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Romantic Architecture2


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  • 1. Romantic Architecture
    • John Nash (1752-1835)
    • Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860)
    • Charles Garnier (1825-98)
  • 2. Revival Architecture
    • Nash, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
    • Seaside resort for prince regent, later King George IV
    • Islamic domes, minarets and screens
    • Onion domes and finials
    • Underlying the exotic façade is a cast iron skeleton
    • Interior: palm-tree columns in cast iron
  • 3. Royal Pavilion at Brighton, John Nash, 1815
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  • 8. Revival Architecture
    • Barry and Pugin, Houses of Parliament, London
    • Old Houses of Parliament burned to the ground in 1834
    • Competition held in 1835 to rebuild the Houses
    • Only styles allowed in the competition were Elizabethan Tudor and Gothic
    • 97 entries, this was the winning entry
    • Ground plan is cruciform
    • Two main axes meet in an octagonal central lobby: House of Commons meets the House of Lords
    • Barry was a classicist, a regularity of the rhythms of the façade
    • Pugin was a medievalist: towers and decorative elements
    • Vast office complex: 1,100 rooms, 100 staircases, 2 miles of corridors, 8 acres
    • Harmonized with other medieval buildings nearby, like Westminster Abbey
    • Big Ben, the clock tower, is like a medieval village clock
    • Placement of a detached tower is Italian in inspiration
  • 9. Revival Architecture
    • Garnier, The Opera, Paris
    • Exterior:
    • Rich polychrome façade of colored marbles
    • Domed auditorium
    • Huge fly space for stage behind that
    • Elaborate side entrance for the Emperor
    • Subscribers had a pendant entrance
    • General ticket holders entered front
    • Interior:
    • Iron used, but not in exposed places
    • Mirrors on columns flicker with gas light, allowing ladies to check their hair before entering the great staircase
    • Auditorium made for the staircase, rather than the staircase for the auditorium
    • Auditorium as anti-climax
    • Garnier said the staircase IS the opera
    • Lower steps swell gently outward
    • Porch of the caryatids frames the finest seats
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  • 13. Beginnings of Modern Architecture
    • Labrouste, Sainte-Genevieve Library, Paris
    • Combination of load bearing masonry and iron construction
    • Arches and columns support roof independent of masonry walls
    • Iron construction balanced by itself
    • Substitute a cast-iron shaft for a column of granite
    • Narrow, rectangular ground plan wedged onto a long constricted site
    • 1838, first library in Paris to be opened at night, illuminated with gas lamps
    • Had to be constructed of fire-proof materials
    • Exterior:
    • Continuous range of arches on tall, narrow piers
    • Exterior can be thought of as a cover for a book
    • First consistently exposed iron skeleton in a monumental public building
    • Arches on interior reflect arches on exterior
    • Repetitive and mechanical decoration on surface
    • Façade composed of 810 names of authors in chronological order from Moses to Berzelous, 1848, a Swedish chemist
  • 14. Beginnings of Modern Architecture
    • Labrouste, Sainte-Genevieve Library, Paris (continued)
    • Central name is Byzantine writer Psellus symbolizing the meeting of East and West
    • Façade as a monumental card catalogue, or Table of Contents
    • Main portal: two flat Tuscan columns, surmounted by lamps that symbolize opening at night for the convenience of students and workers
    • Lamps around door look like bookmarks
    • Interior:
    • Single spine of cast iron down center
    • Spatially open, evenly lit in daytime and well-ventilated
    • Interior and exterior compliment each other
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  • 16. Beginnings of Modern Architecture
    • Paxton, Crystal Palace, London
    • Competition to build a World’s Fair in London to be held in 1851
    • Buildings to be temporary, economical, simple, and capable of rapid construction
    • 245 designs submitted, none suitable
    • Paxton formulated this design in eight days, fulfilling all requirements
    • Built in 39 weeks of prefabricated materials
    • 1851 feet long, 18 acres
    • Free of internal walls
    • 7,200 cast iron and wrought iron columns
    • 900,000 square feet of sheet glass
    • Hollow cast iron columns act as drain pipes
    • Glass curtain walls
    • Portal bracing to counteract lateral forces of the wind
    • Paxton’s experience in greenhouses inspired the design
    • Burned in 1936
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