Rüblev, Old Testament Trinity (Three Angels Visi4ng Abraham) c. 1410 -‐ 25 • Byzan7ne aﬃnity for repea7ng forms from older art • Forms of angels are tradi7onal • Heads of angels nearly iden7cal • Poses are mirror images • Luminous appeal of colors • Deep color harmonies of draperies • Extensive use of gold • Nearly spaceless background
Virgin and Child with Saints and Angels Icon, Second half of the 6th century, Encaus7c on wood, 27 x 18 7/8"
Emperor Jus+nian and A1endants, Saint Vitale, Ravenna, c.547
Theodora and A1endants, Saint Vitale, Ravenna, c.547
Early Byzan7ne Art in the Age of Jus7nian San Vitale, Ravenna (c. 547) • Byzan7ne forces capture Ravenna in 540 • 8 sided structure • Plain exterior except porch added later in Renaissance • Large windows for illumina7ng interior designs • Interior has thin columns and open arched spaces, complex spa7al system • Sense of mystery in the space
Palatine Chapel, Aachen• Central plan, topped by an octagon• Built for Charlemagne• Inspired by San Vitale• Capitals taken from old Romanmonuments• Large heavy appearance• Arches smaller on first story, largeron second• Arches on second story have Romancolumns placed inside that are purelydecorative, and do not hold thearches up• Arches on first floor have a low,heavy, thick appearance• Arches have a striped pattern
Comparison of the Plans of San Vitale in Ravenna to the Palace Chapel in Aix-la-Chapelle.
Abbey Church Pilgrim’s Hostel Cloister Inﬁrmary School Brewery The Plan of Saint Gall is a famous medieval architectural drawing of a monas7c compound da7ng from the early 9th century. It is preserved in the S7asbibliothek Sankt Gallen, Ms 1092. It is the only surviving major architectural drawing from the roughly 700-‐year period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 13th century
Carolingian Art Monastery Plan, St. Gall, Switzerland • Ideal plan of a self-‐suﬃcient monas7c community • Church in center, other buildings around • Daily ac7vi7es in one place • Cloistered monks never leave except to work in the ﬁelds • Community of about 250-‐300 monks with 30 to 40 serfs per monk • Highly organized • Many altars in church, not for congrega7on, but for monks to say Mass " Timber architecture in outer• Everything necessary for the monks buildings grouped around the cloister " Standard of comfort was high for the time " Serfs lived with animals in their pens " Infirmary, school, convent, guest house
St. Madhew, the Corona7on Gospels, St. Madhewthe Ebbo Gospels, c. 816 c. 800
Cross Page from TheBook of Lindisfarne• Balanced design• Cross clearly defined,stands apart from thespace• Animal interlace• Complicated, spiralingpatterns• Symmetry• Colors used inalternate positionsaround the cross• Known as a carpetpage
Chi – Rho formed by superimposing the ﬁrst two (capital) leders chi and rho (ΧΡ) of the Greek word "ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ" =Christ in such a way to produce the monogram ☧. Although not technically a cross, the Chi Rho invokes the cruciﬁxion of Jesus as well as symbolizing his status as the Christ.
Early Medieval Art SuCon Hoo Purse Lid • Geometric interlace designs • Symmetry of forms • Animals and humans interact • Repe77on of paderns • Used as a purse cover for a disintegrated purse found in a ship burial in England Purse Cover, Sudon Hoo ship burial, c. 655
Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim • Two pairs of lateral entrances Odonian Art • Two pairs of crossing towers • Two pairs of stair turrets • Two apses • Two transepts • Supports in the nave are not tradi7onal columns, but pairs of columns alterna7ng with square piers • Divides nave into three separate units of three openings each • First and third units are related to the lateral entrances to the building • Nave is a hall that connects the two apses • Windows do not line up with arches below: 9 arches with 10 windows • Spacious undecorated interior
Bronze Door of Hildesheim • Sugges7ons of Roman monumentality: inspired by bronze doors of the Pantheon (now gone) or Pala7ne Chapel (no decora7on) • Solid bronze, each scene molded separately • Scenes compare scenes of the fall of man with the saving of man • Rectangular scenes with few ﬁgures and a barren landscape, empty background • Emphasis of gesture, liveliness • Bony ﬁgures • Emphasis on extremi7es: hands, feet, head • Spiky foliage • Heads fully rounded and emerge from background • Scenes tell the story of the life of Christ and Adam and Eve
After the death of Charlemagne, hiskingdom was divided among hisgrandsons, only to disintegrate at thehands of Vikings and Magyars. A re-consolidation occurred, however, inthe middle of the 10th century,thanks to a new line of Germanemperors known as the Ottonians.The Ottonian period saw a new waveof influence from the Greek East(Otto II married a Byzantineprincess), which resulted in one ofthe first monumental sculptures ofthe crucified Christ, the GeroCrucifix.The face (heavily etched with pain),the bulging arc of the abdomen, andthe tension in the tightly stretchedarms all convey Christs tormentwith unequalled expression.
30 Minute Essay • This test will also include a 30 minute essay. The topic for the essay will revolve around works of art that have been removed from their original semngs and how knowledge of the original semngs of artworks contributes to a more complete understanding of the works. As with all 30 minute essays, you will be discussing two speciﬁc works of art.