country study Lecture 2 geography of the usa

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country study Lecture 2 geography of the usa

  1. 1. Geography The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, or UK, is a sovereign state located off the northwestern coast of continental Europe. It comprises the island of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and the northeastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland (Northern Ireland), together with many smaller islands. The mainland areas lie between latitudes 49 N and 59 N (the Shetland Islands reach to nearly 61 N), and longitudes 8 W to 2 E. The Royal Greenwich Observatory, in South East London, is the defining point of the Prime Meridian. the UK with France. 1
  2. 2. The UK • It lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, coming within 35 kilometres (22 mi) of the northwest coast of France, from which it is separated by the English Channel • Northern Ireland shares a 360 km international land boundary with the Republic of Ireland. The Channel Tunnel ("Chunnel") bored beneath the English Channel, now links the UK with France. 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. The area of the countries of the United Kingdom Rank 1. 2. 3. 4. Name England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland Area 130,427 km2 78,772km2 20,778km2 13,843 United Kingdom 243,820km2 4
  5. 5. UK’s topography 5
  6. 6. Physical geography • The oldest rocks in the UK are gneisses which date from at least 2,700 Ma ("Ma" means "millions of years ago") in the Archaean Period, which are found in the far north west of Scotland and in the Hebrides, with a few small outcrops elsewhere. • The remains of ancient volcanic islands underlie much of central England with small outcrops visible in many places. Around 600 Ma, the Cadomian Orogeny (mountain building period) caused the English and Welsh landscape to be transformed into a mountainous region, along with much of north west Europe. 6
  7. 7. Physical geography • The physical geography of the UK varies greatly. The Geography of England consists of lowland terrain, with mountainous terrain north-west of the Tees-Exe line including the Cumbrian Mountains of the Lake District, the Pennines and limestone hills of the Peak District, Exmoor and Dartmoor. 7
  8. 8. Mountains and hills At 1,344 metres, Ben Nevis is the highest peak in the UK. 8
  9. 9. Mountains and hills • The ten tallest mountains in the UK are all found in Scotland. The highest peaks in each part of the UK are: • Scotland: Ben Nevis (Aonach Mòr, 1,344 metres) • Wales: Snowdon (Snowdonia, 1,085 metres) • England: Scafell Pike (Cumbrian Mountains, 977 metres) • Northern Ireland: Slieve Donard (Mourne Mountains, 852 metres) 9
  10. 10. Rivers and lakes • The longest river in the UK is the River Severn (220 mi, 354 km) which flows through both Wales and England. • The longest rivers in the UK by country are: • England: River Thames (215 mi, 346 km) • Scotland: River Tay (117 mi, 188 km) • N. Ireland: River Bann (76 mi, 122 km) • Wales: River Tywi (64 mi, 103 km) • The largest lakes in the UK by country are: • N. Ireland: Lough Neagh (147.39 sq mi, 381.74 km²) • Scotland: Loch Lomond (27.46 sq mi, 71.12 km²) • England: Windermere (5.69 sq mi, 14.74 km²) • Wales: Lake Vyrnwy (3.18 sq mi, 8.24 km²) 10
  11. 11. Climate • The climate of the UK varies, but is generally temperate, though significantly warmer than some other locations at similar latitude, such as central Poland, due to the warming influence of the Gulf Stream. In general, the south is warmer and drier than the north. • The prevailing winds are southwesterly, from the North Atlantic Current. More than 50% of the days are overcast. There are few natural hazards, although there can be strong winds and floods, especially in winter. 11
  12. 12. Climate • The highest temperature recorded in the UK was 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) at Brogdale, near Faversham, in the county of Kent, on 10 August 2003. The lowest was −27.2 °C (−17 °F) recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, Scotland, on 11 February 1895 and 10 January 1982 and Altnaharra, also in Scotland, on 30 December 1995. 12
  13. 13. Human geography • The United Kingdom is composed of four parts: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. • The United Kingdom's cities, other large centers, and selected smaller places • The UK is governed as a whole by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. • Of the four countries that make the UK, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved administrations and parliaments/assembly: • Northern Ireland - Northern Ireland Assembly • Scotland - Scottish Parliament • Wales - Welsh Assembly 13
  14. 14. Economic geography • The economic geography of the UK reflects not only its current position in the global economy, but its long history both as a trading nation and an imperial power. • The UK led the industrial revolution and its highly urban character is a legacy of this, with all its major cities being current or former centres of all forms of manufacturing. However, this in turn was built on its exploitation of natural resources, especially coal and iron ore. 14
  15. 15. Natural resources • Historically, much of the United Kingdom was forested. Since prehistoric times, man has deforested much of the United Kingdom. • Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labour force. It contributes around 2% of GDP. Around two thirds of production is devoted to livestock, one third to arable crops. 15
  16. 16. Natural resources • In 1993, it was estimated that land use was: • Arable land: 25 % • Permanent crops: 0 % • Permanent pastures: 46 % • Forests and Woodland: 10 % • Other: 19 % • Irrigated: 1,080 km² 16
  17. 17. Environment • The United Kingdom is reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It has met Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5 % reduction from 1990 levels and intends to meet the legally binding target of a 20 % cut in emissions by 2010. By 2015, to recycle or compost at least 33 % of household waste. Between 1998-99 and 1999-2000, household recycling increased from 8.8 % to 10.3 % respectively. 17
  18. 18. International agreements • The United Kingdom is a party to many international agreements, including: Air Pollution, Air PollutionNitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, AntarcticEnvironmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate ChangeKyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands and Whaling. • The UK has signed, but not ratified, the international agreement on Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants. 18

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