban Planning” address ?3. What process is needed for “Urban Planning” ?4. Some Notable Planning Agenda 3
    4. 4. Learning Session for UBMPSUrbanization….. 4
    5. 5. Learning Session for UBMPS How to manage “Urbanization”?• Rapid population increase is taking place in cities.• Rural-to-urban Migration is predominant.• Pull effect (Urban)+ Push effect (Rural) Urban “bright” or Urban “blight” ? Urban “bright” or Urban “blight” ?t ge men M ana t h G row 5
    6. 6. Learning Session for UBMPSPoverty alleviation is achallenging urban issue. 6
    7. 7. Learning Session for UBMPSPoverty alleviation is achallenging urban issue.• Poverty is related to “Employment, Education, Health, Housing, …….• Rural economy is a reason of “Being Poverty”.• Economic Trickle -down EffectPlanning Target vs. Political Target?Planning Target vs. Political Target? t ge men M ana t h G row 7
    8. 8. Learning Session for UBMPSEconomic Trickle -down Effect Income Level Peripheral Central Peripheral 8
    9. 9. Learning Session for UBMPSGrowth Management 9
    10. 10. Learning Session for UBMPSRedevelopment for Vitalization ofUrban Economy 10
    11. 11. Learning Session for UBMPSConceptual Structure ofthe National Development Mineral Resources-Agriculture-based based DevelopmentDevelopment Darkhan Hovd Erdenet Choybaisan Uliastay World City Undurkhaan Harhorm Ulaanbaatar Agriculture-based National Development Corridor Choir Development Reforestation Zuun Mineral Resources- based Development National Growth Corridor 11
    12. 12. Learning Session for UBMPS Topics1. What is required by “Urban Planning” ?2. What should “Urban Planning” address ?3. What process is needed for “Urban Planning” ?4. Some Notable Planning Agenda 12
    13. 13. Learning Session for UBMPS Four (4) Principles of Urban Planning1. Public Benefits first2. Priority to “Conservation”3. Keep moving with 4Es (Engineering, Education, Enforcement)4. Secure People’s “quality of life” 13
    14. 14. Learning Session for UBMPSCommon issues held by cities1.Lack of sufficient infrastructures and public service facilities2.Poor institutions for urban planning and growth management;3.Weak financial and tax basis of local governments;4.Less coordination and integration among locally available resources;5.Less autonomous motivations due to a centralized resource allocation system. 14
    15. 15. Learning Session for UBMPSFive Planning Issues• Issues: – Livability – Competitiveness – Bankability – Good Governance – Environmental Conservation 15
    16. 16. Learning Session for UBMPSKey Elements for Urban Planning Physical & Spatial Structure (hardware) Integrated Urban PlanInstitutional & Human ResoruceLegal Systems Development (software) (humanware) 16
    17. 17. Learning Session for UBMPSPlanning Elements for SustainableUrban Growth1 Economic System Social System 2 for Sustainable Growth for Equitable Growth 3 Environmental Conservation & Management Environmental Conservation & Management4 5Strategic Development Balanced Developmentof Leading Metropolitan Cities of Local Cities 17
    18. 18. Learning Session for UBMPS Key Factors/ Elements to Successful and Meaningful Master Plan (6) Ownership of An Institutional Plan Framework (2) Strong Local Leadership(7) Support of (5) Possibility (1) Local (3) Stakeholder Donors of Resource Enthusiasm Participation Mobilization Donor Coordination (4) Capacity Realistic Rationalized Building Planning and Plan & Planning Management Process Framework 18
    19. 19. Learning Session for UBMPSContents of Urban Master Plan1. Urban Planning Policy (Goals and Missions)2. Urban Land Use & Zoning3. Transport System & Structure4. Urban Infrastructure and Utilities5. Housing and Living Conditions6. Urban Environment and Disaster Management7. Urban Growth Management and Governance8. Financial Capacity Strengthening 19
    20. 20. Learning Session for UBMPS Topics1. What is required by “Urban Planning” ?2. What should “Urban Planning” address ?3. What process is needed for “Urban Planning” ?4. Some Notable Planning Agenda 20
    21. 21. Learning Session for UBMPS Strategic Planning Process1. Where are we now? (Diagnostic Analysis, Comparative advantages)2. Where would we like to be? (Future Visions)3. What issues do we need to address? (Formuationo of Projects/Programs)4. What action must we take to get there? (Prioritization, Implementation Programming) 21
    22. 22. Learning Session for UBMPS Rationales of Planning Process Status Status Analysi Analysi ss Visioning VisioningSWOTAnalysi s Programmin Future Demand Programmin Forecast g g Development Prioritization Prioritization Framework Cost Estimate Action Action Planning Planning Cost-Benefit Analysis Financial Scheduling 22
    23. 23. Learning Session for UBMPS Strategic Planning Approach… 2. Visioning 3. Strategy Building Vision Strategic Path1. Status Analysis Present Situation 2015 2030 23
    24. 24. Learning Session for UBMPS Stakeholders Workshops Leader’s City InitiationConceptualization lessons View-exchange Group Presentation 24
    25. 25. Learning Session for UBMPS Setting of Planning Goals For up-lifting people’s quality of life More smooth More smooth Livable Housing Livable Housingpeople’s mobility people’s mobility Ulaanbaatar Ulaanbaatar !! Urban Visions Urban Visions Help the poor !! Help the poor Environment- Environment- conscious !! conscious 25
    26. 26. Learning Session for UBMPS Issues and Measures of Urban Planning Planning Issues UrbanIssues of Urban Planning1. Create “Livable City” for All Public Transport System2. Achieve sustainable and Land Use Zoning competitive economic growth Road Transport Network3. Strengthen the municipal Industries, Business, financing capacity Tourism & FRI Inducement4. Assure Environmental ICT and Urban Utilities Conservation New Taxation and Laws5. Prepare legal Framework for Growth Management & Alleviation of Environmental Good Governance Pollution 26
    27. 27. Learning Session for UBMPS Topics1. What is required by “Urban Planning” ?2. What should “Urban Planning” address ?3. What process is needed for “Urban Planning” ?4. Some Notable Planning Agenda 27
    28. 28. Learning Session for UBMPSDemand-Supply Gap Fulfillment Service Capacity/Volume Supply Schedule A Supply Schedule B Shortage/Congestion Over-supply/Investment Risk Demand Curve 2007 2015 2020 2030 28
    29. 29. Learning Session for UBMPS Public Transport Modal Hierarchy Applicable Modes and Systems 60,000+CAPACITY (Persons/hr/Lane) 50,000 Mass Rapid Transit 40,000 30,000 Light Rail 20,000 Transit Bus Priority 10,000 Tramway Bus in Monorail Mixed Traffic 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 29 OPERATING SPEED (km/hr)
    30. 30. Learning Session for UBMPS Multimodal Cargo Transport and Unit Load System Unit Unit Unit Factory B Factory B Factory C Truck in Unit Truck in Unit Station Railway in Unit Port / Airport Airplane in Unit Port / Airport Railway in Unit Truck in Unit Station Unit Unit Truck in Unit Customer BCustomer A 30
    31. 31. Learning Session for UBMPS The Global Trend of Containerization, Globalization & Standardization Packaged in Standardized Units Container Each Cargo ItemStandardized International Transport Transported as UnitVessel Train Truck 31 Airplane
    32. 32. Learning Session for UBMPS What is PPP?• Establish partnership with commercial market, Government & communities →   From Vertical Relation to Horizontal Relation• Facilitate business sector’s participation →   Deepen Communication with Stakeholders of Development• Re-define government’s roles for social and economic development →   Adopt new positive “Social Welfare Policy ” 32
    33. 33. Learning Session for UBMPSGovernment’s functions shifting fromproviding public services itself towardsbecoming a “manager of the providers” …. PPP PPP Concept Part of Capital PFI Investment Privatization Joint Venture Overall Management Outsourcing Sales Leaseback Part of Capital Concession Investment Wider Market Operation & Initiative Maintenance u P % 01 i r P % 01 0 0 33
    34. 34. Learning Session for UBMPSVFM Maximization by PPP Conventional Public Initiative PPP NPV VFMPublic Spending Risk Cost Repair/Renewal Cost Project Formation Cost Total Payment for Operation/Maintenance Service Charges Cost Construction Cost 34
    35. 35. Learning Session for UBMPS How to promote it ? Mongolia MongoliaMongolian Gov. Partnership Private Sector Improve Investment Money, Environment through Deregulation Technology & Dialogue Human ResourceJapanese Gov. Partnership Private Sector Japan Japan 35
    36. 36. Learning Session for UBMPSLet’s remind four (4) principles of Urban Planning …• Public Benefits first• Priority to “Conservation”• Keep moving with 4Es (Engineering, Education, Enforcement)• Secure People’s “quality of life” Thank you .. 36
    37. 37. Learning Session for UBMPS 37
    38. 38. Learning Session for UBMPS 38
    39. 39. Learning Session for UBMPS 39
    40. 40. Learning Session for UBMPS 40