Romantic Architecture2

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Romantic Architecture2

  1. 1. Romantic Architecture <ul><li>John Nash (1752-1835) </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Garnier (1825-98) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Revival Architecture <ul><li>Nash, Royal Pavilion, Brighton </li></ul><ul><li>Seaside resort for prince regent, later King George IV </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic domes, minarets and screens </li></ul><ul><li>Onion domes and finials </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying the exotic façade is a cast iron skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Interior: palm-tree columns in cast iron </li></ul>
  3. 3. Royal Pavilion at Brighton, John Nash, 1815
  4. 8. Revival Architecture <ul><li>Barry and Pugin, Houses of Parliament, London </li></ul><ul><li>Old Houses of Parliament burned to the ground in 1834 </li></ul><ul><li>Competition held in 1835 to rebuild the Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Only styles allowed in the competition were Elizabethan Tudor and Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>97 entries, this was the winning entry </li></ul><ul><li>Ground plan is cruciform </li></ul><ul><li>Two main axes meet in an octagonal central lobby: House of Commons meets the House of Lords </li></ul><ul><li>Barry was a classicist, a regularity of the rhythms of the façade </li></ul><ul><li>Pugin was a medievalist: towers and decorative elements </li></ul><ul><li>Vast office complex: 1,100 rooms, 100 staircases, 2 miles of corridors, 8 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonized with other medieval buildings nearby, like Westminster Abbey </li></ul><ul><li>Big Ben, the clock tower, is like a medieval village clock </li></ul><ul><li>Placement of a detached tower is Italian in inspiration </li></ul>
  5. 9. Revival Architecture <ul><li>Garnier, The Opera, Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior: </li></ul><ul><li>Rich polychrome façade of colored marbles </li></ul><ul><li>Domed auditorium </li></ul><ul><li>Huge fly space for stage behind that </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate side entrance for the Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Subscribers had a pendant entrance </li></ul><ul><li>General ticket holders entered front </li></ul><ul><li>Interior: </li></ul><ul><li>Iron used, but not in exposed places </li></ul><ul><li>Mirrors on columns flicker with gas light, allowing ladies to check their hair before entering the great staircase </li></ul><ul><li>Auditorium made for the staircase, rather than the staircase for the auditorium </li></ul><ul><li>Auditorium as anti-climax </li></ul><ul><li>Garnier said the staircase IS the opera </li></ul><ul><li>Lower steps swell gently outward </li></ul><ul><li>Porch of the caryatids frames the finest seats </li></ul>
  6. 13. Beginnings of Modern Architecture <ul><li>Labrouste, Sainte-Genevieve Library, Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of load bearing masonry and iron construction </li></ul><ul><li>Arches and columns support roof independent of masonry walls </li></ul><ul><li>Iron construction balanced by itself </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute a cast-iron shaft for a column of granite </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow, rectangular ground plan wedged onto a long constricted site </li></ul><ul><li>1838, first library in Paris to be opened at night, illuminated with gas lamps </li></ul><ul><li>Had to be constructed of fire-proof materials </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior: </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous range of arches on tall, narrow piers </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior can be thought of as a cover for a book </li></ul><ul><li>First consistently exposed iron skeleton in a monumental public building </li></ul><ul><li>Arches on interior reflect arches on exterior </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive and mechanical decoration on surface </li></ul><ul><li>Façade composed of 810 names of authors in chronological order from Moses to Berzelous, 1848, a Swedish chemist </li></ul>
  7. 14. Beginnings of Modern Architecture <ul><li>Labrouste, Sainte-Genevieve Library, Paris (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Central name is Byzantine writer Psellus symbolizing the meeting of East and West </li></ul><ul><li>Façade as a monumental card catalogue, or Table of Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Main portal: two flat Tuscan columns, surmounted by lamps that symbolize opening at night for the convenience of students and workers </li></ul><ul><li>Lamps around door look like bookmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Interior: </li></ul><ul><li>Single spine of cast iron down center </li></ul><ul><li>Spatially open, evenly lit in daytime and well-ventilated </li></ul><ul><li>Interior and exterior compliment each other </li></ul>
  8. 16. Beginnings of Modern Architecture <ul><li>Paxton, Crystal Palace, London </li></ul><ul><li>Competition to build a World’s Fair in London to be held in 1851 </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings to be temporary, economical, simple, and capable of rapid construction </li></ul><ul><li>245 designs submitted, none suitable </li></ul><ul><li>Paxton formulated this design in eight days, fulfilling all requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Built in 39 weeks of prefabricated materials </li></ul><ul><li>1851 feet long, 18 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Free of internal walls </li></ul><ul><li>7,200 cast iron and wrought iron columns </li></ul><ul><li>900,000 square feet of sheet glass </li></ul><ul><li>Hollow cast iron columns act as drain pipes </li></ul><ul><li>Glass curtain walls </li></ul><ul><li>Portal bracing to counteract lateral forces of the wind </li></ul><ul><li>Paxton’s experience in greenhouses inspired the design </li></ul><ul><li>Burned in 1936 </li></ul>

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