Classsification

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  • 1. The Prime purpose for creating a classification system for partially dentulous arches is to enable the dentist to clearly communicate to a listener or reader the condition of an oral cavity in which missing teeth are to be replaced with a prosthesis. An additional benefit of a workable classification system is that it is a contributing aid in the learning of the fundamentals of design.
  • 2.  Swenson classification system 1905  Cummer’s classification system 1922  Kennedy’s classification system 1925  Bailyn’s system 1928  Neurohr’s system 1939  Mauk’s system 1942  Beckett’s system 1953  Friedman’s system 1954  The Austin-Lidge classification system 1957  Skinner’s system 1959  Applegate-Kennedy’s system 1960
  • 3. The four primary classes represent only slight modification of the kennedy’s system, whereas the modifications of these four classes are changed more drastically.
  • 4. Class I – An arch with one free end denture base. Class II – an arch with two free end denture bases. Class III – an arch with an edentulous space posteriorly on one or both sides of the mouth but with teeth present anteriorly and posteriorly to each space. Class IV – an arch with an anterior edentulous space and with five or more anterior teeth missing.
  • 5. Swenson’s class I partially Swenson’s class II partially edentulous condition edentulous condition Swenson’s class III partially edentulous condition Swenson’s class IV partially Swenson’s class V partially edentulous condition edentulous condition
  • 6. The first system to receive recognition from the profession was one proposed by Cummer in 1920. His classification based upon the choice of natural teeth for direct retainers Class I – a partially edentulous arch in which two diagonally opposite teeth are chosen as abutment teeth Class II - a partially edentulous arch in which two diametrically opposite tooth are chosen as abutment teeth for the attachment of the direct retainers with an indirect retainer as an auxillary attachment.
  • 7. Class III – a partially dentulous arch in which one or more teeth on the same side are chosen as abutment teeth for the attachment of the direct retainers with or without indirect retainer. Class IV - a partially dentulous arch in which three or more teeth are chosen as abutment teeth for the attachment of direct retainers.
  • 8. It is based on the relationship of the edentulous spaces to the abutment teeth. Class I – Bilateral edentulous area located posterior to the remaining natural teeth. Class II – Unilateral edentulous area located posterior to the remaining natural teeth. Class III – Unilateral edentulous area with natural teeth remaining both anterior and posterior teeth Class IV – A single but bilateral (Crossing the mid-line) edentulous area located anterior to the remaining natural teeth.
  • 9. Class I maxillary arch Class II mandibular arch class III mandibular arch Class IV maxillary arch
  • 10. Bailyn introduced a classification system based on whether the prosthesis is tooth- borne, tissue, or a combination of the two.
  • 11. Class P I – Edentulous region posterior to the cuspid between two available abutments not more than three teeth distant from each other. Class P II – Edentulous bilateral regions posterior to the cuspids with one available abutment tooth for each denture base area. Class P III – edentulous region atleast three teeth posterior to the distal abutment. Class A III – edentulous space anterior to the first bicuspid and between two teeth, more than three teeth distant from each other.
  • 12. Class A I P II – Edentulous region anterior to the first bicuspid and between two available abutments less than three teeth distant from each other. Class P I P II – both edentulous regions posterior to the cuspids: only one tooth available for anchorage, the other two separated by a distance of at least three teeth. Class A I P III – has three edentulous spaces : One of these is anterior to the first bicuspid with two available anchor teeth separated by a distance of less than three teeth, another posterior to the cuspid with only one tooth for anchorage, third one posterior to the cuspid with two teeth available for abutments separated by less than three teeth
  • 13. Class P1 Class PII Class P III Class A III
  • 14. Class A I P II Class P I P II Class A I P III
  • 15. A partial denture situatin falls under this classification when there are teeth posterior to all spans and when there are no more then four teeth missing in any space. A - Posterior teeth are missing and the anterior teeth are in place. B - Posterior teeth are missing, and some anterior teeth are missing C -Anterior teeth are missing and posterior teeth are in place. D-Anterior teeth are missing, and some posterior teeth are missing. These may be unilateral or bilateral spaces.
  • 16. Neurohr’s Class II division 1 Variation 1a partially edentulous Condition Neurohr’s Class II division 1 Variation 1a partially edentulous Condition Neurohr’s Class II division 1 Variation 1b partially edentulous Condition Neurohr’s Class II division 2 Variation 1a partially edentulous Condition
  • 17. Mauk offered the profession a system of classification based on the 1)Number, length and position of the spaces and 2)The number and position of the remaining teeth
  • 18. Class I – has bilateral spaces and teeth remaining in anterior segment. Class II – has bilateral posterior spaces and one or more teeth at the posterior end of the one space. Class III – bilateral posterior spaces and one or more teeth at the posterior end of both space. Class IV – unilateral posterior space with or without teeth at the posterior end of the space. Class V – Has anterior space only Class VI – Has irregular spaces around the arch.
  • 19. Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V Class VI
  • 20. Godfrey described a system based on the location and extent of the edentulous spaces where teeth are to be replaced. A feature of Godfrey's system is that there are no subdivisions or modifications to the main classes.
  • 21. Class A – has tooth borne denture bases in the anterior part of the mouth Class B – has mucosa borne denture bases in the anterior of the mouth Class C – has tooth borne denture bases in the posterior part of the mouth Class D – has mucosa borne denture bases in the posterior part of mouth
  • 22. Godfrey’s class A partially Godfrey’s class B partially edentulous condition edentulous condition Godfrey’s class C partially Godfrey’s class D partially edentulous condition edentulous condition
  • 23. Beckett proposed a system which, like the one suggested by Bailyn, is based on whether the denture base is tooth-borne, tissue-borne, or a combination of the two. The three basic classifications were: Class 1- saddles (denture bases) which are tooth-borne;
  • 24. Class 2, saddles (denture bases) which are mucosa- borne; Class 3, inadequate abutments to support the saddle (denture base)
  • 25. Friedman introduced a system in 1953 based on three essential segment types occurring either as discrete or as continuous segments. The letter A designates an anterior spaces (i.e., one or more of the six anterior teeth). The letter B designates a bounded posterior spaces. The letter C refers to a cantilever situation or a posterior free- end spaces.
  • 26. Friedman’s type A partially Friedman’s type B partially edentulous condition edentulous condition Friedman’s type C partially edentulous condition
  • 27. The Austin-Lidge classification system in which the letter A is used to designate an anterior spaces of spaces, P designates posterior spaces, and Bi designates a bilateral conditions. Class A1
  • 28. Class A 1 – a missing anterior tooth on one side only. Class A 2 – anterior teeth missing on both right and left sides. Class P 1 – Posterior teeth are missing on one side only Class P 2- Posterior teeth are missing on both right and left sides Class A 1 P1 – anterior and posterior teeth are missing on one side only.
  • 29. Austin and Lidge class A2 Austin and Lidge class P2 Partially Edentulous condition Partially Edentulous condition Austin and Lidge class AB1 Austin and lidge class PB1 Partially Edentulous condition Partially Edentulous condition
  • 30. Skinners offered the profession a new and different classification in 1957. He noted that many removable partial denture classification in the past have been based on the number of teeth remaining, as exemplified by the work of Cummer.
  • 31. Skinner’s class I partially Skinner’s class IV partially edentulous condition edentulous condition Skinner’s class II partially Skinner’s class V partially edentulous condition edentulous condition
  • 32. Applegate offers a system which is a modification of the Kennedy system.
  • 33. Kennedy-Applegate’s class I Kennedy-Applegate’s class II partially edentulous condition partially edentulous condition Kennedy-Applegate’s class V partially edentulous condition
  • 34. Conclusion  The treatment plan of any edentulous region depends on its classification which eventually decides the success of the prosthesis.  Though many systems of classifications are available, the most universally used one is the Applegate – Kennedy System for its simplicity.