Carp Polyculture Presentation


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Carp Polyculture Presentation

  1. 1. Carp Polyculture BAT 313 Aquaculture Soo Mei Chin 93648 Source:
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Carp polyculture </li></ul><ul><li>cultured more than one species of carp in a pond without overlapping their ecological niches </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency utilize different level of food web in the pond (algae, aquatic plant, zooplankton, benthos). </li></ul><ul><li>History date back 2400years ago in China </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>efficiency utilize natural foods </li></ul><ul><li>maximize production per unit area of pond surface. </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Improve pond condition </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to handle with minimum technical know how </li></ul><ul><li>Low capital and maintenance </li></ul>
  3. 3. Carps <ul><li>Order :Cyprinifomes </li></ul><ul><li>Family : Cyprinidae </li></ul><ul><li>Widely distribute world wide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe, Asia, North America and Africa in natural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia, South America, Madagascar by human introduced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major carp species used in carp culture are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common carp, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese carp (silver carp, grass carp, bighead, black carp and mud carp.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian carp ( catla, rohu, mrigal ) </li></ul></ul>Source :
  4. 4. Factor favorable Carps to culture in polyculture system <ul><li>Diverse feeding regime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feed at every tropic level - higher plant, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, detritus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opportunistic and able to change feeding behavior according to season and food availability. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Tolerate wide range and fluctuation of </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature (1 to 35 °C) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH (pH 5 to 9) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DO (< 1mg O2/L) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity (10-11ppt) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Easy to spawn in captivity & high fecundity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>200,000 to 300,000 eggs produce each breed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brood stock and continue breed a few years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Hardy, easy to handle </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerate wide range and fluctuation of water quality, temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-territory behavior, not aggressive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>little technical know how </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Low production cost </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feed low in food chain, and supplement food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal capital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal labor energy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Current Status <ul><li>Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ) , grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) , and common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) are by far the most common cultured species. </li></ul><ul><li>producing 80% of total fresh water aquaculture production </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>China is the world leading carps production country that alone produce 2.2 million MT or 69% of world production of common carp in 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Other carp major producing countries include India, Indonesia, Brazil, Russia and Myanmar. </li></ul><ul><li>Carps production volume records as third highest in Malaysia fresh water aquaculture production of 10.08% after tilapia(44.7%) and catfish (36.7%). </li></ul><ul><li>It’s production value contribute to 10% of total fresh water aquaculture production value of Malaysia. (FAO, 2009) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Principle of carp polyculture <ul><li>Stocking density </li></ul><ul><li>Economics of culture and market demand for fish </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological niche to be filled </li></ul><ul><li>Natural food availability </li></ul><ul><li>Water quality, available of water and aeration equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Size of fish stocking </li></ul><ul><li>Size of fish desire to harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Climate and length of growing season </li></ul><ul><li>Energy and labor available for stocking, harvesting and processing </li></ul>
  9. 9. stocking rate in polyculture. (After Shan-Jian,1983)
  10. 10. <ul><li>Fish combination </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each combination is based on 1 or 2 major producing species, other species are only complement of major species. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better utilization of vertical water column, natural food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mutual benefit between species achieve with stocking of reasonable proportion and species. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some of species in combination play roles in maintenance of oxygen regime and ponds sanitary condition. (exp : silver carp consume on algae, grass carp consume on aquatic plant) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Example of fish combination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comprises of surface, column and bottom feeder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catla is surface and column feeder feed on algae, plankton, rotifer, protozoa, mollusk and macrophyte. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rohu is column feeder mainly feed on decaying macrophyte and algae. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mrigal is bottom feeder feed on algae, diatom, higher plant and detritus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composite carp culture introduces grass carp and silver carp to improve production and control pond environment condition. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Pond fertilizing and supplementary food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic and inorganic fertilizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic fertilizer (Cow, poultry and pig manures ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>readily availability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low cost </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>directly contribute to food source (small organic particle and bacteria) for aquatic invertebrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>type of supplementary food feed is added to depending on fish ages and size. Ex: ground cereal, whole grain and fermented cereal. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>4. Harvest and marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different countries vary in the period to produce marketable size due to vary in fish size demand, climatic condition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel 4 to 6 months (0.5-0.6kg ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Europe, 2 to 3 years (1-1.5kg) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketable size in most countries is 1-1.5kg, except South East Asia countries which accept smaller size of carp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yield </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive – 0.5 tons/hectare </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-intensive 2-3 tons/hectare </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Source:
  14. 14. Challenge and restriction <ul><li>Water deterioration and environment pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increase input of organic material (eutrophication) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>industrial polluted water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fish quality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>safety of aquatic product culturing in integrated culture system with manure and waste water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more susceptible by bacteria invasion in fish muscle during stress. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no or few bacteria invasion to fish muscles is observed in well managed pond </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aeromonas hydrophila </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pond water organic material concentration found to positive correlated to A. hydrophila population size. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fish bacterial septicaemia is a severe infectious disease, particularly susceptible to major Chinese carp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetic degeneration </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack mass selection, improve of strain and inbreed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicator of genetic degeneration such as slower growth, poor resistance to disease and early maturation </li></ul></ul></ul>Source:
  16. 16. Reference <ul><li>Roland Billard, Jacqueline Marcel, 1986, Aquaculture of cyprinid, INRA Service des Publication. </li></ul><ul><li>Roland Billard, 1995, Carp Biology and culture, INRA Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Alan Lowther ,2004, Highlight of FAO database on Aquaculture Statistic, FAO Aquaculture Newsletter. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert R. Stickney, 1993, Culture of nonsalmonid freshwater fishes,CRC Press Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Jinyun Ye,2002, Carp Polyculture System in China: Challenges and Future Trends, Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries </li></ul><ul><li> .   </li></ul><ul><li>Carole Ruth Engle, Kwamena Quagrainie,2006 Aquaculture marketing handbook, Blackwell Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nation (FAO)   </li></ul><ul><li>T.V.R Pillay, M.N. Kutty, 2005, Aquaculture Principle and Practice, 2 nd Edition, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Roland Billard, Paolo Berni, 2004,Polyculture, Cybium 2004, 28(3) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>M. Mustafizur Rahman, Leopold A.J. Nagelkerke, Marc C.J. Verdegem, M. Abdul Wahab, Johan A.J. Verreth, 2008, Relationships among water quality, food resources, fish diet and fish growth in polyculture ponds: A multivariate approach, Aquaculture 275 (2008) 108-115 </li></ul><ul><li>Laszlo Horvath, Gizella Tamas, Chris Seagrave, 2002, Carp and pond fish, Blackwell Science Ltd. </li></ul>
  17. 17. -End-