Bayeux Tapestry 1073 - 83 AD
Bayeux Tapestry <ul><li>Called a tapestry, actually is an embroidery </li></ul><ul><li>20 inches high, 230 feet long </li>...
Romanesque Architecture <ul><li>Saint Sernin, Toulouse </li></ul><ul><li>Central square at crossing is the module for the ...
West Tympanum, Cathedral of Autun, France Gislebertus, C 1130 AD
Romanesque Sculpture <ul><li>Gislebertus, St.-Lazare, Autun </li></ul><ul><li>Last Judgment: Christ in center with four ev...
The first important monuments of Romanesque sculpture were created in the last decade of the 11th cent. and the first deca...
 
Romanesque Architecture <ul><li>Pisa Cathedral, Pisa </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior: </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple arcades and ma...
Romanesque Architecture <ul><li>Cathedral, Durham </li></ul><ul><li>Very long nave, typical of English architecture </li><...
The Romanesque period is marked by: -   Immense relief the world hadn’t ended at the turn of the millennium -  The resurge...
Romanesque Sculpture   <ul><li>Morgan Madonna </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine in hieratic inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Mary a...
<ul><li>Wiligelmo,  Adam and Eve , Modena Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Inscription: “Among sculptors, your work shines fort...
Romanesque Painting <ul><li>Master Hugo,  Moses Expounding the Law  from the  Bury Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Upper: Moses an...
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Romanesque

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Romanesque

  1. 1. Bayeux Tapestry 1073 - 83 AD
  2. 2. Bayeux Tapestry <ul><li>Called a tapestry, actually is an embroidery </li></ul><ul><li>20 inches high, 230 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative of the Battle of Hastings in 1066 told in Latin </li></ul><ul><li>William the Conqueror vs. King Harold of England </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Bishop Odo, half-brother to William the Conqueror </li></ul><ul><li>A contemporary event told in full detail  </li></ul><ul><li>75 scenes </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy over where it was made: French or Anglo-Saxon in manufacture? </li></ul><ul><li>Figures cast no shadows </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral background </li></ul><ul><li>Upper and lower registers have fanciful beasts and birds </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior of people and animals seems natural </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative patterning </li></ul><ul><li>Cf. Column of Trajan </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth of incident: soldiers wading in water with coats wrapped up, sailors looking out from top of mast, roast served on long spits, farming techniques </li></ul>
  3. 3. Romanesque Architecture <ul><li>Saint Sernin, Toulouse </li></ul><ul><li>Central square at crossing is the module for the church </li></ul><ul><li>Each nave bay is ½ central square </li></ul><ul><li>Each side aisle is ¼ central square </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous identical volumes in the interior </li></ul><ul><li>All parts integrated into the architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Increased nave length </li></ul><ul><li>Doubling of side aisles </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical strips on exterior mark the internal structure of bays </li></ul><ul><li>Opening in ambulatory for circulation of crowds </li></ul><ul><li>Ambulatory wraps around the apse </li></ul><ul><li>Radiating chapels spring from ambulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Very dark interior, small windows </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of clerestory darkens upper reaches of vault </li></ul><ul><li>Barrel vault main aisle, groin vault side aisles </li></ul>
  4. 4. West Tympanum, Cathedral of Autun, France Gislebertus, C 1130 AD
  5. 5. Romanesque Sculpture <ul><li>Gislebertus, St.-Lazare, Autun </li></ul><ul><li>Last Judgment: Christ in center with four evangelists flanking </li></ul><ul><li>On his left: the sinister side, those condemned to hell; on his right: the righteous side, those going to heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Dead rising in lintel, some plucked from the earth by giant hands </li></ul><ul><li>Angels and devils compete for souls </li></ul><ul><li>Two pilgrims on center left of lintel carry staffs and satchels with a cross and a seashell badge indicating they are pilgrims to Santiago de Compostela </li></ul><ul><li>Blessed are ethereal and weightless </li></ul><ul><li>Scale is carefully gradated </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical proportions are distended and distorted </li></ul><ul><li>Four angels in corners announce the end of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Elongated figures </li></ul><ul><li>Flattening pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Zigzag and dovetail lines of drapery </li></ul><ul><li>Folds along torsos </li></ul><ul><li>Wide cheekbones </li></ul><ul><li>Originally brightly painted </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptor signed his name below Christ’s feet </li></ul>
  6. 6. The first important monuments of Romanesque sculpture were created in the last decade of the 11th cent. and the first decades of the 12th cent. The primary source of artistic patronage was provided by the monastic institutions, for whom sculptors executed large relief carvings for the decoration of church portals and richly ornate capitals for cloisters. Romanesque sculpture produced an art of extraordinary ornamental complexity, ecstatic in expression, and abounding in seemingly endless combinations of zoomorphic, vegetal, and abstract motifs.
  7. 8. Romanesque Architecture <ul><li>Pisa Cathedral, Pisa </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior: </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple arcades and marble incrustation on façade </li></ul><ul><li>Use of blind arcades </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous horizontal molding </li></ul><ul><li>Articulated bandings and geometric veneers </li></ul><ul><li>Famous Leaning Tower is the campanile </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent baptistery in front of cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Interior: </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing dome </li></ul><ul><li>Broadly projecting transepts </li></ul><ul><li>Timber roof interior, as in Early Christian buildings </li></ul>1063 – 1350 ce
  8. 9. Romanesque Architecture <ul><li>Cathedral, Durham </li></ul><ul><li>Very long nave, typical of English architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Ribbed vaults throughout: earliest example </li></ul><ul><li>Vaults in relation to vertical elements and compound piers </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract patterns on piers, diamonds, chevrons: inspired by metalcraft from Early Medieval Art </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest hint of Gothic pointed arches </li></ul>1093 ce
  9. 10. The Romanesque period is marked by: - Immense relief the world hadn’t ended at the turn of the millennium - The resurgence of cities and trade - The emergence of Europe as we know it - Strengthened Papal authority - The emergence of a middle class and merchant class - Evolution of the Romance languages - The peak in feudalism as a political system
  10. 11. Romanesque Sculpture <ul><li>Morgan Madonna </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine in hieratic inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Mary as the throne for Jesus, she sits on a throne </li></ul><ul><li>Christ held a Bible in left hand and raised his right in blessing </li></ul><ul><li>Soft modeling of forms </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid frontality </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionless </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual wooden sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Christ depicted as a little man rather than as a child </li></ul>c. 1175 ce
  11. 12. <ul><li>Wiligelmo, Adam and Eve , Modena Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Inscription: “Among sculptors, your work shines forth, Wiligelmo” </li></ul><ul><li>Modena proud of sculptor brought to decorate cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>More three-dimensional than other relief carvings of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative elements </li></ul><ul><li>Figures have little relationship to Romanesque arches behind </li></ul><ul><li>Figures have large extremities, compact bodies </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Romanesque Sculpture 1110 ce
  12. 13. Romanesque Painting <ul><li>Master Hugo, Moses Expounding the Law from the Bury Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Upper: Moses and Aaron proclaim the law to the Israelites </li></ul><ul><li>Lower: Moses points out the clean and unclean beasts </li></ul><ul><li>Flatness of body </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of line </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies seem to float </li></ul><ul><li>Elongated figures </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-legged poses </li></ul><ul><li>Zigzag and dovetail lines of drapery </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures are deliberate and didactic </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrary squares of color in background </li></ul><ul><li>Foliage border </li></ul>1135 ce

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