Roman Art<br />
Capitoline Brutus, ca. 300 BC (or later), Etruscan bronze portrait, Conservatori Mus, Rome <br />
Head of a Roman Patrician<br /><ul><li>Bust
Severe, unwavering, resolute
Knowledgeable, respected
Romans felt the head was a good enough representation of a person
Traditional family values
Influenced by Hellenistic Greek art
Shows the virtues of old age
Was old age enhanced on the figure?</li></ul>Rome, c. 80 B.C.<br />
Roman Patrician with 2 Heads, c. 15 CE<br />
Temple of Fortuna Virilis (Portunas) Late 2nd BCE<br />
Temple Virilis, Rome<br /><ul><li>Temple to the Roman god of harbors, Portunus
Etruscan influence in the elevation of the temple on a pedestal
One main entrance in the front
Wide flight of stairs
Ionic columns
Roman desire for big interiors pushes the walls out to meet the columns
Influence of the Greeks in overall design</li></li></ul><li>Marble sarcophagus with the Triumph of Dionysos and the Season...
Roman Emperors<br />Ceasar Augustus<br />Tiberius<br />Nero<br />Vespasian<br />Titus<br />Trajan<br />Hadrian<br />Marcus...
Head of Emperor Augustus<br />First half of the 1st century A.D.; Roman; Marble; 48.3 cm (19 in.); Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Ja...
Augustus of Primaporta<br /><ul><li>Idealization, generalized face
No personal idiosyncrasies
Contrapposto
Suggests a god and a man
Bare feet gives him heroic stature
Sharp eyebrow edges
Oratorical pose
On military breastplate, the return of a Roman standard from Parthia
Back not carved, placed in a niche
Cupid riding on a dolphin is a reference to Venus, Augustus’ great ancestor
He was 76 when it was carved</li></ul>Rome, c.15 CE<br />
L&apos;Arringatore, bronze portrait of orator, from Lake Trasimene , 1 st c. BC<br />
Gemma Augusta<br />
Ara Pacis and Procession of the Imperial Family<br /><ul><li>Altar of Peace
Delicately carved acanthus leaf patterns on the exterior
Altar connected with Augustus’ homecoming after a long absence
Romans appear as a ruling class, not as gods
Actual identifiable Romans depicted
Children are depicted as children, not shown as small adults
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Roman Post

  1. 1. Roman Art<br />
  2. 2. Capitoline Brutus, ca. 300 BC (or later), Etruscan bronze portrait, Conservatori Mus, Rome <br />
  3. 3. Head of a Roman Patrician<br /><ul><li>Bust
  4. 4. Severe, unwavering, resolute
  5. 5. Knowledgeable, respected
  6. 6. Romans felt the head was a good enough representation of a person
  7. 7. Traditional family values
  8. 8. Influenced by Hellenistic Greek art
  9. 9. Shows the virtues of old age
  10. 10. Was old age enhanced on the figure?</li></ul>Rome, c. 80 B.C.<br />
  11. 11. Roman Patrician with 2 Heads, c. 15 CE<br />
  12. 12. Temple of Fortuna Virilis (Portunas) Late 2nd BCE<br />
  13. 13. Temple Virilis, Rome<br /><ul><li>Temple to the Roman god of harbors, Portunus
  14. 14. Etruscan influence in the elevation of the temple on a pedestal
  15. 15. One main entrance in the front
  16. 16. Wide flight of stairs
  17. 17. Ionic columns
  18. 18. Roman desire for big interiors pushes the walls out to meet the columns
  19. 19. Influence of the Greeks in overall design</li></li></ul><li>Marble sarcophagus with the Triumph of Dionysos and the SeasonsRoman, Late Imperial, Gallienic, ca. A.D. 260–270<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Roman Emperors<br />Ceasar Augustus<br />Tiberius<br />Nero<br />Vespasian<br />Titus<br />Trajan<br />Hadrian<br />Marcus Aurelius<br />Diocletian<br />Constantine<br />27 BC – 14AD<br />14 – 37<br />54-68<br />69 – 79<br />79 – 81<br />98 – 117<br />117 -138<br />161 – 180<br />284 – 305<br />306 - 337<br />
  24. 24. Head of Emperor Augustus<br />First half of the 1st century A.D.; Roman; Marble; 48.3 cm (19 in.); Gift of Mr. and Mrs. James S. Holden; 24.101 This portrait of Rome&apos;s first emperor is an idealized, youthful image, which harks back to the representation of athletes and heroes of 5th-century B.C. Greece. It follows the portrait well known from a marble statue of Augustus, discovered in the villa of Augustus&apos;s wife Livia outside of Rome. That handsome likeness was the source of inspiration for hundreds of portraits of the emperor all over the expanding Roman Empire. The statue may have served as the cult figure in a temple to the deified emperor, or stood in a public or private place of honor. <br />
  25. 25. Augustus of Primaporta<br /><ul><li>Idealization, generalized face
  26. 26. No personal idiosyncrasies
  27. 27. Contrapposto
  28. 28. Suggests a god and a man
  29. 29. Bare feet gives him heroic stature
  30. 30. Sharp eyebrow edges
  31. 31. Oratorical pose
  32. 32. On military breastplate, the return of a Roman standard from Parthia
  33. 33. Back not carved, placed in a niche
  34. 34. Cupid riding on a dolphin is a reference to Venus, Augustus’ great ancestor
  35. 35. He was 76 when it was carved</li></ul>Rome, c.15 CE<br />
  36. 36. L&apos;Arringatore, bronze portrait of orator, from Lake Trasimene , 1 st c. BC<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Gemma Augusta<br />
  39. 39. Ara Pacis and Procession of the Imperial Family<br /><ul><li>Altar of Peace
  40. 40. Delicately carved acanthus leaf patterns on the exterior
  41. 41. Altar connected with Augustus’ homecoming after a long absence
  42. 42. Romans appear as a ruling class, not as gods
  43. 43. Actual identifiable Romans depicted
  44. 44. Children are depicted as children, not shown as small adults
  45. 45. Crowding of figures in processional, not classically dispersed
  46. 46. Augustus passed laws to promote family values</li></ul>Tellus Relief - Allegory of Peace (east side)<br /><ul><li>Mother Earth suckles her children
  47. 47. Personifications of earth, wind, fire and water rest at peace around her
  48. 48. Roman peace brings bounty to all</li></li></ul><li>Roman Early Imperial Art<br />Pont du Gard, Nîmes<br />Bridge and aqueduct<br />Largest arch spans 82 feet<br />Each person in Nîmes could count on 100 gallons of water a day<br />Rough stones left exposed to allow for repair work<br />Ashlar masonry<br />
  49. 49. Roman High Imperial Art<br />Column of Trajan<br />Ashes of Trajan placed at base<br />Stood in Trajan’s Forum, surrounded by buildings so that the reliefs could be read<br />Low relief, no shadows to enhance visibility<br />Originally painted<br />Continuous narrative around column<br />2,500 figures in all, 150 separate episodes<br />Depicts the war against the Dacians<br />
  50. 50. Roman Architecture<br />Pantheon, Rome<br />Dedicated to all the gods<br />Porch has 16 columns<br />Influenced by the Parthenon<br />Corinthian capitals<br />Two pediments<br />Dome made of concrete, at base 20 feet thick<br />Interior height equals width<br />A hemisphere shape<br />Coffers relieve concrete stress on dome: each contains four recesses except the top contains three<br />Ancient metal roof almost gone<br />Repetition of square and circle<br />
  51. 51. Roman Architecture<br />Pantheon, Rome (continued)<br />Original dome decorated with stucco and painting<br />Original marble walls survive<br />Floor has drainage system<br />Oculus allows light and air in<br />Light from oculus symbolizes sun’s movement through the sky<br />Base of building made of concrete<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53.
  54. 54. Roman Late Imperial Art<br />Head of Constantine<br />8 ½ foot head<br /> Part of a seated statue that must have been 30 feet<br />Enthroned in the Basilica of Constantine<br />Metal crown was attached to brow<br />Enlarged and detailed carving of eyes<br />Lack of individuality<br />
  55. 55.
  56. 56.
  57. 57. Barrel vaults, north exedra, <br />Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, <br />Roman Forum<br />
  58. 58. Roman Late Imperial Art<br />The Tetrarchs<br />Depicts four emperors who ruled at once<br />Figures are cylinders, lack body articulation<br />Same gestures, a Roman salute<br />Done in porphyry, a purple stone symbolizing royalty<br />Stubby proportions<br />Squat bodies<br />No emotion on faces<br />Deeply furrowed lines on foreheads<br />
  59. 59. Roman Architecture: Colosseum<br />Colosseum, Rome<br />Real name, Flavian Ampitheatre<br />Accommodates 50,000 spectators<br />Miles of vaulted spaces<br />Barrel vaults, groin vaults<br />Concrete<br />Elliptical form<br />80 entrances<br />1st floor: Tuscan, considered the heaviest<br />2nd Floor: Doric, considered lighter<br />3rd floor: Ionic, fancier<br />Top floor flat columns in Corinthian style, most decorative<br />Imperial box opposite gladiator entrance<br />Small rectangular windows on fourth floor let in light into upper corridors<br /> Façade of travertine blocks<br /> Flagstaffs balanced on marble buttresses visible on fourth floor held up a sunshield for the spectators<br /> Used for gladiator combat, naval battles<br />
  60. 60. Forum at Pompeii<br />c. 79 AD<br />
  61. 61.
  62. 62. Pompeii<br />Explosion by Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD buried Pompeii<br />Forum<br />Large rectangular public square in center of town<br />Surrounded by a colonnade<br />Temple of Jupiter focus of forum<br />Surrounding the forum are the buildings that housed the business, government and religious activities of Pompeii<br />
  63. 63. Atrium, House of the Silver wedding<br />
  64. 64. Pompeii<br />Roman Houses<br />Faced inward<br />Interiors lit from atrium, few windows on exterior<br />Atrium formed the opening for rainwater to fall in the impluvium<br />Columns surround impluvium<br />Interiors of rooms are painted; open up interior space<br />Shops are outside the house facing the street<br />Windows are small and limited in number<br />
  65. 65. Ixion Room<br /><ul><li>Fresco, linear perspective, atmospheric perspective
  66. 66. Foreshortening
  67. 67. Ixion murdered his father-in-law and planned to seduce Hera
  68. 68. Zeus struck him with a thunderbolt and ordered him to be tied to a wheel in hell
  69. 69. Scheme of red and white fields
  70. 70. On bottom painted to resemble marble slabs
  71. 71. On top, architectural vistas that do not align to a single viewpoint
  72. 72. Thin delicate motifs alternate with framed mythological scenes</li></li></ul><li>
  73. 73. Dionysiac Mystery Frieze<br /><ul><li>Fresco, Foreshortening
  74. 74. 2nd Pompeian Style painting
  75. 75. Large figures in a frieze-like format
  76. 76. Initiation rites into the female cult of Dionysos
  77. 77. Figures act out mystery rites
  78. 78. Painted marble panels at bottom, from the First Pompeian style of painting
  79. 79. Bright Pompeian red background pushes figures forward
  80. 80. No linear perspective, but three dimensional illusionism
  81. 81. Figures interact with each other on adjacent wall spaces</li></ul>Villa of the Mysteries<br />
  82. 82.
  83. 83. <ul><li>Over 30 buildings – 250 acres
  84. 84. Multiple architectural orders – mainly Greek and Egyptian
  85. 85. Multiple sculptural works including the discobolus</li></li></ul><li>Antinous – a very good freind<br />
  86. 86. Equestrian statue of Marcus Aureliusca. 175 AD<br />
  87. 87. Commodus as Hercules<br />c. 191 – 92 CE<br />
  88. 88. Philip the Arab<br />c. 246 CE<br />
  89. 89. Mummy portrait of a manca. 160-170 AD<br />

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