Lecture 8 giving speech.


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Lecture 8 giving speech.

  1. 1. Speech 1
  2. 2.  Warm up: How do I compose and deliver a speech? How do you feel about speaking in public? Whether you love the limelight or avoid it, you may need to deliver a speech as a class assignment, as an after-school activity, or as part of a campaign for a class office.  Speeches fifer from written compositions. Your audience must grasp the main point of your speech just by hearing your words once. They can not review what you have said as they could if they were reading. To get your messages across, you must use precise words, emphasize important ideas,, and write sentences with a pleasing sounds and rhythm. 2
  3. 3. A speech Can inform, persuade, evaluate, and entertain Uses language that suits the occasion, audience, and purpose. Is clearly organized and easy for audience to follow. Uses rhythm, repetition, and variety to help keep an audience’s attention Is delivered in relaxed manner, with careful attention given to voice quality and audience reaction 3
  4. 4. Follow these steps as you prepare a speech:  Step1: Consider purpose and audience and choose a suitable topic  Make your speech fit the occasion and audience.  The occasion, purpose, and audience will determine your subject, your words, the organization of your ideas, the length of your talk. 4
  5. 5. Here some questions that will help you plan your speech:  Where and why am I giving this speech? What is the       occasion? What is my purpose? Do I want my audience to laugh? To learn something? What age is my audience? What topic would suit them? What does my audience already know and not know about my subject? What information must I give them? How long should my speech be to maintain my audience’s interest? What language should I choose for this occasion and this audience? Do I need to be formal or informal? Once you have thought about these questions, you will be ready to plan, compose, and practice your speech. 5
  6. 6. Step2: Organize ideas  Step2: Organize ideas Arrange you ideas in either chronological order or order of importance. Use chronological, or time, order to talk about a series of events or a process, as in a speech about programming . Use order of importance to analyze a topic or to present argument in a persuasive speech.  Step 3: Use speech –making strategies  Use sentence variety. Make your speech interesting by varying the length and structure of your sentences. 6
  7. 7. Applying for a Student Visa When Do I Need to Apply for My Student Visa?  Students are encouraged to apply for their visa early to provide ample time for visa processing. Students may apply for their visa as soon as they are prepared to do so.  Students should note that Embassies and Consulates are able to issue your student visa 120 days or less, in advance of the course of study registration date. If you apply for your visa more than 120 days prior to your start date or registration date as provided on the Form I-20, the Embassy or Consulate will hold your application until it is able to issue the visa. Consular officials will use that extra time for application processing. 7
  8. 8.  Students are advised of the Department of Homeland Security regulation which requires that all initial or beginning students enter the U.S. 30 days or less in advance of the course of study start/report date as shown on the Form I-20. Please consider this date carefully when making travel plans to the U.S.  A beginning student who wants an earlier entry into the U.S. (more than 30 days prior to the course start date), must qualify for, and obtain a visitor visa. A prospective student notation will be shown on his/her visitor visa and the traveler will need to make the intent to study clear to the U.S. immigration inspector at port of entry. Before beginning any studies, he or she must obtain approval for a change to Exchange Visitor status, 8
  9. 9.  Application for Change of Nonimmigrant Status and pay the fee. Also you must submit the required Form I-20 to the Department of Homeland Security office where the application is made. Please be aware that one can not begin studies until the change of classification is approved.  Continuing students may apply for a new visa at any time, as long as they have been maintaining student status and their SEVIS records are current. Continuing students may also enter the U.S. at any time before their classes start. 9
  10. 10.  Repeat key words and phrases. Stress key points by repeating words and phrases and by summarizing ideas. Use parallelism. The use of similar words, phrases, and clauses to express similar ideas is called parallelism. When you use parallel structures in a speech, listeners will remember your words more easily.  Step 4: Practice your speech  Practice aloud. Rehearse your speech in front of a mirror while you time it. if possible, tape-record or videotape your speech, and ask your family and friends for advice on how to improve your performance. 10
  11. 11.  Memorize the speech but outline key points on note cards.  Watching someone read a speech can be boring. Therefore, outline the main points of your speech on note cards and memorize the rest. That will help you look at your audience most of the time and glance down only occasionally at your note cards to remind you of your main point.  Step 5: Deliver your speech  Relax while delivering the speech. Stand up straight. Distribute your weight evenly on both feet. Don’t fidget or pace. Use natural gestures and facial expressions to emphasize your points. 11
  12. 12.  Look at audience.  Make brief eye contract with individuals in different parts     of the room. Try to make each person think you are speaking directly to him or her. Another strategy is to find a face that inspires confidence and speak to that person. Your voice well Speak so that you can be understood and heard. Otherwise, you may lose your audience’s attention. Experienced speakers ask people to raise their hands if they cannot hear. Pause when appropriate. Give you audience at least three or four seconds to think about an idea before you go on the next one. Dramatic pauses help emphasize your important pointing. 12
  13. 13. Watch for audience cues. The expressions on your listeners’ faces can tell you how they are receiving your message. The following chart lists possible trouble signs and solutions. Trouble sign People are looking at their watches or fidgeting Problem The audience is becoming bored The audience can’t hear you People are leaning far forward and holding their hands behind their ears. People are looking at one another and seem puzzled The audience is confused Possible solution Vary the pitch and tone of your voice. Move on to more interesting points. Speak louder Pause, and ask someone in the audience to shut doors and windows to keep out noise Summarize your main ideas. Give examples Ask for questions 13
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