The Baroque in France, Flanders and Spain<br />
France<br />Effects of the Thirty Year War were tremendous<br />Baroque style slightly more tempered than Italy<br />Paris...
LeNain<br />
Louis LeNain (1588-1677)<br /><ul><li>Devoted to scenes of daily life (genre paintings)
Dignity in subjects vs. Brueghel
Treated reverently</li></li></ul><li>Nicolas Poussin (1593-1665)<br />Worked almost exclusively in Rome<br />Embodies the ...
Claude Lorrain (1600-1682)<br />Worked almost exclusively from Rome<br />Little interest in narrative<br />Often commissio...
Louis XIV<br />Influenced by Fronde Parliament in 1648<br />Ascended throne at age 13 (1651)<br />Superintendent of Financ...
RIGAUD, Hyacinthe<br />1694<br />
Bernini, 1665<br />Emphasizing Louis grandeur and superiority<br />
Mansart, Chateau of Blois<br />
Vaux le Vicomte, Fouquet 	arch. – Louis Le Vau, Gardens – Andre Le Notre, Interior Charles LeBrun<br />
The Party in 1661 <br />&quot;On 17 August, at six in the evening Fouquet was the King of France: at two in the morning he...
Versailles<br />Louis XIV moves court to Versailles (note influence of the Fronde<br />Envisions an ideal architecture and...
La Fronde<br />La Fronde (1648–1653) was a civil war in France, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which ha...
Fountain of Latona<br />
From Ovid’s Metamorphosis<br />Latona, mother of Diana and Apollo, is fleeing Juno’s wrath with her children.<br />Stops a...
Fountain of Apollo<br />
Signing of the Treaty of Versailles, 1919<br />
Antoine Coysevox<br />
Conditions for the Baroque<br />Continuing Influence of Michelangelo<br />Catholic need to demonstrate Glory and Beauty<br...
Flemish Baroque Art<br />Separation of the Netherlands into Belgium and Holland<br />Rubens from Southern Provinces (Catho...
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)<br />Scholar, diplomat, painter<br />Spoke and wrote in 6 languages<br />Synchronized styles...
Studied in Venice and worked for several years at the Court of Mantua in Italy<br />Worked in Spain and got to know Velazq...
Rubens married Helena Fourment on December 6, 1630, when he was fifty-three and she was sixteen. Helena became the model a...
1610<br />
Rubens, , 1601<br />
The Deposition<br />1612- 14<br />
The Visitation                         The Deposition	Simeon and the Bris<br />1612- 14<br />
1612- 14<br />
Belvedere Torso, Plaster cast after an original attributed to Apollonius (1st century B.C.) Since the Renaissance, this He...
St. Christopher<br />
Farnese Hercules<br />
The Marie de Medici Cycle in the Louvre<br /><ul><li>24 paintings in 3 years
Story of Marie’s Life, Marriage to Henry IV, and her Reign as Queen</li></li></ul><li>Education of Marie<br />
The Arrival of Marie de’Medici 1622-26<br />
Baroque in Flanders<br />Rubens, Arrival of Marie de’Medici at Marseilles<br />Part of the Marie de’Medici cycle of 21 pai...
Baroque in Flanders<br />Rubens, Allegory on the Outbreak of War<br />Mars has left the Temple of Janus open, normally clo...
Baroque in Flanders<br />Van Dyck, Charles I Dismounted<br />Unstressed royal authority<br />A king and a cavalier<br />Ve...
Tapestry Artist<br />
Baroque in Spain<br />Velazquez, Las Meninas<br />Velázquez working on a huge canvas that could not fit through the door o...
Baroque in Spain<br />Velazquez, Las Meninas (continued)<br />Silhouetted man is José Nieto, aposentador of the Queen, hea...
Baroque in Spain<br />Velazquez, Surrender of Breda, 1635<br />Battle in 1625, Dutch forced to yield Breda to the Spanish<...
Jusepe de Ribera, Lo storpio, 1642<br />
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The Baroque In France, Flanders And Spain

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The Baroque In France, Flanders And Spain

  1. 1. The Baroque in France, Flanders and Spain<br />
  2. 2. France<br />Effects of the Thirty Year War were tremendous<br />Baroque style slightly more tempered than Italy<br />Paris under Louis XIV (the Sun King) becomes the cultural center of Europe<br />72 year reign of Louis XIV<br />
  3. 3. LeNain<br />
  4. 4. Louis LeNain (1588-1677)<br /><ul><li>Devoted to scenes of daily life (genre paintings)
  5. 5. Dignity in subjects vs. Brueghel
  6. 6. Treated reverently</li></li></ul><li>Nicolas Poussin (1593-1665)<br />Worked almost exclusively in Rome<br />Embodies the classical spirit of antiquity<br />Infleunced by Raphael and Titian<br />Aware in his paintings of specific times and seasons<br />Not about sensualtiy (like Titian or Rubens) but foreshadows later neo-classicism<br />Painter of Allegories<br />Poses derived from classical sculpture<br />Avoided base, or low subjects – antithesis of Caracaggio<br />
  7. 7. Claude Lorrain (1600-1682)<br />Worked almost exclusively from Rome<br />Little interest in narrative<br />Often commissioned others to paint in figures (used to establish scale, unlike Giorgione where emphasis is on mood)<br />Landscapes – idealized<br />Many studies from nature<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Louis XIV<br />Influenced by Fronde Parliament in 1648<br />Ascended throne at age 13 (1651)<br />Superintendent of Finance – Nicolas Fouquet who builds Vaux le Vicomte in 1657 (Le Vau, Le Notre, and LeBrun)<br />1661 Begins serious building at Versailles<br />
  10. 10. RIGAUD, Hyacinthe<br />1694<br />
  11. 11. Bernini, 1665<br />Emphasizing Louis grandeur and superiority<br />
  12. 12. Mansart, Chateau of Blois<br />
  13. 13. Vaux le Vicomte, Fouquet arch. – Louis Le Vau, Gardens – Andre Le Notre, Interior Charles LeBrun<br />
  14. 14. The Party in 1661 <br />&quot;On 17 August, at six in the evening Fouquet was the King of France: at two in the morning he was nobody.“ - Voltaire<br />
  15. 15. Versailles<br />Louis XIV moves court to Versailles (note influence of the Fronde<br />Envisions an ideal architecture and landscape<br />Includes a small city to house the nobility<br />Central axis of the landscape design is the East West path of the sun<br />Not noted for frescoes, but high acievement in furniture (sold to pay for armies)<br />architect LeVau and landscape architect Le Notre <br />
  16. 16. La Fronde<br />La Fronde (1648–1653) was a civil war in France, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635. The word fronde means sling, with which the windows of supporters of Cardinal Mazarin were broken with stones by Paris mobs. The Fronde was divided into two campaigns, the Fronde of the parlements and the Fronde of the nobles. The timing of the outbreak of the Fronde des parlements, directly after the Peace of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years War was significant. <br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Fountain of Latona<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. From Ovid’s Metamorphosis<br />Latona, mother of Diana and Apollo, is fleeing Juno’s wrath with her children.<br />Stops at a lake to drink, but is prevented from doing so by the peasants there whom she turns into frogs.<br />Story chosen specifically by Louis.<br />
  22. 22. Fountain of Apollo<br />
  23. 23. Signing of the Treaty of Versailles, 1919<br />
  24. 24. Antoine Coysevox<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Conditions for the Baroque<br />Continuing Influence of Michelangelo<br />Catholic need to demonstrate Glory and Beauty<br />Council of Trent (1545-63) strongly advocates pictorial clarity and narrative relevance in religious art<br />Need for Royalty to utilize excess for their own desires: secular uses for what begins as religious propoganda<br />
  27. 27. Flemish Baroque Art<br />Separation of the Netherlands into Belgium and Holland<br />Rubens from Southern Provinces (Catholic)<br />Note Spanish wars against the Netherlands (William of Orange)<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)<br />Scholar, diplomat, painter<br />Spoke and wrote in 6 languages<br />Synchronized styles of North and South (southern classicism with Northern detail)<br />Abundant physical energy and splendid color<br />Spiraling compositions with figures often in motion<br />Ample women – full bodied and sensual<br />Incredibly wealthy<br />
  30. 30. Studied in Venice and worked for several years at the Court of Mantua in Italy<br />Worked in Spain and got to know Velazquez<br />Great series of paintings for Marie de-Medici in France (24 huge canvases)<br />
  31. 31. Rubens married Helena Fourment on December 6, 1630, when he was fifty-three and she was sixteen. Helena became the model and the inspiration for many paintings by Rubens dating from the 1630s, particularly those dealing with themes of ideal beauty or love.<br />Rubens and his first wife<br />And his second<br />
  32. 32. 1610<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Rubens, , 1601<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. The Deposition<br />1612- 14<br />
  38. 38. The Visitation The Deposition Simeon and the Bris<br />1612- 14<br />
  39. 39. 1612- 14<br />
  40. 40. Belvedere Torso, Plaster cast after an original attributed to Apollonius (1st century B.C.) Since the Renaissance, this Hellenistic torso has had a major influence on artists working in the classical tradition, most notably Michelangelo. Sketching the torso, or a cast of it, was regarded as essential in the training of an Academic artist. Sir Joshua Reynolds said &apos;A MIND elevated to the contemplation of excellence perceives in this defaced and shattered fragment, ... the traces of superlative genius, the reliques of a work on which succeeding ages can only gaze with inadequate admiration.&apos; <br />
  41. 41. St. Christopher<br />
  42. 42. Farnese Hercules<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44. The Marie de Medici Cycle in the Louvre<br /><ul><li>24 paintings in 3 years
  45. 45. Story of Marie’s Life, Marriage to Henry IV, and her Reign as Queen</li></li></ul><li>Education of Marie<br />
  46. 46. The Arrival of Marie de’Medici 1622-26<br />
  47. 47. Baroque in Flanders<br />Rubens, Arrival of Marie de’Medici at Marseilles<br />Part of the Marie de’Medici cycle of 21 paintings in the Louvre<br />Real people exist side-by-side with nymphs, sea monsters, naiads, genii<br />Neptune and the three sirens, a sea god and a triton escort the boat in the harbor<br />France in blue cape with gold fleur-de-lis falls to his knees before Marie<br />Fame salutes her with two trumpets<br />Arms of the Medici over the arch of the boat<br />Commander of ship wears a cross of the Knights of Malta, is a sharp counterpoint to the other figures in the painting<br />Dynamic movement<br />Rich vivid color<br />Heavily muscled men; ample females<br />Union of Northern and Italian painting that started with Dürer<br />
  48. 48. Baroque in Flanders<br />Rubens, Allegory on the Outbreak of War<br />Mars has left the Temple of Janus open, normally closed during times of peace<br />Venus and Cupids try to restrain Mars<br />Fury Alecto, torch in hand, pulls him forward <br />Below woman with a broken lute: harmony is destroyed<br />Mother and child indicate fertility cannot bloom<br />Fallen architect symbolizes the fall of civilization<br />Mars literally tramples on literature<br />Crying woman in black is Europe<br />Strong diagonals and masterful use of color<br />Painterly brushstroke<br />Baroque dynamics and composition<br />Developed musculature<br />
  49. 49. Baroque in Flanders<br />Van Dyck, Charles I Dismounted<br />Unstressed royal authority<br />A king and a cavalier<br />Venetian landscape with the Thames behind<br />Charles has dismounted and his horse is being held for him <br />He glances sharply at us from the side<br />Haughty pose<br />Van Dyck established the tradition of the graceful monarch, regal yet at ease<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Tapestry Artist<br />
  52. 52. Baroque in Spain<br />Velazquez, Las Meninas<br />Velázquez working on a huge canvas that could not fit through the door of the room. He pauses and takes a step back to study us.<br />Velázquez wears the Cross of the Order of Santiago, a symbol of nobility: painter enjoyed a court appointment and desired respect<br />Princess Margarita with two maids-in-waiting is the central focus of the painting<br />Dwarves on right; Philip IV had a large collection of dwarves, no abnormalities are glossed over by Velázquez<br />Blurring of figures on right suggests painter’s understanding of peripheral vision<br />Older woman is lady of honor, wears a nun’s outfit to indicate she is a widow<br />Man in conversation with her is her escort<br />
  53. 53. Baroque in Spain<br />Velazquez, Las Meninas (continued)<br />Silhouetted man is José Nieto, aposentador of the Queen, head of the Queen’s tapestry works, rests his hand on a tapestry as he goes out, but pauses<br />Regular rhythm of the frames on the back wall anchors composition as opposed the irregular rhythm of the groups<br />Paintings above are works that illustrate mortals who challenged the gods<br />Perspective pulls you into the painting, but the mirror reflects out<br />Extension laterally: canvas on easel, windows<br />Alternating darks and lights reach into the painting<br />King and Queen are in the mirror, but what is being reflected? The painting Velázquez is working on? The King and Queen themselves? A portrait of the King and Queen hanging on the opposite wall?<br />What is Velázquez painting? This group? A painting of this painting? The King and Queen?<br />
  54. 54. Baroque in Spain<br />Velazquez, Surrender of Breda, 1635<br />Battle in 1625, Dutch forced to yield Breda to the Spanish<br />Magnanimity, humanity and valor of the victors is stressed<br />Dutch on left seen as youthful, disorganized<br />Spanish on right are dignified, with lances indicating their military precision<br />Key to the city is emphasized in the center<br />Emotional tone of generosity and mutual respect<br />Effect of the battle seen in the smoky background<br />Topography is accurate: artist interviewed participants in the battle and consulted other renderings of the area<br />Light and color are compositional devices that unify the elements<br />
  55. 55. Jusepe de Ribera, Lo storpio, 1642<br />
  56. 56. Zurbaran<br />Saint Serapion1628 <br />

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