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Roman Emperors Ceasar Augustus Tiberius Nero Vespasian Titus Trajan Hadrian Marcus Aurelius Diocletian Constantine 27 BC – 14AD 14 – 37 54-68 69 – 79 79 – 81 98 – 117 117 -138 161 – 180 284 – 305 306 - 337
Head of Emperor Augustus First half of the 1st century A.D.; Roman; Marble; 48.3 cm (19 in.); Gift of Mr. and Mrs. James S. Holden; 24.101 This portrait of Rome's first emperor is an idealized, youthful image, which harks back to the representation of athletes and heroes of 5th-century B.C. Greece. It follows the portrait well known from a marble statue of Augustus, discovered in the villa of Augustus's wife Livia outside of Rome. That handsome likeness was the source of inspiration for hundreds of portraits of the emperor all over the expanding Roman Empire. The statue may have served as the cult figure in a temple to the deified emperor, or stood in a public or private place of honor.
Roman Early Imperial Art Pont du Gard, Nîmes Bridge and aqueduct Largest arch spans 82 feet Each person in Nîmes could count on 100 gallons of water a day Rough stones left exposed to allow for repair work Ashlar masonry
Roman High Imperial Art Column of Trajan Ashes of Trajan placed at base Stood in Trajan’s Forum, surrounded by buildings so that the reliefs could be read Low relief, no shadows to enhance visibility Originally painted Continuous narrative around column 2,500 figures in all, 150 separate episodes Depicts the war against the Dacians
Roman Architecture Pantheon, Rome Dedicated to all the gods Porch has 16 columns Influenced by the Parthenon Corinthian capitals Two pediments Dome made of concrete, at base 20 feet thick Interior height equals width A hemisphere shape Coffers relieve concrete stress on dome: each contains four recesses except the top contains three Ancient metal roof almost gone Repetition of square and circle
Roman Architecture Pantheon, Rome (continued) Original dome decorated with stucco and painting Original marble walls survive Floor has drainage system Oculus allows light and air in Light from oculus symbolizes sun’s movement through the sky Base of building made of concrete
Roman Late Imperial Art Head of Constantine 8 ½ foot head Part of a seated statue that must have been 30 feet Enthroned in the Basilica of Constantine Metal crown was attached to brow Enlarged and detailed carving of eyes Lack of individuality
Barrel vaults, north exedra, Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, Roman Forum
Roman Late Imperial Art The Tetrarchs Depicts four emperors who ruled at once Figures are cylinders, lack body articulation Same gestures, a Roman salute Done in porphyry, a purple stone symbolizing royalty Stubby proportions Squat bodies No emotion on faces Deeply furrowed lines on foreheads
Roman Architecture: Colosseum Colosseum, Rome Real name, Flavian Ampitheatre Accommodates 50,000 spectators Miles of vaulted spaces Barrel vaults, groin vaults Concrete Elliptical form 80 entrances 1st floor: Tuscan, considered the heaviest 2nd Floor: Doric, considered lighter 3rd floor: Ionic, fancier Top floor flat columns in Corinthian style, most decorative Imperial box opposite gladiator entrance Small rectangular windows on fourth floor let in light into upper corridors Façade of travertine blocks Flagstaffs balanced on marble buttresses visible on fourth floor held up a sunshield for the spectators Used for gladiator combat, naval battles
Pompeii Explosion by Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD buried Pompeii Forum Large rectangular public square in center of town Surrounded by a colonnade Temple of Jupiter focus of forum Surrounding the forum are the buildings that housed the business, government and religious activities of Pompeii
Pompeii Roman Houses Faced inward Interiors lit from atrium, few windows on exterior Atrium formed the opening for rainwater to fall in the impluvium Columns surround impluvium Interiors of rooms are painted; open up interior space Shops are outside the house facing the street Windows are small and limited in number