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  • 1. Roman Art
  • 2. Capitoline Brutus, ca. 300 BC (or later), Etruscan bronze portrait, Conservatori Mus, Rome
  • 3. Head of a Roman Patrician
    • Bust
    • 4. Severe, unwavering, resolute
    • 5. Knowledgeable, respected
    • 6. Romans felt the head was a good enough representation of a person
    • 7. Traditional family values
    • 8. Influenced by Hellenistic Greek art
    • 9. Shows the virtues of old age
    • 10. Was old age enhanced on the figure?
    Rome, c. 80 B.C.
  • 11. Roman Patrician with 2 Heads, c. 15 CE
  • 12. Temple of Fortuna Virilis (Portunas) Late 2nd BCE
  • 13. Temple Virilis, Rome
    • Temple to the Roman god of harbors, Portunus
    • 14. Etruscan influence in the elevation of the temple on a pedestal
    • 15. One main entrance in the front
    • 16. Wide flight of stairs
    • 17. Ionic columns
    • 18. Roman desire for big interiors pushes the walls out to meet the columns
    • 19. Influence of the Greeks in overall design
  • Marble sarcophagus with the Triumph of Dionysos and the SeasonsRoman, Late Imperial, Gallienic, ca. A.D. 260–270
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23. Roman Emperors
    Ceasar Augustus
    Tiberius
    Nero
    Vespasian
    Titus
    Trajan
    Hadrian
    Marcus Aurelius
    Diocletian
    Constantine
    27 BC – 14AD
    14 – 37
    54-68
    69 – 79
    79 – 81
    98 – 117
    117 -138
    161 – 180
    284 – 305
    306 - 337
  • 24. Head of Emperor Augustus
    First half of the 1st century A.D.; Roman; Marble; 48.3 cm (19 in.); Gift of Mr. and Mrs. James S. Holden; 24.101 This portrait of Rome's first emperor is an idealized, youthful image, which harks back to the representation of athletes and heroes of 5th-century B.C. Greece. It follows the portrait well known from a marble statue of Augustus, discovered in the villa of Augustus's wife Livia outside of Rome. That handsome likeness was the source of inspiration for hundreds of portraits of the emperor all over the expanding Roman Empire. The statue may have served as the cult figure in a temple to the deified emperor, or stood in a public or private place of honor.
  • 25. Augustus of Primaporta
    • Idealization, generalized face
    • 26. No personal idiosyncrasies
    • 27. Contrapposto
    • 28. Suggests a god and a man
    • 29. Bare feet gives him heroic stature
    • 30. Sharp eyebrow edges
    • 31. Oratorical pose
    • 32. On military breastplate, the return of a Roman standard from Parthia
    • 33. Back not carved, placed in a niche
    • 34. Cupid riding on a dolphin is a reference to Venus, Augustus’ great ancestor
    • 35. He was 76 when it was carved
    Rome, c.15 CE
  • 36. L'Arringatore, bronze portrait of orator, from Lake Trasimene , 1 st c. BC
  • 37.
  • 38. Gemma Augusta
  • 39. Ara Pacis and Procession of the Imperial Family
    • Altar of Peace
    • 40. Delicately carved acanthus leaf patterns on the exterior
    • 41. Altar connected with Augustus’ homecoming after a long absence
    • 42. Romans appear as a ruling class, not as gods
    • 43. Actual identifiable Romans depicted
    • 44. Children are depicted as children, not shown as small adults
    • 45. Crowding of figures in processional, not classically dispersed
    • 46. Augustus passed laws to promote family values
    Tellus Relief - Allegory of Peace (east side)
    • Mother Earth suckles her children
    • 47. Personifications of earth, wind, fire and water rest at peace around her
    • 48. Roman peace brings bounty to all
  • Roman Early Imperial Art
    Pont du Gard, Nîmes
    Bridge and aqueduct
    Largest arch spans 82 feet
    Each person in Nîmes could count on 100 gallons of water a day
    Rough stones left exposed to allow for repair work
    Ashlar masonry
  • 49. Roman High Imperial Art
    Column of Trajan
    Ashes of Trajan placed at base
    Stood in Trajan’s Forum, surrounded by buildings so that the reliefs could be read
    Low relief, no shadows to enhance visibility
    Originally painted
    Continuous narrative around column
    2,500 figures in all, 150 separate episodes
    Depicts the war against the Dacians
  • 50. Roman Architecture
    Pantheon, Rome
    Dedicated to all the gods
    Porch has 16 columns
    Influenced by the Parthenon
    Corinthian capitals
    Two pediments
    Dome made of concrete, at base 20 feet thick
    Interior height equals width
    A hemisphere shape
    Coffers relieve concrete stress on dome: each contains four recesses except the top contains three
    Ancient metal roof almost gone
    Repetition of square and circle
  • 51. Roman Architecture
    Pantheon, Rome (continued)
    Original dome decorated with stucco and painting
    Original marble walls survive
    Floor has drainage system
    Oculus allows light and air in
    Light from oculus symbolizes sun’s movement through the sky
    Base of building made of concrete
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 54. Roman Late Imperial Art
    Head of Constantine
    8 ½ foot head
    Part of a seated statue that must have been 30 feet
    Enthroned in the Basilica of Constantine
    Metal crown was attached to brow
    Enlarged and detailed carving of eyes
    Lack of individuality
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57. Barrel vaults, north exedra,
    Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine,
    Roman Forum
  • 58. Roman Late Imperial Art
    The Tetrarchs
    Depicts four emperors who ruled at once
    Figures are cylinders, lack body articulation
    Same gestures, a Roman salute
    Done in porphyry, a purple stone symbolizing royalty
    Stubby proportions
    Squat bodies
    No emotion on faces
    Deeply furrowed lines on foreheads
  • 59. Roman Architecture: Colosseum
    Colosseum, Rome
    Real name, Flavian Ampitheatre
    Accommodates 50,000 spectators
    Miles of vaulted spaces
    Barrel vaults, groin vaults
    Concrete
    Elliptical form
    80 entrances
    1st floor: Tuscan, considered the heaviest
    2nd Floor: Doric, considered lighter
    3rd floor: Ionic, fancier
    Top floor flat columns in Corinthian style, most decorative
    Imperial box opposite gladiator entrance
    Small rectangular windows on fourth floor let in light into upper corridors
    Façade of travertine blocks
    Flagstaffs balanced on marble buttresses visible on fourth floor held up a sunshield for the spectators
    Used for gladiator combat, naval battles
  • 60. Forum at Pompeii
    c. 79 AD
  • 61.
  • 62. Pompeii
    Explosion by Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD buried Pompeii
    Forum
    Large rectangular public square in center of town
    Surrounded by a colonnade
    Temple of Jupiter focus of forum
    Surrounding the forum are the buildings that housed the business, government and religious activities of Pompeii
  • 63. Atrium, House of the Silver wedding
  • 64. Pompeii
    Roman Houses
    Faced inward
    Interiors lit from atrium, few windows on exterior
    Atrium formed the opening for rainwater to fall in the impluvium
    Columns surround impluvium
    Interiors of rooms are painted; open up interior space
    Shops are outside the house facing the street
    Windows are small and limited in number
  • 65. Ixion Room
    • Fresco, linear perspective, atmospheric perspective
    • 66. Foreshortening
    • 67. Ixion murdered his father-in-law and planned to seduce Hera
    • 68. Zeus struck him with a thunderbolt and ordered him to be tied to a wheel in hell
    • 69. Scheme of red and white fields
    • 70. On bottom painted to resemble marble slabs
    • 71. On top, architectural vistas that do not align to a single viewpoint
    • 72. Thin delicate motifs alternate with framed mythological scenes
  • 73. Dionysiac Mystery Frieze
    • Fresco, Foreshortening
    • 74. 2nd Pompeian Style painting
    • 75. Large figures in a frieze-like format
    • 76. Initiation rites into the female cult of Dionysos
    • 77. Figures act out mystery rites
    • 78. Painted marble panels at bottom, from the First Pompeian style of painting
    • 79. Bright Pompeian red background pushes figures forward
    • 80. No linear perspective, but three dimensional illusionism
    • 81. Figures interact with each other on adjacent wall spaces
    Villa of the Mysteries
  • 82.
  • 83.
    • Over 30 buildings – 250 acres
    • 84. Multiple architectural orders – mainly Greek and Egyptian
    • 85. Multiple sculptural works including the discobolus
  • Antinous – a very good freind
  • 86. Equestrian statue of Marcus Aureliusca. 175 AD
  • 87. Commodus as Hercules
    c. 191 – 92 CE
  • 88. Philip the Arab
    c. 246 CE
  • 89. Mummy portrait of a manca. 160-170 AD