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  1. 1. Marxism
  2. 2. Karl Marx <ul><li>Marx, (1818 - 1883) was a prominent philosopher, political economist and communist revolutionary who laid the foundations for modern socialism and communism. He influenced such leaders and revolutionaries as Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky, Mao, Castro, Chomsky, Che Guevara and Tito. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Communist Manifesto <ul><li>Written in 1848 by Marx and Friedrich Engels, it laid out the the Communist Leagues purposes and program. It outlines many problems with Capitalism and how “it would eventually be replaced by socialism, and then eventually communism.” </li></ul><ul><li>It also contains theories about the nature of society and politics, that &quot;The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.&quot; </li></ul>
  4. 4. A set of demands from the mainfesto <ul><li>Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>A heavy progressive or graduated income tax. </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of all right of inheritance. </li></ul><ul><li>Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels. </li></ul><ul><li>Centralisation of credit in the hands of the State, by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly. </li></ul><ul><li>Centralisation of the means of communication and transport in the hands of the State. </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the State; the bringing into cultivation of waste-lands, and the improvement of the soil generally in accordance with a common plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Equal liability of all to labour. Establishment of industrial armies, especially for agriculture. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Marxism today <ul><li>Still to this day, ‘Marxism’ has been prominent in politics, philosophy and general thinking. Many countries in the 20 th Century have adopted Marxist ideals, China, Bulgaria, Venezuela, Chile, East Germany, Ethiopia, Grenada, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Czechoslovakia, North Korea, Poland, Romania, Cuba, Yugoslavia, Vietnam. In addition, the Indian states of Kerala, Tripura and West Bengal have had Marxist governments. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Marxism in media texts <ul><li>Many thinkers are now considering how Marxist theory affects the way we think of media and vice versa, at the same time that new media are becoming a major form of communication. Contemporary media theorists often use elements of Marxist theory, such as mediation in Marxist theories, to look at how new media affect social relations and lifestyles through their ability to communicate images, sounds, and other forms of information across the globe at incredible speeds. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Marxism in media texts <ul><li>The Frankfurt school’s theorization of the ‘culture industry,’ particularly in the work of Max Horkheimer, theorists have tried to understand how mass audiences are both affected by and can affect the massive, corporatized media establishment that we see in countries like the U.S. As Horkheimer reflects: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The most intimate reactions of human beings have been so thoroughly reified that the idea of anything specific to themselves now persists only as an utterly abstract notion: personality scarcely signifies anything more than shining white teeth and freedom from body odor and emotions. The triumph of advertising in the culture industry is that consumers feel compelled to buy and use its products even though they see through them.” </li></ul><ul><li>Early theorists such as these, then, saw no agency whatsoever for audiences of the culture industry, claiming instead that this industry was founded on mass deception and that the average consumer was a cultural dupe being inculcated into the values of the ruling classes without realizing it. Many critics of this feel that this represented a reintroduction of Marx’s ideas about mediation, or media as purveyors of a dominant ideology that destroyed the possibility that audiences for mass media were able to work against its these ruling ideas. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Marxism explained with picturees <ul><li> </li></ul>