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    White pape2010r on ict development of mongolia White pape2010r on ict development of mongolia Document Transcript

    • ICTPAWhITE PAPEr:InFOrMATIOn And COMMUnICATIOnS TEChnOlOgydEvElOPMEnT OF MOngOlIA White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 01
    • Initiated by: A. Munkhbat, Vice Chairman, ICTPA Developed by: L. Ariunaa, CEO, Intec Co., Ltd L. Sayanaa, Director for Business Development and External Relations, Intec Co., Ltd A. Khaliunaa, Researcher, Intec Co., Ltd D. Munkhtur, Researcher, Intec Co., Ltd D. Bulgan, Researcher, Intec Co., Ltd Ch.Nurguli, Director, ICT Infrastructure Development Project B. Tsetseg, Deputy Director, SIM Dept., ICTPA Edited by: Dr. U. Odgerel, Director General, SIM Dept., ICTPA Sponsored by Mobicom Corporation All rights are reserved by ICTPA and Intec Co., Ltd @ 2010. Published by Interpress Co., Ltd Printed in Mongolia Cover paintings by: S.Nomin (5th grade, School # 33, Ulaanbaatar city) M.Bujin (7th grade, School # 33, Ulaanbaatar city)02 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • C NTENTS
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 1. Acronyms ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line APIN Asia Pacific Information Network CATV Cable Television CDMA Code Division Multiple Access CRC Communications Regulatory Commission of Mongolia EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution ERP Enterprise Resource Planning EVDO Evolution-Data Optimized GPRS General Packet Radio Service GSM Global System for Mobile Communications HDSL High bit rate Digital Subscriber Line ICNC Information Communications Network Company ICT Information and Communications Technology ICTPA Information, Communications, Technology and Post Authority of Mongolia IDI ICT Development Index IP Internet Protocol IPTV Internet Protocol based Television ITU International Telecommunications Union LAN Local Area Networks MDG Millennium Development Goals MECS Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia MIDAS Mongolian Information Development Association04 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • MISPA Mongolian Internet Services Providers AssociationMITSA Mongolian Information Technology Students AssociationMNT Mongolian Currency TugrugMOSA Mongolian Software Industry AssociationMT Mongolia TelecomMTWA Mongolian Telecommunications Workers AssociationMUST Mongolian University of Science and TechnologyNBIA National Business Incubation AssociationNDC National Data CenterNGN Next Generation NetworkNGOs Non-governmental organizationsNITP National Information Technology ParkNSO National Statistical OfficeRTND Radio and Television Network DepartmentSOHO Small Office and Small HomeTLD Top-Level DomainUN United NationsUSOF Universal Service Obligation FundVDSL Very-high-bit Rate Digital Subscriber LineVoIP Voice over Internet ProtocolVSAT Very Small Aperture TerminalWLL Wireless Local Loop White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 05
    • 3. Executive Summary The White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia is a publication of the Information Communications Technology and Post Authority (ICTPA) of Mongolia. The first issue was issued in 2006 in cooperation with Intec Co., Ltd and MIDAS NGO and followed the second publication in 2008 in partnership with Intec Co., Ltd. The current paper aims to provide comprehensive information on the development of ICT sector in Mongolia. The wide range of topics on policy, legal and regulatory environment and ICT sector specific areas, such as communications, Internet, software industry, postal services, radio and television broadcasting, ICT related resources, and sectoral organizations, is covered by this Paper. The ICT development of Mongolia has advanced tremendously for the last five years. The telecommunications network of over thirteen thousand kms of fiber optic cable covers all of Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, and connects all aimag1 centers and some 151 soum2 centers. The number of mobile phone subscribers has reached over 2.3 millions. Internet is widely used in all sectors of economic and social development of Mongolia. According to the United Nations “E-Government Survey 2010”, “…Mongolia (0.5243) gained 29 positions to be ranked 53rd globally, a dramatic rise due primarily by efforts to enhance its national portal and ministry websites to offer more e-services and more online content...” (UN, 2010). The following table represents rankings of Mongolia among Eastern Asian countries. World e-government development E-government development index value Country ranking 2010 2008 2010 2008 Republic of Korea 0.8785 0.8317 1 6 Japan 0.7152 0.7703 17 11 Mongolia 0.5243 0.4735 53 82 China 0.4700 0.5017 72 65 Sub-regional 0.6470 0.6443 average World average 0.4406 0.4514 Table-1. E-government development in Eastern Asia, 2010 (Source: UN, 2010) Mongolia is in the top 20 countries in regards to online service development, in front of some developed countries. (ibid) 1 Aimag is a largest administrative unit of Mongolia 2 Soum is a sub-administrative unit of Mongolia08 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 09
    • Bayan-Olgii Uvs Hovsgol Khovd Zavhan Bulgan Arhangai Gobi-Altai Bayankhongor Uvurkhangai
    • Selenge Dornod Hentii ULAANBAATAR Sukhbaatar Dundgobi DornogobiOmnogobi
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 201012 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
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    • 449,2 365,2 283,5 181,7140,4 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 108,7 76,4 76,5 71,457,3 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 21
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 70,6 73,0 54,0 34,5 38,0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Graph 3. Sector investment The following graph represents composition of ICT sector revenues in 2009. It can be seen that about 74% of total revenues of ICT sector are generated by mobile services and the remaining 26% are contributed by fixed telecommunications network, VoIP, Internet, Cable TV, broadcasting and other. Mobile 74% Graph 4. Composition of ICT sector revenues in 200922 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • 5.1. Telecommunications IndustryOur country has become fully digitalized as far as switching and transmission equipmentis concerned. The following graph represents the overall coverage of fiber optic andVSAT network of Mongolia. It can be seen that the backbone fiber optic network hasreached all aimag centers and some soum centers. The Information CommunicationNetwork Company (http://www.icnc.mn) is the owner of the national backbone andaccess network of Mongolia including international, long distance, rural and localtransmission networks and local loops. In addition, private operators such as Mobicom(http://www.mobicom.mn), Gemnet (http://www.gemnet.mn), Skytel (http://www.skytel.mn) and Mongolian Railway (http://www.railcom.mn) have installed fiber opticnetworks in some locations.There are over 188,875 fixed telephone users in Mongolia constituting a ratio of 6.9 per100 people.There are over 44,539 users who are subscribed to WLL services, and a ratio of WLLsubscribers per 100 people has reached 1.52 in 2009, an increase by 0.22 comparedto 2008. WLL services are provided by Skytel, Mobicom, and Mongolia Telecom (http://www.telecommongolia.mn). Fibre optic cable network VSAT Figure 4. National transmission network White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 23
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 Out of total of 188,875 fixed telephone users, the majority (89% or 128,675 users) are users of Mongolia Telecom, and the rest are users subscribed to the Government Communications Department, RailCom and SkyNetCom (http://www.skynetcom.mn). Graph 5. Number of fixed telephones Out of all 44,539 users, who are subscribed to WLL services, the majority of subscribers use services offered by Mongolia Telecom, representing 88% of subscribers (39,443 subscribers), and the remaining subscribers use services offered by Mobicom and Skytel. The following graph represents an increase of the number of WLL services in Mongolia. 44,200 44,539 36,577 36,577 31,900 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Graph 6. Number of WLL users24 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 25
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 5.2. Mobile Communications Services There are four mobile phone operators in Mongolia, which provide services to over 2 million subscribers of Mongolia, with penetration of more than 80% of the total population of Mongolia by 2009. Two mobile service providers use GSM system and the other two operators use CDMA system. The following graph represents the number of subscribers by each mobile service operator including pre-paid and post-paid services. 2.016.738 925.395 447.451 365.806 278.086 232.285 101.182 53.021 39.695 38.387 Mobicom Skytel Unitel G-Mobile Total Post paid Prepaid Graph 7. Number of subscribers by each mobile service operator As it can be seen from the following graph, the charges for mobile communications have been reduced more than twice since 2006. As of the end of 2009, 1 minute charge for a call with a mobile operator is average 56MNT. This shows that Mongolia is in the 91st place among 161 countries (ITU, 2010), having charges lower than the Asian average. (ITU, 2010)26 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • 170 90 75 75 75 70 65 70 60 60 54 54 42 42 36 2006 2007 2008 2009 Mobicom Skytel Unitel G-Mobile Graph 8. Mobile communications charges per 1 min3G servicesSince 2009, MobiCom, Skytel and Unitel (http://www.unitel.mn) have launched 3G- high-speed mobile broadband services in Mongolia, offering new services to theircustomers, such as Video call, Mobile broadband with high speed connection throughmobile phones or special modems, and watching TV programs. All subscribers of thesemobile service providers can have access to these services with the condition that theirmobile phones support these services.Painting by Kh.Khulan (4th grade, Mongeni complex school , Ulaanbaatar city) White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 27
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 5.3. Internet Services The first Internet Service Provider (ISP) started providing Internet services in Mongolia in 1996 with 64kbps through VSAT technology. Nowadays, there are 56 companies, which were granted with licences for Internet access and service provision by CRC. (CRC, 2009) The overall bandwidth of Mongolia is downloading 7.8Gbps and uploading 7.8Gbps. The Internet connections are made through fiber optic cable network going along the railway lines to the north to the Russian Federation, and to the south to the People’s Republic of China. At present, internet services in Mongolia are distributed via xDSL, Fiber optic, GPRS, WiMax and WiFi technologies. The following graph represents different types of technologies used for access to Internet, and as it can be seen, the majority of users access Internet through GPRS, 3G, EVDO and EDGE technologies. Graph 9. Different types of access to internet In 2009, the number of Internet subscribers was over 106,048 constituting an increase of over 61% compared to 2008, which is shown in the following graph.28 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • 106048 42010 17329 10845 9010 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Graph 10. Internet subscribersThe cost of connection to Internet services fell down tremendously in the last year.The Internet connection for corporate organizations is starting from 180.000 MNT for1Mpbs for dedicated leased line on monthly basis. The number of users connecting toInternet through dial-up is reduced to almost none as preference is given to affordableADSL and wireless EVDO/3G modem connections. The Internet connections for smalloffice and small home (SOHO) solution nowadays is 27,900MNT for monthly fee of1 Mbps.Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)There are a number of companies, which offer pre-paid international calling cardsservices through Internet protocol. The costs of calling cards starts from 2,000MNTallowing over 1 hour of phone call.Hardware supplyThere are over 30 companies in Mongolia, which supply computers and equipment tothe market. There were a total of 187,500 computers in 2009, consituting an increaseof 20% compared to 2008, according to the 2009 Annual Statistical Yearbook of theNational Statistical Office (NSO, 2010). White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 29
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 200,000 180,000 187,500 160,000 150,963 140,000 120,000 100,000 116,527 99,606 80,000 85,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Graph 11. Number of computers (2005-2009) Websites There are over 2,800 websites with Mongolia-related contents, which are hosted at .mn, .com, .org, .net, .edu, .info, .biz and other top level domains. About 63% of those websites are hosted at .mn domain. About 56% of those websites are functional, and the rest of them are either under construction, or not working. (Intec, 2009). The following graph shows the distribution of websites by different types and it can be seen that 34% of websites are websites of non-IT organizations. Graph 12. Distribution of websites with Mongolia-related contents by different types30 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • The below graph represents a comparison of websites in 2006 and 2009. It can be seenthat number of websites of government organizations, non-IT companies, educational,cultural, scientific, sports, and arts organizations has increased in 2009 compared to2006. However, the number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), entertainmentand advertisement-oriented websites has decreased.800 753700600 500500400300 264 184 191 178200 144 158 127 135 109 74 85 75100 44 17 21 0 NGO Non IT company IT company Personal Education, culture, science Entertainment information advertisement Sport, art and culture Health Governmental Organizations Graph 13. Comparison of websites in 2006 and 2009Internet based social networkingWith the development of social networking websites, more and more Mongolianshave started using social networking portals. According to social networking portals,the most popular ones among Mongolians are Facebook, Hi5, Biznetwork, Twitter andFlickr. (Vincos, 2010) White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 31
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 Figure 5. World map of Social networking The number of Mongolian users at Facebook is more than 40 thousand users, out which 18,840 are males and 21,720 are females. The following graph represents age group distribution of Mongolian users of Facebook, and it can be seen that the majority of them are young people aged between 18-34 years old. 13-15 years old 4 % 16-17 years old 6% 18-24 years old 51% 25-34 years old 30% 35-44 years old 5% 45-54 years old 2% 55-64 years old 1% 65+ years old 1% Graph 14. Number of Mongolian users at Facebook by age group As for Hi5, there are over 161,519 Mongolian users according to Quantcast (QuantCast, 2010), out of which 65% are males and 35% are females. As it can be seen from the following graph, the majority of Mongolian users at Hi5 are also young people aged between 18-34 years old. In addition, it should be noted that 28% of Mongolian users of Hi5 are people of 35-49 years old.32 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • 3-12 -1% -13% 13-17 8% 47% 18-34 53% 136% 35-49 28% 108% 50+ 12% 107% Graph 15. Number of Mongolian users at hi5 by age groupSince its launch in 2009, the Mongolian social networking website called Biznetwork hasbeen highly appreciated and used by Mongolians. Biznetwork is developed in Mongolianlanguage, thus making it more accessible and user-friendly for Mongolians. It has nowover 34,600 users, who are using it not only for networking and communicating withdifferent people by their hobbies and interests, but also for promoting their businessesand activities. Individual users create their own profiles, inviting people in their own circleof friends, colleagues and interest groups. Business organizations sign-up as businessmembers, which allows them to promote their businesses, advertise their productsand services as well as to share information on their works and announce employmentopportunities. Around 50 new jobs and vacancies are announced daily, and top 10Mongolian companies advertise through Biznetwork. (Singleton, 2010)The email marketing is becoming one of the popular means of providing informationon products and services to citizens. The email marketing companies have databases ofemail addresses of Mongolian users, which are mostly subscribed at yahoo.com, and usethis network for marketing of products and services.Painting by B.Gantsetseg(3rd grade, School #71,Ulaanbaatar city)
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 5.4. Software Industry The Mongolian software industry currently has over 100 software development companies, which specialize in the development of different software and applications, ranging from applications to be used at stand-alone computers to enterprise resource planning software to be used at network environments. There is a number of software companies, which specialize in the development of websites and portal sites, and more software companies have started to shift towards the development of web-based applications. The following graph represents information on software development companies as per number of organizations working on software outsourcing, number of staff and their income. (NITP, 2009) One of the latest tendencies in software industry is outsourcing of software and application development works from countries such as Japan, USA, UK, and others. According to a recent study conducted by the NITP’s research team, there are 22 companies in Mongolia which employ over 533 employees and are engaged in outsourcing for international markets. 600 533 500 460 400 360 300 240 200 100 19 22 10 12 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 Organization Employees Graph 16. Mongolian outsourcing companies and number of employees34 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • As it can be seen from the below graph, more and more organizations are using financial and accounting software and use of automatization software and enterprise management information systems are increasingly at organizations. 76,0 80 72,0 70 60,7 60 50 40 29,3 30 27,6 23,8 21,2 16,1 20 12,5 10 0 2008 2009 2010 Production and service Financial and Enterprise process automatization accounting management software software information system Graph 17. Software used in businessPainting by S. Anujin (7th grade, Ui Tsai school, Ulaanbaatar city) White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 35
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 5.5. Postal Services In the Mongolian postal service market, 51 licensed postal operators are currently running postal service business. There is one state owned company (designated operator) Mongol Post (http://www.mongolpost.mn), and others are private companies. Some competitive services in the postal market such as outgoing international postal services (parcel, post letter, small parcel) and outgoing international express services are shown in the following graphs. 99.75 90,73 68,84 Mongol Post 31,16 9,27 Other 0,25 Letter Parcel Small parcel Graph 18. Types of international postal services 67,91 66,12 Mongol Post 33,88 32,19 Other Letter Parcel Graph 19. Types of International postal express services36 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • ICT-related journalsThere are three major ICT-related journals published in Mongolia: “My computer/DigitalWorld”, “Computer Times”, “Bileg” and "Kholboochin"They differ from each other on the content and target audience. “My Computer/Digital World” and “Computer Times” are targeted for broader public audience,whereas Computer Times is more of entertainment type. "Kholboochin"and “Bileg”are targeted for ICT professionals and contains serious articles and publications relatedto ICT research and development. All of them are included in the list of journals forsubscriptions. For more information on these journals, visit www.kt.mn and www.mycomputer.mn websites. White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 37
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 5.6. Broadcasting Industry TV broadcasting in Mongolia started in 1967, when the first national television program was aired in Mongolia. The following graph shows the evolvement of the television broadcasters in Mongolia. 1967 1992 1996 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Figure 6. The evolvement of the television broadcasters in Mongolia Nationwide public TV broadcasting started transmission in 1992 by C-Band. Since May 2010, Mongolia has shifted to Ku-band, which allows broadcasting public and commercial TV channels nationwide. There are 115 companies and organizations, which have television broadcasting licenses, of which 21 companies have licenses in Ulaanbaatar city and 94 – in aimags. The following graph represents distribution of TV and Cable TV in aimags of Mongolia. 30 25 20 15 6 10 5 4 2 5 2 3 1 2 2 9 5 2 1 1 8 5 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 0 1 1 1 1 Arkhangai Bayankhongor Bayan-Ulgii Bulgan Gobi-Altai Gobisumber Darkhan-Uul Dornogobi Dornod Dundgobi Zavkhan Orkhon Uvurkhangai Umnugobi Sukhbaatar Selenge Tuv Uvs Khovd Khuvsgul Khentii Baganuur Nalaikh Ulaanbaatar Graph 20. Distribution of TV and Cable TV in aimags of Mongolia38 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • Cable TelevisionThere were 79 cable television (CATV) operators in Mongolia in 2009. In recent years, asa result of the enabling rural citizens to watch National TV programmes and CATV, thetotal number of rural subscribers has rapidly increased, especially in 2009. The followinggraph shows the number of CATV subscribers and market shares in CATV services in2009, from which it can be seen that the number of the CATV subscribers has increasedby 23% between 2008 and 2009. 105,296 87,487 81,221 66,000 CATV 65,197 MMDS 27,923 15,703 6,700 6,792 7,032 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Graph 21. Cable and MMDS Television subscribers Graph 22. Market distribution among different cable television providers White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 39
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 Radio broadcasting The two programs of the National Public Radio Broadcaster (NPRB) are transmitted throughout the territory of Mongolia, covering all aimags and soum centers. As it can be seen from the below figure, there are six major coverage areas: in the east in Choibalsan, in the south in Dalanzadgad, in the center in Honhor, in the mid-west in Murun and Altai, and in the west in Ulgii. Figure 7. Major coverage areas of NPRB The mobile subscribers also have benefit of listening to radio stations on their phones, especially if their phonesets are enabled radio or Internet radio services. Community radio network There are 124 companies, organizations and individuals, which have received licenses from CRC for operation and functioning of FM radio stations in Ulaanbaatar city, in aimag and some soum centers.40 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • 60 56 5050 4240 Ulaanbaatar radio stations30 23 20 20 Rural radio20 stations10 0 2006 2007 2008 Graph 23. Radio stationsInternet Protocol and Mobile TVBy end of 2009, the CRC issued two licenses for Internet Protocol (IP) based televisionand two licenses for mobile television services in Ulaanbaatar city initially, and extendedlater to other cities. The companies have modernized networks to introduce IPTV andmobile TV services, and, as a result, mobile subscribers of these two companies canbenefit from watching television on their phones, Internet, or other multimedia devices.Painting by G.Jargalmaa (3rd grade, School #71, Ulaanbaatar city) White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 41
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 5.7. ICT Human Resources Policy The revised laws on education, tertiary education, primary and secondary education were adopted in 2002. In 2006, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia (MECS) developed “Master plan to Develop Education in Mongolia for 2006- 2015”, approved by the Parliament of Mongolia. Since 2006 MECS has been implementing “General directions to introduce information technologies in the primary and secondary education sectors by year 2015”. On June 5, 2007, the Minister for Education, Culture and Science issued the decree No.183 approving some measures to be implemented in the near future, describing the measures such as using Erdemnet (Knowledge Network) for Internet connection for science, education and cultural institutions, connecting public tertiary institutions to Internet and recommending private educational institutions on increasing their Internet connection bandwidth, improving skills and knowledge of ICT of teachers and students studying in those institutions, improving use and application of ICT and Internet by teachers, and paying more attention to increasing number of computers and equipment, software and quality of utilization (MECS, 2006). For more information, visit http:// www.mecs.gov.mn website of Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia. Tertiary educational institutions There are 24 ICT educational institutions in Mongolia, which train ICT professionals, of which 7 are public institutions, and the remaining are private institutions. There are over 6,000 students studying in those institutions, specializing in software engineering, network administration, information systems and management, hardware engineering, telecommunications engineering, postal services, electronics engineering, optic communications, television and radio technology, satellite and wireless communications, information technology, and others. The following graph represents the comparative table of students studying at Bachelor, Master and Doctorate levels at all higher educational institutions of Mongolia, separated by proportion of female and male students.42 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • 5871 5960 5650 5758 2050 2135 2101 2077 96 77 30 23 12 12 4 4 Total Female Total Female Total Female Total Female The Bachelor degree The Master degree The Doctorate degree Total students 2008-2009 2009-2010 Graph 24. Number of students studying at ICT areas by degrees and genderNumber of ICT specialistsThere are over 7,150 people working in telecommunications, mobile communicationsservices, Internet services, software, hardware and consulting services companies ofMongolia. In addition, there are over 1,500 people, who are working in television andradio broadcasting. 7150 7000 6950 6850 6751 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Graph 25. Number of people working in ICT sector (2005-2009) White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 43
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 5.8. ICT related Organizations Telecommunications operators Mongolia Telecom (MT) is one of the leading telecommunications companies of Mongolia, which provides fixed telephone services to households and organizations. It is a joint-stock company, 54.33% of which belongs to Government of Mongolia, 40% belongs to Korea Telecom, and remaining 5.66% belongs to individuals. From 2006, the MT started offering Next Generation Network (NGN) CDMA 2001X and installed NGN stations at each district of Ulaanbaatar. In addition, MT is offering F-Zone wireless telecommunications services, which are used in 21 aimags centers and 34 soum centers. Among service providers, the Information Communications Network Company (ICNC) plays a leading role. ICNC is a state-owned company, which owns 100% backbone network of Mongolia, including national and international transmissions. The ICNC has its main office and branches in 3 cities, and 340 soums. The main services offered by ICNC are renting voice and data channels, cable and networks within Ulaanbaatar city, fiber optic network and other transmission equipment nationwide. Mobile phone operators There are four mobile service providers in Mongolia: Mobicom and Unitel provide services of GSM system, and Skytel and G-Mobile (www.g-mobile.mn) provide CDMA system services. Mobicom 46% Skytel 22% Unitel 18% Untel G-Mobile 14% Graph 26. Market share in mobile telephone service44 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • Internet Service ProvidersThere are 56 Internet service providers, which received licenses from CommunicationsRegulatory Commission (CRC) in 2009. The following table represents distribution ofmarket share among ISPs. MT 21.47% Sky C&C 20.19% Yokozunanet 17.66% STX citynet 15.49% Other 9.61% Magicnet 4.88% Mobicom 5.07% Ulusnet 4.88% Graph 27. Distribution of market share among ISPsVSATThere are 8 operators and companies that provide VSAT services. Mongolian Telecomhas 19 VSAT stations, Incomnet (http://www.incomnet.mn) has over 400, Orbitnet(http://www.electronics.mcs.mn) has over 29, Mobicom has 94, Skytel has 4, Unitel has31 and G-mobile has 29 VSAT stations throughout Mongolia. Incomnet 61% Meteorology , Hydrology and Environment Monitoring Center 3% Mongolian Telecom 3% Mobicom 14% Skytel 6% Unitel 5% G-Mobile 5% Mongolian Civil Aviation Authority 3% Graph 28. Number of VSAT stations by companies White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 45
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 ICT consulting companies There are about 10 companies, which specialize on providing ICT consulting services. The concept of consulting services is considerably new in Mongolia, therefore, the majority of companies specializing on ICT consulting service provision tends to offer their services to international and donor organizations, rather than to companies and institutions in Mongolia. Internet cafe There are over 120 internet cafes and game houses in Ulaanbaatar city, which are connected to high speed Internet. The services offered at Internet cafes are access to Internet, use of computers and basic services, such as photocopying, scanning documents and taking photos. According to the recent survey conducted by Intec (http://www.itconsulting.mn), IT consulting company of Mongolia, among the Internet cafes and game houses in the rural parts of Mongolia covering 16 aimags of Mongolia, the estimation is that there are about 3-5 Internet cafes or game houses in each aimag center, leading to conclusion that there are 80-100 Internet cafes outside of Ulaanbaatar city, and over 200 Internet cafes and game houses nationwide. The majority of them are connected to Internet through ADSL of 256kpbs or 512kbps connection speed. They are equipped with computers of Pentium IV model, other equipments such as video cameras, digital cameras, printers, photocopy machines, scanners, etc. (Intec, 2009). The following graph represents users of Internet cafes and game houses, from which it can be seen that the majority of users are male high school students, and those who are aged between 18-25 years old. 20% 18% 16 16 16% Male 14% Female 12% 11 10 10 10% 9 9 8% 7 6 6 6% 4% 2 2% 1 0% 6-9 10-14 15-17 18- 25 26-35 36 years old years old years old years old years old years old and above Graph 29. The users of Internet cafe and game houses by age groups46 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • InTeC in 2010:Celebrating 5 years of excellence with the mission to promote information and communications technologies as accelerator of economic growthWe, at InTeC, thank all our partners for continuouscooperation and support and wish you all the best! www.itconsulting.mn White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 47
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 Directory Service Providers There are 144 directory service providers, which have licenses for premium numbers, out of which 106 are in Ulaanbaatar city, and the remaining 38 - in aimags of Mongolia. In addition to the premium numbers, there are 13 toll-free and local rate numbers to be used for emergency purposes such as ambulance calls, fire alerts, law enforcement agencies, and others. Content Development Extensive efforts are being made to improve content development both for Internet and for mobile phones. Initiatives such as “Mongolian Content Forum”, contests among students and developers on development of software and applications for mobile services, and Further enhancement content for mobile phone, TV, IPTV and Mobile TV are being organized to support and encourage development of Mongolia content. Non-Governmental Organizations There is a number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), which are active in ICT sector in Mongolia: Mongolian Telecommunications Workers Association (MTWA), Mongolian Information Development Association (MIDAS), Mongolian Software Industry Association (MOSA), Mongolian Internet Service Providers Association (MISPA), MITSA, “Leading Researchers” and others. NGOs are mainly established with the focus on either addressing sector specific matter (internet service provision, software industry) or on generic areas to promote the development of ICT in Mongolia, such as MIDAS and “Leading Researchers”. MTWA (http://www.com-assn.mn) was established in 1991 with the purpose of establishing an independent organization with members working in all types of private, government and semi-governmental postal and telecommunications organizations of Mongolia to protect and represent the rights of its members. MIDAS (http://www.ict.mn/midas) was established in 2001 with the mission to promote development of ICT sector in Mongolia. MOSA (http://www.mosa.mn) aims at promoting the software development industry to match world standards and requirements and protecting rights of members. It has about 30 corporate members and over 40 individual members. MISPA (http://www.mispa.mn) was established in 2005 as an association to represent and protect the rights of ISPs, coordinate and cooperate with national and international48 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • organizations on pricing and conditions for bandwidth for Mongolia. Since itsestablishment, MISPA has worked successfully to reduce costs of Internet connectionsfor Mongolia and within Mongolia. MISPA operates Mongolian Internet Exchange (MIX)to transfer Internet data that originates and terminates within Mongolia locally.MITSA (http://www.mitsa.mn) was established in March 2010 with the purpose ofimproving professional skills of students studying in ICT specialties.The Leading Researchers NGO (http://www.leadingresearchers.mn) was established in2009 with the purpose of conducting professional research and studies related to ICTdevelopment of Mongolia. Painting by B.Ninjbadgar (3rd grade, Mongeni complex school , Ulaanbaatar city) White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 49
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 6. Challenges of ICT development of Mongolia Nowadays ICT have penetrated into almost all sectors of the economy and society of Mongolia. The penetration is expressed widely in the use of computers for processing data, development of reports, materials and other documents, providing online information services to citizens, communicating through websites, emails and others, introduction of 3G in mobile services, content development, etc. In addition, the number of softwares and applications used by organizations is increasing together with the complexity of those applications. The Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solutions are in greater demand by organizations. Along with remarkable achievements, Mongolia is yet to tackle a series of challenges of ICT development at national and local level: 1. To advocate the necessity of continuous efforts in creating favorable legal environment by introducing ICT laws in demand; 2. To expand telecommunications network and service provision to have full coverage nationwide; 3. To intensify a national broadband policy to improve quality and affordable services for citizens, households and organizations; 4. To enable provision of online public services to citizens, such as e-government, e-health, e-education, e-government, e-commerce, etc; 5. To promote switching over towards digital technology for radio and television broadcasting; 6. To modernize the postal service by introducing IT based services; 7. To continue promotion of ICT educational programs to improve knowledge and skills of ICT professionals, civil servants and general public to meet demands of a knowledge-based society. ICTPA is fully committed to continue comprehensive efforts of the Government of Mongolia to build a knowledge-based society, and welcomes all partners to unite with the aim to promote development of ICT sector in our country as one of the essential requisites to foster the implementation of the MDG based Comprehensive National Development Strategy of Mongolia.50 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • 7. Appendix7.1. TablesTable 1. E-government development in Eastern Asia, 2010 87.2. List of the figuresFigure 1. E-Mongolia National Program 10Figure 2. ICT policy organizations in development stages 14Figure 3. ICT policy and regulatory framework 15Figure 4. National transmission network 23Figure 5. World map of Social networking 32Figure 6. The evolvement of the television broadcaster of Mongolia 38Figure 7. Major Coverage areas of NPRB 407.3. List of graphsGraph 1. Total revenue of ICT sector (2005 – 2009) 21Graph 2. Tax contributions to State budget (2005 – 2009) 21Graph 3. Sector investment 22Graph 4. Composition of ICT sector revenues 22Graph 5. Number of fixed telephone 24Graph 6. Number of WLL users 24Graph 7. Number of subscribers by each mobile service operator 26Graph 8. Mobile communication charges per 1 min 27Graph 9. Different types of access to internet 28Graph 10. Internet subscribers 29Graph 11. Number of computers (2005-2009) 30Graph 12. Distribution of websites with Mongolia-related contents by different types 30Graph 13. Comparison of websites in 2006 and 2009 31Graph 14. Number of Mongolian users at Facebook by age group 32Graph 15. Number of Mongolian users at hi5 by age group 33Graph 16. Mongolian outsourcing companies and number of employees 34Graph 17. Software used in business 35Graph 18. Types of international postal services 36Graph 19. Types of International postal express services 36Graph 20. Distribution of TV and Cable TV in rural areas of Mongolia 38 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 51
    • White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 Graph 21. Cable and MMDS Television subscribers 39 Graph 22. Market distribution among different cable television providers 39 Graph 23. Radio stations 41 Graph 24. Number of students studying at ICT areas by degrees and gender 43 Graph 25. Number of people working in ICT sector (2005-2009) 43 Graph 26. Market share in mobile telephone service 44 Graph 27. Distribution of market share among ISPs 45 Graph 28. Number of VSAT stations by companies 45 Graph 29. The users of Internet cafe and game houses by age groups 46 7.4. Bibliography CRC. (2009). Fiscal Year - 2009, Performance and Accountability Report. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: CRC. ICTPA. (2005). E-Mongolia National Program. Ulaanbaatar: ICTPA. Intec. (2009). Study among Mongolian websites. Ulaanbaatar. Intec. (2009). Study among rural Internet Cafe. Ulaanbaatar. ITU. (2010). Measuring the Information Society - 2010. Geneva, Switzerland: ITU. MECS. (2006). Master plan to develop education of Mongolia in 2006-2015. Ulaanbaatar: MECS. NITP. (2009). The usage of ICT by business organizations and trends. Ulaanbaatar: NITP. QuantCast. (2010). Retrieved June 1, 2010, from Quantcast: www.quantcast.com Singleton. (2010). Singleton. Retrieved June 1, 2010, from www.singleton.mn United Nations. (2010). United Nations E-government survey. New York: United Nations. Vincos. (2010). Retrieved June 2010, from Vincos: http://www.vincos.it/world-map-of- social-networks/ State Press of the Parliament of Mongolia (2008). MDG based Comprehensive National Development Strategy of Mongolia NSO (2010). 2009 Annual Statistical Yearbook. Ulaanbaatar.52 White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010
    • Information, Communications Technology and Post Authority of Mongolia Sukhbaatar square, Ulaanbaatar-15160 P.O.Box-785, Mongolia Phone: +976-11-330785, +976-11-330781 Fax: +976-11-330780 E-mail: info@ictpa.gov.mn foreignrelation@ictpa.gov.mn Web: http://www.ictpa.gov.mn White Paper on ICT Development of Mongolia - 2010 53