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  • 1. Biographical Criticism
    • Psychological: the painting is an expression of the state of mind and the personality of the author
    • Psychoanalytical: the forbidden, sometimes sexual wishes of a person come into conflict with the standards of society and are expressed in the conscious realm of the artist;’s mind, and in the works of art
    • Psychobiographical: an artist’s development is manifest in his psychological state as seen in his works of art
  • 2. Post-Impressionism
    • Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge
    • Zigzag composition
    • Pitiless representation of figures
    • Gauguin’s influence in the large areas of flat color
    • Joyless, oppressive; people out to have a good time, but achieve none
    • Self-portrait as a short bearded man in background with his very tall cousin
    • Off-key colors
    • Tilted perspective of Japanese prints
    • People tend to be aging, flabby, cynical
  • 3.  
  • 4. Vincent Van Gogh 1853 - 1890
  • 5.
    •         Tactile surface of painting
    •         Brushstrokes conveying emotion and inner reality
    •         Not an imitation of nature
    •         Forerunner of expressionism
    •         Major emphasis on texture, line and color
    •         Colors were vivid, bright and strong
    •         Deeply impressed by Millet and Social art
    • Missionary zeal
  • 6. Post-Impressionism
    • Van Gogh, The Starry Night
    • Painted from his room at the hospital at St-Rémy
    • Mountains of the Lapillus could be seen from his window
    • Steepness of the mountains is exaggerated
    • Deep forces of the universe playing out on the canvas
    • Visionary sense of power
    • Discordant colors
    • Thick, swirling paint strokes
    • Unconventional perspective
    • Strong waves splashing from left to right
    • Sky movement echoed in mountains and trees
    • Two verticals interrupt flow: cypress tree and church steeple
    • A religious message?
  • 7.  
  • 8.
    • Paul Gauguin (1848 – 1903)
    •         Emphasizes the use of bright, non-naturalistic colors
    •         Emphasizes the use of flat planes of color
    •         Rejected notions of Western naturalism
    •         Often employs symbolic or primitive subjects
    •         Interested in the primitive man, a removal from the norms and mores of society
    •         Rejected notions of Western naturalism
    •         Uses nature as a starting point from to abstract figures and symbols
    •         Stressed linear patterns and color harmonies
    •         Tried to include a profound sense of mystery
    • BOTH strength and intensity over the slick and superficial
  • 9. Post-Impressionism
    • Gauguin, The Vision after the Sermon
    • After hearing an impassioned sermon on the Biblical account of Jacob wrestling with the angel, the pious rural people envision the struggle
    • Tree trunk separates the real from the vision
    • Red heat of sermon matches red coloring
    • Color used as an emotional response not as a physical description
    • Rejection of perspective
    • Priest at lower right is a self-portrait
    • Heavily enclosed forms
    • Renounced Impressionism
    • Many sharply drawn black outlines
    • Broad areas of color, relatively flatly applied, containing some subtly that gives it a rich glow
  • 10. 1888
  • 11. Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? 1897
  • 12. Post Impressionism
    • Seurat, La Grande Jatte
    • Analyzed color relationships in a pictorial space
    • Small brush strokes of complementary color: reds and greens, violets and yellows, blues and oranges
    • Pointillist technique
    • Result is sort of a mosaic like quality with a geometric structure
    • Accent on the loneliness of modern life, figures together yet in isolation
    • Most are faceless
    • Conventional perspective used
    • Reduced intensity of color to give effect of distance
    • Interest in geometric shapes
    • An Egyptian stillness: figures are posed to run but become frozen statues
  • 13.  
  • 14. Paul Cezanne (1839 – 1906)
    • The “Father of Modern Art” – an artist’s artist
    • Obsessed with form over content
    • Development of planes to comprise the surface
    • Forunner of Cubism
  • 15. Post Impressionism
    • Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire
    • Broad splashes of color in suggestive rather than descriptive passages
    • Areas of the canvas left unpainted
    • No human figures
    • Not a countryside of Impressionism, lacking in human contact
    • Aim is to create a unity within the picture in which each element has a clearly defined role and a relationship to the elements around it
    • Solidity achieved through massing of shapes
    • Grand and monumental form of the mountain
    • Worked in color patches
  • 16. 1902-06
  • 17. 1889
    • Cezanne, The Basket of Apples
    • Each form round and solid
    • Sought to represent each shape as if it were a geometric principle
    • Geometric forms determine shapes of apples, bottle, biscuits
    • Studied forms in volumes and solids
    • Breaking down of objects into its basic shapes
  • 18. The Symbolists
    • Rousseau, The Sleeping Gypsy
    • Displays the characteristics of primitive artists: flat surfaces, minute detail, stiff and frontally posed figures and arbitrary proportions
    • Influence of Japanese prints and Persian manuscripts
    • Frame inscription: “The feline, though ferocious, is loathe to leap upon its prey, who, overcome by fatigue, lies in a deep sleep”
    • Vase for drinking water in the desert
    • Play of light on the lion
    • Lion is not ferocious, but curious, a cat with its tail up
    • Where is gypsy’s left hand?
    • Hair of gypsy forms a pattern with the dress
    • Cut out moon and landscape
    • What is the lion doing in the desert?
    • Is the lion the gypsy’s dream?
  • 19. 1897
  • 20. The Symbolists
    • Munch, The Scream
    • Lengthy brushstrokes
    • Linear pattern of diagonal movement
    • Straight and curving patterns
    • Exaggerated perspective
    • Figure twists like a worm
    • Unnerving impression on viewer
    • Scream echoed in the composition
    • Sexless emasculating figure
    • Final painting on a series about love
    • Represents a closing scene in a battle between the mind and sex, out of which sex comes through triumphant
  • 21. 1893