Japanese art before_1392


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Japanese art before_1392

  1. 1. Japanese Art Before 1392 Jackie Duhl, Thiara Dutra, Meghan Mcgovern
  2. 3. Prehistoric Japan <ul><li> Earliest traces if human inhabitance: 30,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li> Four islands which make up island today once attached to the East Asian landmass, the islands became separate at the end of the last Ice Age, about 15,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li> Paleolithic peoples gave way to Neolithic hunter-gatherers who developed the ability to make and use ceramics </li></ul><ul><li> Some Japanese pottery dates earlier than 10,000 BCE (some of the oldest known) </li></ul>
  3. 4. Jomon Period (12,000-530 BCE) <ul><li> Named for patterns on pottery produced during this time </li></ul><ul><li> Made by pressing cord onto damp clay ( jomon means “cord markings”) </li></ul><ul><li> Jomon people developed hunter-gatherer lifestyle due to both island-setting, protecting them from invasion, and immense food supply </li></ul><ul><li> 5000 BCE: agriculture developed through planting and harvesting of beans and gourds </li></ul><ul><li> 4,500 years afterwards the Jomon remained a hunter-gatherer people using stone tools and weapons </li></ul><ul><li> people lived in small communities with fewer than 10-12 dwellings </li></ul><ul><li> Pottery reached a high degree of creativity during middle Jomon period (2500-1500 BCE): basic form remained straight-sided, yet rim too kon spectacular, whimsical shapes </li></ul><ul><li> Made use of malleable quality of clay </li></ul><ul><li> “ Flame Ware” Vessel, Dogu </li></ul>
  4. 5. Dogu, Kurokoma, Yamanashi Prefecture. Jomon period, c. 2500-1500 BCE. Earthenware, height 10&quot;. Tokyo National Museum. 
  5. 6. <ul><ul><li>Small clay figure (10&quot;) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distorted humanoid animal figurines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made during the late Jomon period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Dogu tend to have large faces,small arms/hands and compact bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some appear to have round goggles over their eyes or heart-shaped faces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This Dogu is the Kurokama: its face is                                  extremely similar to that of a cat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The slit eyes and mouth come off as                                      haunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marks on face, neck, and shoulders suggest tattooing (engraved with a bamboo stick) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: unknown; theory exists that one could transfer an unhappy emotion or illness to a dogu and then smash it, destroying the evil </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Yayoi Period (300 BCE – 300 CE)  <ul><li>·      The shift from hunting and gathering to agriculture brought immense social changes </li></ul><ul><li>·      Larger permanent settlements established, division of labor into agricultural and non-agricultural tasks, hierarchal social organization, more centralized government </li></ul><ul><li>·      Emergence of class structure during Yayoi period as metal technology emerged </li></ul><ul><li>·      Bronze weaponry and ceremonial objects (bells) </li></ul><ul><li>·      Iron metallurgy later emerged replacing stone tools in everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>·      Houses were thatched with sunken floors; food stored in raised granaries </li></ul><ul><li>·      Drawings of these found on bronze artifacts, bearing a resemblance to the architectural design of shrines in later periods </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive use of wood and thatch in Yayoi shrines would suggest an early origin of the Japanese appreciation of natural materials  </li></ul>
  7. 8. Kofun Period (300 – 552 CE)  <ul><li> “ Old tombs” period: named for the large royal tombs built during this time </li></ul><ul><li> Emergence of more complex social order allowed for veneration of leaders: beginnings of an imperial system </li></ul><ul><li> Emperor equated with deities such as the sun goddess (this system is still in effect in Japan) </li></ul><ul><li> Chamber tombs constructed following Korean examples upon death of emperor </li></ul><ul><li> Religious treasures placed in graves such as potter (to please the spirits of the dead and serve them in their next life) </li></ul><ul><li> In many ways like Egyptian pyramids and burial chambers </li></ul><ul><li> Many tombs constructed in shape of large keyholes; surrounded by moats dug for protection of spirits </li></ul><ul><li> Fifth-century potters gained knowledge of finishing techniques in pottery; improved kilns, allowing the beginnings of a high-fired ceramic ware </li></ul><ul><li> Stoneware technology and earthenware </li></ul>
  8. 9. Haniwa, Kyoto. Kofun period, 6th century CE. Earthenware, height 27&quot;. Collection of the Tokyo National Museum
  9. 10. <ul><ul><li>Earthenware left unglazed, showing no                     preoccupation with technical skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple and bold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows the idiosyncrasies of life (off-center eyes,                              irregular cylindrical bodies, unequal arms etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never perfectly symmetrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  The earliest Haniwa were simple jars with ceremonial                   offerings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5th century: cylinders were being made into                     shapes of ceremonial objects, houses, and boats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living creatures were added shortly after (dogs, deer, cows, monkeys) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: may have served as a type of link between the world of the dead and that of the living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This particular Haniwa is a seated female shaman (connection between natural and supernatural) wearing a robe, belt, and necklace, carrying a mirror at her waist </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Shinto <ul><li> Considered as the indigenous religion of Japan </li></ul><ul><li> The various ways that different communities of Japanese have interacted with deities, known as kami </li></ul><ul><li> Thought to inhabit awesome things in the ordinary world such as magnificent trees, rocks, waterfalls, and living creatures </li></ul><ul><li> Ritual purification of the ordinary world </li></ul><ul><li> Shinto was a term coined after the arrival of Buddhism in the sixth century CE…became more systemized with shrines, a hierarchy of deities and strictly regulated ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  11. 12. Main Hall, Inner Shrine, Ise, Mie Prefecture. Last rebuilt 1993.
  12. 13. <ul><li> Dedicated to sun goddess Amaterasu-o-mi-kami, the legendary progenitor of Japan’s imperial family </li></ul><ul><li> Ritually rebuilt for over 2,000 years on two adjoining sites at twenty-year intervals </li></ul><ul><li> Most recently in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li> Builders are carpenters who train for the task from childhood </li></ul><ul><li> Accurately preserves features of Yayoi-era granaries which was its original prototype </li></ul><ul><li> Paragon of Shinto architecture: wooden piles raiding the building off the ground </li></ul><ul><li> Thatched roof held in place by horizontal logs </li></ul><ul><li> Use of unpainted cypress wood </li></ul><ul><li> Overall feeling of natural simplicity rather than overwhelming size or adornation </li></ul><ul><li> Only one member of the imperial family and a few Shinto priests allowed within the fourfold enclosure surrounding the shrine </li></ul><ul><li> Stores the three sacred Shinto symbols: a sword, a mirror, a jewel </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><ul><li>New philosophy, city planning, arts, medicine, clothing, agriculture, architecture from Korea and China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism, centralized governmental structure, and system of writing were the three most important introductions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism reached Japan in Mahayana form with many buddhas and bodhisattvas; adopted as state religion by imperial family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represented different Shinto gods, yet instead of focusing on imposing natural areas, focused on temples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese-influenced architecture and elaborate iconography would contrast acutely with Japanese simplicity and naturalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New cosmology and teachings of meditation and enlightenment would be accompanied by new methods of painting and sculpture like that of artist Tori Busshi </li></ul></ul>Asuka Pariod (552-645CE)
  14. 15. Tori Busshi <ul><li> Sculptor active in the late 6th and early 7th century </li></ul><ul><li> Father and grandfather were saddle-makers, exposing Tori to metal casting, laquer, and wood-carving </li></ul><ul><li> First known work is a bronze Shaka image of Asuka-dera from 606 CE; the work made a favorable impression on Empress Suiko, granting Tori lands and rank equivalent to those of someone of the later fifth grade </li></ul><ul><li> The Yakushi Nyorai (Buddha of Healing) from Wakakusa-dera is attributed to Tori </li></ul><ul><li> Completed 607 under the commission of Emperor Yomei and Prince Shōtoku for the newly established Wakakusadera </li></ul><ul><li> The Shaka Triad of Horyuji is considered Tori’s greatest work: piece was intended to either help speed the recovery of Prince Shōtoku in his illness or ease the rebirth of the souls of two dead noblewomen into paradise </li></ul><ul><li> Works exemplify Japanese Buddhist art during the Asuka period, deriving the style from the 4 th -6 th century Chinese Wei kingdom </li></ul><ul><li> Conveys peace and gentleness while using rigid stock poses and geometrical figures </li></ul><ul><li> Buddhas sculpted upright with crossed legs and robes dropping downwards in well-defined folds </li></ul><ul><li> Buddha’s right hand raised with palm towards viewer (power to aid others), and left hand palm up on left leg (ability to lead viewer along path to end all suffering) </li></ul><ul><li> Each Buddha’s head is stylized and elongated, topped with curls known as shogo, indicating the Buddha’s perfection </li></ul><ul><li> Faces even more stylized with flat planes holding slitlike eyes, eyebrows, and nostrils </li></ul>
  15. 16. Horyu-ji Compound, Asuka Period, 7 th century CE.
  16. 17. <ul><li> Located on Japan’s central plains not far from Nara </li></ul><ul><li> Founded in 607 CE by Prince Shotoku (574-622 CE) who became the most influential early proponent of Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li> Rebuilt after a fire in 670-oldest wooden temple in the world </li></ul><ul><li> Just proportions, human scale, perfect monument to early Buddhist faith in Japan </li></ul><ul><li> Main compound contains rectangular courtyard surrounded by covered corridors </li></ul><ul><li> Two buildings within compound: kondo (golden hall) and five-story pagoda </li></ul><ul><li> Asymmetrical layout, yet large kondo balanced by tall, thin pagoda </li></ul><ul><li> Kondo filled with Buddhist images and used for worship and ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li> Pagoda serves as a reliquary and is not entered </li></ul><ul><li> Excess monastery buildings outside main compound (outer gate, lecture hall, repository for sacred texts, belfry (bell tower), dormitories for monks) </li></ul><ul><li> Holds a shrine decorated with paintings in lacquer known as Tamamushi Shrine (tamamushi beetle’s iridescent wings were originally placed on the shrine to make it glitter) </li></ul><ul><li> Disagreement about origins of shrine (Japan or Korea), but the more important point is that Buddhism was so international that at the time that matters of nationality were irrelevant </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  17. 19. Shaka Triad in the Kondo, Tori Busshi, Horyu-ji. suka period, c. 623 CE. Gilt bronze, height of seated figure 34.5&quot;.
  18. 20. <ul><ul><li>Shaka=Shakyamuni, historical Buddha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects the strong influence of Chinese art of the Northern Wei dynasty  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal pose, outsized face/hands,and the linear treatment of drapery suggest Tori's awareness of earlier continental models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine bronze casting illuminatesTori's advanced technical skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals rapid growth of Buddhist art as an important feature of Japanese culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddha's robes flow down the front of the figure, adding a heaviness to the statue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Flaming halo surrounds his head in which are seated the Seven Buddhas of the Past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Flames upon a lotus blossom appear above the Buddha's head, symbolizing wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figure as the 32 physical attributes of a Buddha: bulge on top of head (ushnisha), a spot of hair between the eyebrows (urna), elongated earlobes </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Hungry Tigress Jataka, Asuka period c. 650 CE, Lacquer on wood, Height of shrine 7' 7 1/2&quot;, Horyu-ji Treasure House, Anonymous artist
  20. 22. <ul><ul><li>Illustrate the Jataka Tales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stories about the former lives of the Buddha. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddha nobly sacrifices his life to feed a starving tigress and her cubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tigress was too weak, so Buddha had to through himself off a cliff to break his skin open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A full narrative within one frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddha hangs shirt on a tree before diving down to his rocky doom to be devoured by the starving animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the Buddhist style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slender figure, abstract treatment of the cliff, trees, and bamboo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also used in China and Korea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  21. 23. Hungry Tigress Bayeux Tapestry
  22. 24. Nara Period (645-794 CE) <ul><ul><li>First permanent capital established in Nara with population of 200,000  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperial system solidified into a government that could hold up against dominant aristocratic families of the previous political arena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction of majestic Buddhist temples suchas Horyu-ji </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism and Shinto coexisted harmoniously, Buddhism seeking enlightenment and Shinto purification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shinto becomes more formalized while Buddhism spreads and becomes the most significant aspect of Japanese culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existed through sacred texts called sutras believed to be so magical that a single letter could be cut and worn as a sacred amulet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobility worshipped by copying the words of the Buddha, familiarizing the upper class with the Chinese writing system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First collection of Japanese poetry compiled called the Manyoshu  (many are secular love songs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden Age of Buddhist painting (many on walls of Horyu-ji) embracing Tang Dynasty in China and Unified Silla period in Korea </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Amida Buddha, Nara period, Horyu-ji, c. 710 CE, wall painting using ink and colors, 10'3&quot; x 8'6&quot;
  24. 26. <ul><ul><li>Thought to be Amida, the Buddha of the Western Paradise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placed in the walls of Horyu-ji. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of iron-wire lines (thin,even brushstrokes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amida's body is round, his face is serene, and his hands form the dharmachakra (the gesture of teaching, setting the chakra (wheel) of the dharma (law/doctrine) in motion) mudra. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands are at chest level= mudra . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More emphasis on realistic details and body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel folds of the drapery show the influence of the Grandhara style (present in India 500 years earlier) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face is completely East Asian </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Amida Buddha Morgan Madonna
  26. 28. Heian Period (794-1185 CE) <ul><ul><li>Last division of classic Japanese history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital relocated to Heian (now known as Kyoto) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New era of self-reliance due to elongated period of peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperial gov't severs ties to China in 9th century; relies on aristocratic families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of vernacular literature such as Lady Mursaki's The Tale of Genji </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the rise of the Samurai class (which would eventaully take power and start the feudal period) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military class rose in status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism really began to flourish through two major sects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esoteric Buddhism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pure Land Buddhism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You had to be cosmetically beautiful to be considered a &quot;good&quot; person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimately weakened the Japanese economy and led to poverty for most of its inhabitants </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Womb World Mandala, Heian period, late 9th century CE, Hanging scroll, colors on silk, 6' x 5' 1.5&quot;
  28. 30. <ul><ul><li>Made for the Exoteric Buddhists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning all the different gods and their relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachings of a monk . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He may meditate and do the gestures each god is doing,starting from the center,so he can absorb some of the power of each deitie. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gain enlightment through the powers of the different forms of Buddha. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandala=cosmic diagram of the universe showing the gods in a planned order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally from To-ji </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents an ultimate reality beyond the visible world to believers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrathful deities surrounded by flames= intense spiritual force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion is for the educated aristocracy, not the masses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel of the web of deities found in the social divisions of the Heian court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the circles and squares is an expression of the principles of ancient geomancy and the Buddhist cosmology </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Dainichi Buddhas of the four directions Angry deities
  30. 32. Byodo-in, Uji, Kyoto Prefecture. Heian period, c. 1053 CE
  31. 33. <ul><li> Located in Uji mountains not far from Kyoto </li></ul><ul><li> One of the most beautiful temples of Pure Land Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li> Originally a secular palace created to suggest the palace of Amida (Buddha of Everlasting Light) in the Western Paradise </li></ul><ul><li> Built for a member of the Fujiwara family who served as the leading counselor to the emperor </li></ul><ul><li> Converted into a temple after the counselor’s death in 1052 </li></ul><ul><li> Often called Pheonix Hall for the pair of phoenix images on its roof and the shape of the building </li></ul><ul><li> Slender columns give a sense of airiness as if temple could rise through the sky to Amida’s Western Paradise </li></ul><ul><li> Hall rests in front of an artificial pond created in the shape of the Sanskrit letter A (sacred symbol for Amida) </li></ul>
  32. 34. Amida Buddha, Pheonix Hall, Byodo-in.  Heian period, c. 1053 CE. Gold leaf and lacquer on wood, height 9’8” (2.95 m).
  33. 35. <ul><li> Carved by master sculptor Jocho </li></ul><ul><li> Central image of Amida within Byodo-in palace </li></ul><ul><li> Exemplifies serenity and compassion of the Buddha who welcomes the soul of all believers to his paradise </li></ul><ul><li> Seems to shimmer when reflected in the water of the pond before it </li></ul><ul><li> Carved from several blocks of wood in Jocho’s joined-wood method of construction </li></ul><ul><li> Allowed sculptors to create larger but lighter portrayals of Buddhas and bodhisattvas for the temples constructed for the Pure Land faith </li></ul><ul><li> Reflects Japanese love of wood (major medium for sculpture during Heian period) </li></ul><ul><li> Surrounded by smaller wooden figures of bodhisattvas and angels playing musical instruments </li></ul><ul><li> Suggests the paradise awaiting the believer after death </li></ul>
  34. 36. Jocho Busshi <ul><li> Sculptor of the Heian period </li></ul><ul><li> Trained at the Kofuku-ji, a temple in Nara </li></ul><ul><li> Fujiwara no Michinaga, the greatest of the Fujiwara royals of the Heian period, commissioned him to decorate the Hojoji temple </li></ul><ul><li> His work earned him the title Hokkyo (Master of the Dharma Bridge) in 1022 CE </li></ul><ul><li> Worked on sculpture for the Kōfukuji, earning him an even higher title, Hōgen (Master of the Dharma Eye) </li></ul><ul><li> Michinaga's son, Fujiwara no Yorimichi, commissioned Jocho to create an Amida statue for the Pheonix Hall of the Byodo-in </li></ul><ul><li> Piece completed in 1052 BCE: the earliest of Jōchō's works to have survived to the present day </li></ul><ul><li> Japanese guild-like inheritance: Jōchō's techniques were passed on to his son, Kakujo, his grandsons Injo and Raijo, his great-grandson Kojo, and ultimately Kokei </li></ul><ul><li> Popularized the yosegi technique of sculpting a single figure out of many pieces of wood </li></ul><ul><li> allowed several assistants to work on the sculpture at once, greatly speeding the process, refining the final product, and leading to specific proportions </li></ul><ul><li> New canon of proportions: based measurements on a unit equal to the distance between the sculpted figure's chin and hairline, distance between each knee=distance between hair and bottoms of legs </li></ul><ul><li> These leveled knees form the base of a triangular design: feeling of stability and peace </li></ul><ul><li> Intricately detailed halos, featuring fire and clouds </li></ul><ul><li> Style imitated for the next 150 years </li></ul>
  35. 37. Tale of Genji, Heian period, 12th century CE. Handscroll, ink and color on paper, 8.5 X 18.5&quot;
  36. 38. <ul><ul><li>One of the earliest, still existing, nonreligious paintings from Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Women's Hand&quot; style: delicate lines,strong (sometimes muted) colors, asymmetrical compositions, usually with a bird's eye view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotionless faces; focus instead on colors, poses, total composition (big picture rather than intricate detail) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A blossoming cherry tree represents happiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unkept weeds show loneliness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each scroll was produced by a team of artists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calligrapher: usually a member of the nobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Master painter: outlined two or three illustrations per chapter, indicated color scheme, applied finishing touches after colorists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colorists: applied colors, built up patterns and textures. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undercurrents of irony and sorrow in a seemingly joyous scene: Genji is the illegitimate son of an emperor and holding the illegitimate child of his adulterous wife </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. Kose Kanaoka  巨勢 金岡 <ul><ul><li>Ninth century Japanese artist  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set precedent for the styles of the Tang Dynasty of China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally of the Yamato-e school, founder of the Kose-ryu school in Kyoto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very few of his works survived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded the Kose school of art (oldest school of painting in Japan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparked individual style in landscape painting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portraits of Confucian scholars and Buddhist subjects </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Fujiwara Nobuzane ( 1176–1265 CE) <ul><li> Leading portrait artist </li></ul><ul><li> Born in Kyoto; son of great portrait artist Fujiwara Takanobu </li></ul><ul><li> Specialized in nise-e portraits: “likeness picture” </li></ul><ul><li> Depicted incidents of real life: strictly religious until 12 th century CE </li></ul><ul><li> Not very individual and personal mode of drawing and painting; detached and refined </li></ul><ul><li> The 36 Major Poets considered the greatest of his surviving works </li></ul><ul><li> Originally painted on a single scroll and later divided into separate portraits </li></ul><ul><li> Thin, angular outlines filled in with heavy color to accentuate the dense robes </li></ul><ul><li> Thin facial features </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><ul><li>Portrait of Yoritomo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of Fujiwara Takeovers three surviving pieces </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Fujiwara Takeover  (1142-1205 CE) <ul><ul><li>Leading Japanese Portraiture artist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Born in Kyoto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half brother of Fujiwara Sadaie (one of Japan's greatest poets) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialty was nise-e </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular in the courts and intellectual circles of Japan's Kamakura period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court officials, poets and intellectuals, and other prominent figures portrayed so as to capture the essence and personality of the individual with few brushstrokes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only painted on scrolls that were over a meter in height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No small paintings </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Kamakura Period (1185-1333 CE) <ul><ul><li>Samurais ruled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minamoto Yoritomo was the shogun (General-in-chief) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kept military and political power to himself </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set a tradition of shogun ruling until 1868 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minamoto and Taira were the two warrior clans that fought to get power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gone was the era of poetic refinement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Kamakura period- Pure Land Buddhism  was the most influential religion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used chants to reach Buddha. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  Believed that if one sincerely chanted the sacred chant, one would go to the Western Paradise. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 44. <ul><ul><li>Raigo paintings: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paintings of Amida Buddha and bodhisattvas coming down to earth to bring the soul of a dying believer to the Western Paradise. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  It has golden cords attached to it. A dying person can hold on to those cords and hope that Amida would usher him to paradise. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portraiture was more realistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late Kamakura- Zen Buddhism:  last major form of Buddhism to arrive to Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resembles original teachings of Buddhism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightment was achieved through meditation, without mandalas or chants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Samurais liked it more </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their temples were built in mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  Their Monks did their own chores; rank didn't matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Art style: rough and simple ink painting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Around the 14th century,Zen's spirit of self-reliance dominated many aspects of Japanese culture. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. Raigo Painting
  44. 46. Zen Buddhism
  45. 47. Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace, Kamakura Period, late 13th century CE. Handscroll, ink and colors on paper, 16.25 X 275.5&quot;, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
  46. 48. <ul><ul><li>1160 CE- 500 Minamoto rebels who did not approve of retired emperor Go-Shirakawa attack Sanjo Palace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor abducted, extremely bloody raid, palace burnt to the ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1185 CE- Minamoto heirs to the rebels would finally defeat the Taira clan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seems like an eyewitness account  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refined brushstrokes like Th e Tale of Genji scrolls  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brisk linework of Frolicking Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flames overtake the scene as horses and warriors charge head-on into the conflagration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy and violence from power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samurai world dominates secular arts </li></ul></ul>
  47. 49. Kaikei  快慶  <ul><ul><li>Japanese Busshi ( Buddha sculptor from)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member of the &quot;kei&quot; school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anna Miyou stye, known for being intelligent, pictorial, and delightful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The majortity of his works were over three shakus high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One shaku = one foot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Many of his works are still around today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sculpted for the temples of Kōfuku and Tōdai in Nara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well known sculpture of Hachiman, Japanese goddess of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed unique style named Annami: realism combined with delicate grace in sculpting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earned Hokkyo and Hogen rank: high titles bestowed on artists at the time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  48. 50. Unkei 運慶 (1164-1223 CE). <ul><ul><li>Sculptor and brother of Kaikei. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader of the Kei School. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Sculptors showed realism, heroic spirit, power, passion, muscular bodies, rounded faces, and vibrant strength. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commissioned by the new military overlords in Shizuoka and Kanagawa Prefectures to carve Buddhist statuary for various temple projects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposed to warrior class early in live, immensely influencing his later work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of his work still exists today. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked in Nara, Kyoto, and Kamakura. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became the most influential artist of his time, gaining the highest rank of Ho-in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most widely known Buddhist sculptor in Japan today. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. Kuya Preaching, Kosho, Kamakura period, before 1207. Painted wood with inlaid eyes, height 46.5&quot;. Rokuhara Mitsu-ji, Kyoto.
  50. 52. <ul><ul><li>Kuya (903-72 CE) was a monk who helped in the spread of the practice of chanting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traveling clothes, small gong, staff with mounted deer horns symbolizing his slaying of a deer and conversion to Buddhism identifies Kuya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passionate and radiant expression gives sculpture a welcoming demeanor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six small Buddhas coming from Kuya's mouth, representing the six syllables  of Na-Mu-A-mi-da-buts(u) (Pure Land chant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure Land Buddhism expressed in naturalism of figure; emphasis on realism defining the Kamakura era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of crystal eyes in sculpture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kosho conquered difficulty of representing Kuya and his chant (symbolized by 6 monks) in 3-D </li></ul></ul>
  51. 54. Kōkei 康慶 ( active 1177-1200 CE) <ul><ul><li>Sculptor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Son of Jōchō  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  Kōkei's canon of proportions are the same as his father's </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spread legs,triangular figure and square-shaped face </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizer of the Kei school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led the teams that reconstructed the Tōdai-ji and Kōfuku-ji temples in Nara (1188–1189) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses crystal inlays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More realistic looking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More attention paid to details such as inlaid hair and details on face and drapery </li></ul></ul>
  52. 55. Tankei 湛慶 (1173-1256 CE) <ul><ul><li>Sculptor of the Kei School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eldest son of Unkei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honored with the top three ranks available to Buddhist sculptors(Ho-in  法印 , Hogen  法眼 , and Hokkyo  法橋 ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped restore the Tōdaiji Temple, Kōfukuji Temple, and remake the Rengeōin Temple . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sculpted the central figure of the seated Senju Kannon and nine smaller versions of the deity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statues distinguished by his gentle and sophisticated realism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppressed plump faces and busy details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often assisted by nephews Kosei and Koen </li></ul></ul>
  53. 56. Nambokucho (Period of Rival Northern and Southern) (1336-1392 CE) <ul><ul><li>1333: Emperor Go-Daigo and supporters take down Kamakura regimen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1336: Ashikaga Takauji (member of a branch family of the Minamoto clan) takes over Kyoto and drives Go-Daigo out of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takauji begins rivalry, establishing new military government in Kyoto (Northern Court). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go-Daigo goes South, taking over Yoshino (Southern Court) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confrontation between Northern and Southern Court for over 60 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  &quot;Nan&quot;=South; &quot;Boku&quot;=North; &quot;Cho&quot;=Imperial Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Revival of poetry:  Renga becomes popular. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Writing focused on the wars and main events that occured at the time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Tea, used before only as a medicine, becomes a popular beverage. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 57. Bibliography <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> &quot;Chapter Nine: Buddhist Iconography.&quot; East-Asian-History Home . Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.east-asian-history.net/textbooks/480/ch9_main.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li> &quot;Fujiwara Nobuzane.&quot; Encyclopædia Britannica . 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 29 Nov. 2010 < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221598/Fujiwara-Nobuzane >. </li></ul><ul><li> Hooker, Richard. &quot;Yayoi and Jomon.&quot; Washington State University - Pullman, Washington . Richard Hines, 06 June 1999. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/ANCJAPAN/YAYOI.HTM>. </li></ul><ul><li> &quot;The Japanese Nanboku-cho Period.&quot; ELanguage . Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://learnjapanese.elanguageschool.net/japanese-nanboku-cho-period>. </li></ul><ul><li> &quot;Kamakura and Nanbokucho Periods (1185–1392) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art.&quot; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Metmuseum.org . Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kana/hd_kana.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li> Keally, Charles T. &quot;Kofun Culture.&quot; Japanese Archaeology . Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.t-net.ne.jp/~keally/kofun.html>. </li></ul><ul><li> &quot;Kōkei.&quot; Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias . Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/1933976>. </li></ul><ul><li> &quot;Nanbokucho & Muromachi Period.&quot; EMuseum . Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/japan/muromachi/muromachi-p.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li> &quot;nise-e.&quot; Encyclopædia Britannica . 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 29 Nov. 2010 < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/415968/nise-e >. </li></ul><ul><li>  010. <http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/busshi-buddha-sculptor-unkei-japan.html>. </li></ul>
  55. 58. Bibliography Continued <ul><li> Noma, Seiroku. The Arts of Japan: Ancient and Medieval. New York: Kodansha, 1966. Print. </li></ul><ul><li> Parrish, Don. &quot;Visit to Normandy in 2003.&quot; Don Parrish's Home Page. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.donparrish.com/Normandy.html>. </li></ul><ul><li> Robinson, B. A. &quot;SHINTO.&quot; ReligiousTolerance.org. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, 25 Oct. 2010. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.religioustolerance.org/shinto.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li> Ruby, Laura. &quot;Art 115 Introduction to 2-Dimensional Composition.&quot; University of Hawaii System. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.hawaii.edu/lruby/art115/2d.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li> Schumacher, Mark. &quot;Japanese Busshi (Sculptors), Asuka Period, Who Made Japan's Buddha Statues?&quot; Onmark Productions Web Designs & Buddhist Shinto Photo Dictionary of Japanese Deities. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/busshi-buddha-sculptors-asuka-era-japan.html>. </li></ul><ul><li> Schumacher, Mark. &quot;Japanese Busshi (Sculptors), Kamakura Period, Who Made Japan's Buddha Statues?&quot; Onmark Productions Web Designs & Buddhist Shinto Photo Dictionary of Japanese Deities. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/busshi-buddha-sculptors-kamakura-era-japan.html#tankei>. </li></ul><ul><li> Schumacher, Mark. &quot;Jocho Busshi, Heian Era, One of Japan's Most Acclaimed Sculptors of Buddha Statues.&quot; Onmark Productions Web Designs & Buddhist Shinto Photo Dictionary of Japanese Deities. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/busshi-buddha-sculptor-jocho-japan.html>. </li></ul><ul><li> Schumacher, Mark. &quot;Unkei Busshi, Kamakura Era, One of Japan's Most Acclaimed Sculptors of Buddha Statues.&quot; Onmark Productions Web Designs & Buddhist Shinto Photo Dictionary of Japanese Deities. Web. 29 Nov. 2 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>