Biographical Criticism <ul><li>Psychological:  the painting is an expression of the state of mind and the personality of t...
Post-Impressionism <ul><li>Toulouse-Lautrec,  At the Moulin Rouge </li></ul><ul><li>Zigzag composition </li></ul><ul><li>P...
 
Vincent Van Gogh 1853 - 1890
<ul><li>         Tactile surface of painting </li></ul><ul><li>         Brushstrokes conveying emotion and inner reality...
Post-Impressionism <ul><li>Van Gogh,  The Starry Night </li></ul><ul><li>Painted from his room at the hospital at St-Rémy ...
 
<ul><li>Paul Gauguin (1848 – 1903) </li></ul><ul><li>         Emphasizes the use of bright, non-naturalistic colors </li>...
Post-Impressionism <ul><li>Gauguin,  The Vision after the Sermon </li></ul><ul><li>After hearing an impassioned sermon on ...
1888
Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? 1897
Post Impressionism <ul><li>Seurat,  La Grande Jatte </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzed color relationships in a pictorial space </...
 
Paul Cezanne (1839 – 1906) <ul><li>The “Father of Modern Art” – an artist’s artist </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessed with form ov...
Post Impressionism   <ul><li>Cezanne,  Mont Sainte-Victoire </li></ul><ul><li>Broad splashes of color in suggestive rather...
1902-06
1889 <ul><li>Cezanne,  The Basket of Apples </li></ul><ul><li>Each form round and solid </li></ul><ul><li>Sought to repres...
The Symbolists <ul><li>Rousseau,  The Sleeping Gypsy </li></ul><ul><li>Displays the characteristics of primitive artists: ...
1897
The Symbolists <ul><li>Munch,  The Scream </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthy brushstrokes </li></ul><ul><li>Linear pattern of diago...
1893
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Post Impressionism Printout

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Post Impressionism Printout

  1. 1. Biographical Criticism <ul><li>Psychological: the painting is an expression of the state of mind and the personality of the author </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytical: the forbidden, sometimes sexual wishes of a person come into conflict with the standards of society and are expressed in the conscious realm of the artist;’s mind, and in the works of art </li></ul><ul><li>Psychobiographical: an artist’s development is manifest in his psychological state as seen in his works of art </li></ul>
  2. 2. Post-Impressionism <ul><li>Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge </li></ul><ul><li>Zigzag composition </li></ul><ul><li>Pitiless representation of figures </li></ul><ul><li>Gauguin’s influence in the large areas of flat color </li></ul><ul><li>Joyless, oppressive; people out to have a good time, but achieve none </li></ul><ul><li>Self-portrait as a short bearded man in background with his very tall cousin </li></ul><ul><li>Off-key colors </li></ul><ul><li>Tilted perspective of Japanese prints </li></ul><ul><li>People tend to be aging, flabby, cynical </li></ul>
  3. 4. Vincent Van Gogh 1853 - 1890
  4. 5. <ul><li>        Tactile surface of painting </li></ul><ul><li>        Brushstrokes conveying emotion and inner reality </li></ul><ul><li>        Not an imitation of nature </li></ul><ul><li>        Forerunner of expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>        Major emphasis on texture, line and color </li></ul><ul><li>        Colors were vivid, bright and strong </li></ul><ul><li>        Deeply impressed by Millet and Social art </li></ul><ul><li>Missionary zeal </li></ul>
  5. 6. Post-Impressionism <ul><li>Van Gogh, The Starry Night </li></ul><ul><li>Painted from his room at the hospital at St-Rémy </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains of the Lapillus could be seen from his window </li></ul><ul><li>Steepness of the mountains is exaggerated </li></ul><ul><li>Deep forces of the universe playing out on the canvas </li></ul><ul><li>Visionary sense of power </li></ul><ul><li>Discordant colors </li></ul><ul><li>Thick, swirling paint strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Unconventional perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Strong waves splashing from left to right </li></ul><ul><li>Sky movement echoed in mountains and trees </li></ul><ul><li>Two verticals interrupt flow: cypress tree and church steeple </li></ul><ul><li>A religious message? </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Paul Gauguin (1848 – 1903) </li></ul><ul><li>        Emphasizes the use of bright, non-naturalistic colors </li></ul><ul><li>        Emphasizes the use of flat planes of color </li></ul><ul><li>        Rejected notions of Western naturalism </li></ul><ul><li>        Often employs symbolic or primitive subjects </li></ul><ul><li>        Interested in the primitive man, a removal from the norms and mores of society </li></ul><ul><li>        Rejected notions of Western naturalism </li></ul><ul><li>        Uses nature as a starting point from to abstract figures and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>        Stressed linear patterns and color harmonies </li></ul><ul><li>        Tried to include a profound sense of mystery </li></ul><ul><li>BOTH strength and intensity over the slick and superficial </li></ul>
  7. 9. Post-Impressionism <ul><li>Gauguin, The Vision after the Sermon </li></ul><ul><li>After hearing an impassioned sermon on the Biblical account of Jacob wrestling with the angel, the pious rural people envision the struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Tree trunk separates the real from the vision </li></ul><ul><li>Red heat of sermon matches red coloring </li></ul><ul><li>Color used as an emotional response not as a physical description </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection of perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Priest at lower right is a self-portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily enclosed forms </li></ul><ul><li>Renounced Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Many sharply drawn black outlines </li></ul><ul><li>Broad areas of color, relatively flatly applied, containing some subtly that gives it a rich glow </li></ul>
  8. 10. 1888
  9. 11. Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? 1897
  10. 12. Post Impressionism <ul><li>Seurat, La Grande Jatte </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzed color relationships in a pictorial space </li></ul><ul><li>Small brush strokes of complementary color: reds and greens, violets and yellows, blues and oranges </li></ul><ul><li>Pointillist technique </li></ul><ul><li>Result is sort of a mosaic like quality with a geometric structure </li></ul><ul><li>Accent on the loneliness of modern life, figures together yet in isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Most are faceless </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional perspective used </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced intensity of color to give effect of distance </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in geometric shapes </li></ul><ul><li>An Egyptian stillness: figures are posed to run but become frozen statues </li></ul>
  11. 14. Paul Cezanne (1839 – 1906) <ul><li>The “Father of Modern Art” – an artist’s artist </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessed with form over content </li></ul><ul><li>Development of planes to comprise the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Forunner of Cubism </li></ul>
  12. 15. Post Impressionism <ul><li>Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire </li></ul><ul><li>Broad splashes of color in suggestive rather than descriptive passages </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of the canvas left unpainted </li></ul><ul><li>No human figures </li></ul><ul><li>Not a countryside of Impressionism, lacking in human contact </li></ul><ul><li>Aim is to create a unity within the picture in which each element has a clearly defined role and a relationship to the elements around it </li></ul><ul><li>Solidity achieved through massing of shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Grand and monumental form of the mountain </li></ul><ul><li>Worked in color patches </li></ul>
  13. 16. 1902-06
  14. 17. 1889 <ul><li>Cezanne, The Basket of Apples </li></ul><ul><li>Each form round and solid </li></ul><ul><li>Sought to represent each shape as if it were a geometric principle </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric forms determine shapes of apples, bottle, biscuits </li></ul><ul><li>Studied forms in volumes and solids </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking down of objects into its basic shapes </li></ul>
  15. 18. The Symbolists <ul><li>Rousseau, The Sleeping Gypsy </li></ul><ul><li>Displays the characteristics of primitive artists: flat surfaces, minute detail, stiff and frontally posed figures and arbitrary proportions </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Japanese prints and Persian manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>Frame inscription: “The feline, though ferocious, is loathe to leap upon its prey, who, overcome by fatigue, lies in a deep sleep” </li></ul><ul><li>Vase for drinking water in the desert </li></ul><ul><li>Play of light on the lion </li></ul><ul><li>Lion is not ferocious, but curious, a cat with its tail up </li></ul><ul><li>Where is gypsy’s left hand? </li></ul><ul><li>Hair of gypsy forms a pattern with the dress </li></ul><ul><li>Cut out moon and landscape </li></ul><ul><li>What is the lion doing in the desert? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the lion the gypsy’s dream? </li></ul>
  16. 19. 1897
  17. 20. The Symbolists <ul><li>Munch, The Scream </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthy brushstrokes </li></ul><ul><li>Linear pattern of diagonal movement </li></ul><ul><li>Straight and curving patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggerated perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Figure twists like a worm </li></ul><ul><li>Unnerving impression on viewer </li></ul><ul><li>Scream echoed in the composition </li></ul><ul><li>Sexless emasculating figure </li></ul><ul><li>Final painting on a series about love </li></ul><ul><li>Represents a closing scene in a battle between the mind and sex, out of which sex comes through triumphant </li></ul>
  18. 21. 1893

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