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Theoritical background

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  • 1. 1
  • 2. Syllabus A fundamental division of teaching behaviors is often made into preparation skills( before the lesson), teaching and class management skills( ‘during the lesson’), and evaluation skills(after the lesson’). These categories are reflected in the following ways: 1. 2
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  • 5.   Most people involved in teacher education are aware of the existence of two separate worlds. One is the world of native speaker teachers and teacher trainers, who work in small, flexible classes with adequate/sufficient/ resources and who are mainly responsible for developing new ideas in methodology. The other is the world of most other teachers, who work in large school classes to a set syllabus, and who attempt to apply the new methodology to their own teaching. 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7.   The material aims to be appropriate- /suitable/; it is limited to ideas and techniques that teachers can apply to their own teaching. New ideas and techniques are presented explicitly-/expressed clearly/. Even basic concepts in teaching and learning, such as -‘presenting a structure’, -‘reading a text’, or - ‘learning a rule’ may be understood quite differently by different teachers, and simply describing techniques and procedures can lead to fundamental misunderstanding. wherever possible, therefore, new techniques are demonstrated and teachers are given a chance to experience them directly.. 7
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  • 10. Approach Method 1 Technique A Method 2 Technique B 10
  • 11.   Over the past 20 years, ELT methodology has developed very rapidly and has been subject to changes and controversies that teachers often find bewildering-/confused/. The methods and techniques included in Teach English are intended-/arrange/ to represented a „common core‟, drawing on what or of value both in traditional and in more recent approaches. 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. Aims of this lesson 1.To make teachers aware of the aims and language content of the lesson they teach 2. To help teachers to distinguish the various stages of a lesson, and to see the relationship between them 3.To show teachers how to make a simple plan. 13
  • 14. Establish that there are four main things that a teacher needs to know before going into the class to teach a lesson.  The aim of the lesson.  What new language the lesson contains.  The main stages of the lesson ( how it divides into different activities).  What to do at each stage. 14
  • 15. 1. Aims of the lesson. it is always important to see what general aim of the lesson is. A lesson may focus on:  A particular topic- aim of the lesson may be „ To learn the names of colors‟ or „ To practice language for buying clothes ‟.  A particular structure - aim of the lesson may be „ To describe actions using the present continuous tense‟ or „ To practice “going to” for talking about future plans‟.  A skill- aim of the lesson may ‟To understanding instructions for using a machine‟ or „To express opinions freely in English about marriage ‟. 15
  • 16. It‟s important for the teacher to know exactly what language will be taught in the lesson. Make these points:  New vocabulary: not all new words in a lesson are equally important. As part of the preparation for the lesson teacher should decide which words need to be practiced, and which only need to be briefly mentioned.  Structure: if a new structure is introduced in the lesson, it will need to presented carefully & practiced. 16
  • 17. The teacher needs to be aware of what skills will be developed in the lesson: speaking, listening, reading, or writing. If possible, the lesson should include practice of more than one skill- this will increase the variety and interest of the lesson. 17
  • 18.     Any lesson we teach naturally divides into different stages of activity: For example: At one stage in the lesson, the class may be listening to a dialogue At another stage, teacher may be explaining new words and writing them on the board At another stage students may be doing some oral practice. Focus on the main stages of activity, not on particular activities and techniques.(e.g. asking questions on the text). 18
  • 19. The teacher presents new words or Presentatio structures, gives examples, writes them on the board, ect. n: Practice: Students practice using words or structures in a controlled way, e.g. making sentences from prompts, asking and answering questions, giving sentences based on a picture. Practice can be oral and written. Students use language they have Production: learnt to express themselves more freely. e.g to talk or write about their own lives and interests, to express opinions, to imagine themselves in different situation. 19
  • 20. Reading: Students read a text and answer questions or do a simple „task‟(e.g. complete a table) The teacher reads a text or Listening: dialogue while students listen and answer questions, or the students listen to a cassette. Review: The teacher reviews language learnt in an earlier lesson, to‟ refresh students „ memories, or as a preparation for a new presentation. 20
  • 21.     Writing a lesson plan helps teachers to prepare the lesson: It helps them decide exactly what they will do and how they will do it. Teachers can look at the lesson plan again after the lesson, and use it to evaluate what happened.(did they do what they planned to do? Was each stage successful?) They can keep the lesson plan and use it again next year. 21
  • 22. Aim New vocabulary Structure 1. Warm up. 2. Presentation 3.Practice 4.Writing 5.Reading 6. Review 22