Japanese Art After 1392 Ashley, Will, Megan

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Japanese Art After 1392 Ashley, Will, Megan

  1. 1. Japanese Art After 1392 Will Conway Megan Sheppard Ashley Wong
  2. 4. Muromachi Period 1392-1573
  3. 5. Important Historical Events <ul><li>Power of emperor and court gave way to rule by warriors (samurai) in 12 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Shogun = military dictator </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning in 1338, Ashikaga family occupied the position of shogun for 150 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved capital to Kyoto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reunited northern and southern Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1467-77 Onin Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil war between daimyo (provincial warlords) and shogun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of Kyoto and end of shogunate’s power </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. Stylistic Influences <ul><li>Period is marked by ascendance of Zen Buddhism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patronized by the samurai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became dominant cultural force in Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on meditation  enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural influences from China and Korea </li></ul>
  5. 7. Period Characteristics <ul><li>High levels of sophistication in both religious and secular arts </li></ul><ul><li>Natural materials </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of humor </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for paradoxical/contradictory characteristics </li></ul>
  6. 8. Ink Painting <ul><li>Monochrome painting in black ink and diluted grays </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular visual art during time period </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Zen painting </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier Zen tradition, painting depicts monks and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Now, Chinese-style ink landscapes </li></ul>
  7. 9. Shubun and Bunsei <ul><li>Shubun 1418-63 </li></ul><ul><li>First great master of ink landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Monk-artist </li></ul><ul><li>No surviving works </li></ul><ul><li>Bunsei 1450-60 </li></ul><ul><li>Shubun’s pupil </li></ul><ul><li>Two landscapes survived </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Bunsei </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Muromachi period </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-15 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Ink on paper </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Bunsei- Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-15 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Limbourg Brothers- Book of Hours: Tres Riches Heures </li></ul><ul><li>1413-1416 </li></ul>
  10. 12. Sesshu <ul><li>By 1600, there were monks that specialized in art </li></ul><ul><li>Sesshu was most famous monk-artist (1420-1506) </li></ul><ul><li>Visited China in 1467 – saw landscape and Chinese artists </li></ul><ul><li>Returned to Japan in midst of Onin Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Led to violent feeling in landscapes </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Sesshu </li></ul><ul><li>Winter Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Murumachi period </li></ul><ul><li>1470s </li></ul><ul><li>Ink on paper </li></ul>
  12. 14. Ikkyu <ul><li>1394-1481 </li></ul><ul><li>One of most famous Zen masters in Japanese history </li></ul><ul><li>Derided the Zen of his day </li></ul><ul><li>Success was distorting spirit of Zen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to be form of counterculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zen monks act as government advisers, teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Known for his calligraphy </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Ikkyu </li></ul><ul><li>Calligraphy Couplet </li></ul><ul><li>Muromachi period </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-15 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Ink on paper </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Tugra of Sultan Suleyman </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1555-60 </li></ul><ul><li>Used as propaganda for sultan </li></ul>Islamic Calligraphy
  15. 17. Zen Dry Garden <ul><li>Karesansui – dry landscape gardens exist In perfect harmony with Zen Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Simple tasks (e.g. weeding the garden) are occasions for meditation in search for enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Began to be built in 15 th and 16 th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Chinese landscape painting </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Rock Garden </li></ul><ul><li>Ryoan-ji, Kyoto </li></ul><ul><li>Muromachi period </li></ul><ul><li>1480 </li></ul>
  17. 19. Momoyama Period 1568-1615
  18. 21. Stylistic Influences <ul><li>Continuing influence of China and Korea </li></ul><ul><li>1453 arrival of Portuguese and Dutch merchants and Catholic missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>New awareness of different religions </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of firearms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to fortified castles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New markets and goods </li></ul>
  19. 22. Important Historical Events <ul><li>Onin Wars showed flaw in Ashikaga system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samurai were primarily loyal to feudal lord, daimyo , rather than central government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oda Nobunaga (1534-82) invaded Kyoto, signaled end of Ashikaga family’s power </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1437-98) </li></ul><ul><li>1600 stable government emerged finally under Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) </li></ul>
  20. 23. Period Characteristics <ul><li>Characterized by a robust, opulent, and dynamic style with gold decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Also supported a counter-aesthetic of rustic simplicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. tea ceremony </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Architecture <ul><li>Introduction of European muskets and cannons </li></ul><ul><li>Led to monumental fortified castles </li></ul><ul><li>Built in late 16 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Large buildings on top of hills or mountainsides </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Himeji Castle </li></ul><ul><li>Hyogo, Japan (near Osaka) </li></ul><ul><li>Momoyama period </li></ul><ul><li>1601-1609 </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>Chateau de Chenonceau </li></ul><ul><li>France, 1513-21 </li></ul><ul><li>built with idea of regularity and symmetry </li></ul>
  24. 27. Kano School Decorative Painting <ul><li>Castles were lavishly decorated </li></ul><ul><li>Artists now underwent formal training </li></ul><ul><li>Professional school of artists founded by Kano family </li></ul><ul><li>combined ink-painting tradition with new skills in decorative subjects and styles </li></ul><ul><li>School was patronized by government leaders for several centuries </li></ul>
  25. 28. Kano Eitoku <ul><li>1543-90 </li></ul><ul><li>From Kano School of Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Vigorous use of brush and ink </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful jagged outlines </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic compositions </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Sesshu </li></ul><ul><li>Bold sense of scale </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>Kano Eitokku </li></ul><ul><li>Fusuma </li></ul><ul><li>Momoyama Period </li></ul><ul><li>1563-73 </li></ul><ul><li>Ink and gold on paper </li></ul>
  27. 30. Tea Ceremony <ul><li>Interest in the quiet, restrained, natural expressed through tea ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>Advent of Zen brought Japan new way of preparing tea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crushed leaves into power, then whisked in bowls with hot water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered form of medicine and aid for meditation </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Sen No Rikyu <ul><li>1522-91 </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous tea master in Japanese history </li></ul><ul><li>Conceived of tea ceremony as intimate gathering </li></ul><ul><li>A small rustic room to drink tea and to discuss tea utensils or a Zen scroll </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic of modesty, refinement, rusticity </li></ul>
  29. 32. Tearoom Architecture <ul><li>Small and simple </li></ul><ul><li>Made of natural materials like bamboo and wood </li></ul><ul><li>Mud walls </li></ul><ul><li>Paper windows </li></ul><ul><li>Floor covered with tatami- mats of woven straw </li></ul><ul><li>Tokonoma- alcove where a Zen scroll or simple flower arrangement may be displayed </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of irregularity </li></ul><ul><li>Tearoom aesthetic = important element in Japanese culture, influencing secular architecture </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>Sen no Rikyu </li></ul><ul><li>Tai-an Tearoom </li></ul><ul><li>Momyama period </li></ul><ul><li>1582 </li></ul>
  31. 34. Edo Period 1615-1868
  32. 35. Important Historical Events <ul><li>Era when Tokugawa Ieyasu’s family controlled shogunate </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted more than 250 years </li></ul><ul><li>Peace and prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>increasingly rigid and repressive government </li></ul><ul><li>New capital Edo (Tokyo) </li></ul><ul><li>Cut off from rest of the world by government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese were forbidden to travel abroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreigners not permitted in Japan </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. Edo Society <ul><li>Zen Buddhism supplanted by neo-Confucianism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy originated in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressed loyalty to state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Society divided into 4 classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samurai officials, farmers, artisans, merchants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Merchants began to control money supply </li></ul><ul><li>Reading and writing became widespread </li></ul><ul><li>Many segments of population were able to patronize artists </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Appreciation for tea ceremony- including the utensils </li></ul><ul><li>Raku ware = hand-built, low-fired ceramic developed especially for use in tea ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by Korean-style rice bowls made for peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty of teabowl considered by characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How well it fits into the hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How shape and texture of bowl appealed to the eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who had previously used and admired it </li></ul></ul>Tea Ceramics
  35. 38. <ul><li>Hon’ami Koetsu </li></ul><ul><li>Teabowl, called Mount Fuji </li></ul><ul><li>Edo period </li></ul><ul><li>Early 17 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Raku ware </li></ul>
  36. 39. Rimpa School of Painting <ul><li>Grouping of artists with similar tastes rather than a formal school </li></ul><ul><li>Excelled in decorative designs of expressive force </li></ul><ul><li>Worked in several mediums </li></ul><ul><li>Considered quintessentially Japanese in spirit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressive power of art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of poetic themes from Japan’s past </li></ul></ul>
  37. 40. Tawaraya Sotatsu <ul><li>1600-50 </li></ul><ul><li>First great painter of Rimpa school </li></ul><ul><li>Painted golden screens </li></ul><ul><li>Boldly decorative style </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical and almost abstract patterns of waves, pines, island forms </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Tawaraya Sotatsu </li></ul><ul><li>Pair of Six-Panel Screens, known as the Matsushima Screens </li></ul><ul><li>Edo Period </li></ul><ul><li>17 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Ink, mineral colors, and gold leaf on paper </li></ul>
  39. 42. Nanga School of Painting <ul><li>Painters that responded to new Confucian atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Took up Chinese literati painters’ ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Name comes from southern school of amateur artists described by Chinese literati theorist Dong Qichang </li></ul><ul><li>Painters are individualists, own variations of literati paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Blended Chinese models, Japanese aesthetics and personal brushwork </li></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>Uragami Gyokudo </li></ul><ul><li>Geese Aslant in the High Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Edo Period </li></ul><ul><li>1817 </li></ul><ul><li>Ink and light colors on paper </li></ul>
  41. 44. Zen Painting <ul><li>Without support of government, Zen painting initially went into decline but was revived by Hakuin Ekaku (1685-1769) </li></ul><ul><li>Important teacher who used painting and calligraphy as forms of Zen expression </li></ul><ul><li>Favorite subject was Daruma (Bodhidharma)- Indian monk who began Zen tradition </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>Hakuin Ekaku </li></ul><ul><li>Bodhidharma Meditating </li></ul><ul><li>Edo period </li></ul><ul><li>18 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Ink on paper </li></ul>
  43. 46. Maruyama-Shijo School Painting <ul><li>Merchants wanted to display increasing wealth- demand for golden screens and other decorative arts </li></ul><ul><li>Maruyama-Shijo School, founded by Maruyama Okyo (1733-95) </li></ul><ul><li>Okyo studied Western-style “perspective pictures” </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporated shading and perspective </li></ul><ul><li>New sense of volume </li></ul><ul><li>Portrayed subjects like birds, animals, hills, trees </li></ul><ul><li>Suited tastes of emerging upper middle class </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>Maruyama Okyo </li></ul><ul><li>Pine Tree in Snow </li></ul><ul><li>Edo Period </li></ul><ul><li>1765 </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging scroll, ink and color on silk </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>Nagasawa Rosetsu </li></ul><ul><li>Bull and Puppy </li></ul><ul><li>Edo period </li></ul><ul><li>18 th century </li></ul>
  46. 49. Ukiyo-E <ul><li>Prosperity --> Pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Ukiyo- “floating world” (enjoy life to fullest) </li></ul><ul><li>Ukiyo-E- woodblock prints created for common people </li></ul><ul><li>Suzuki Harunobu (1724-70) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First to design prints to be printed in many colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portrayals of feminine beauty </li></ul></ul>
  47. 50. <ul><li>Suzuki Harunobu </li></ul><ul><li>Geisha as Daruma Crossing the Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Edo period </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-18 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Polychrome woodblock print on paper </li></ul>
  48. 51. Hiroshige and Hokusai <ul><li>During 19 th century, landscape became major theme in woodblock prints </li></ul><ul><li>Not idealized landscape of China but actual sights of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Two great masters: Hiroshige (1797-1858) and Hokusai (1760-1849) </li></ul><ul><li>Hiroshige- Fifty-Three Stations of the Tokaido </li></ul><ul><li>Hokusai- Thirty-Six Views of Mt. Fuji </li></ul><ul><li>Most successful sets of graphic art the world has known </li></ul>
  49. 52. <ul><li>Katsushika Hokusai </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Wave </li></ul><ul><li>From Thirty-Six Views of Mt. Fuji </li></ul><ul><li>Edo period </li></ul><ul><li>1831 </li></ul><ul><li>Polychrome woodblock print on paper </li></ul>
  50. 53. Meiji and Modern Periods 1868-Present
  51. 54. Important Historical Events <ul><li>Mid-19 th century strong pressure from West for entry into Japan </li></ul><ul><li>1853 policy of national seclusion ended </li></ul><ul><li>Led to downfall of Tokugawa shogunate </li></ul><ul><li>1868 emperor restored to power (Meiji Restoration) </li></ul><ul><li>Court moved from Kyoto to Edo, renamed Tokyo </li></ul>
  52. 55. Meiji Period <ul><li>Marked major change for Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Influx of West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western education, governmental systems, clothing, medicine, industrialization, technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ernest Fenollosa (1853-1908)- American who traveled to teach at Tokyo University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urged artists to study traditional Japanese arts rather than focus exclusively on Western art styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yokoyama Taikan (1868-1958) developed style within Japanese painting genre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drew from Japanese and Western tradition </li></ul></ul>
  53. 56. <ul><li>Yokoyama Taikan </li></ul><ul><li>Floating Lights </li></ul><ul><li>Meiji period </li></ul><ul><li>1909 </li></ul><ul><li>Pair of hanging scrolls, ink, colors, gold on silk </li></ul>
  54. 57. Modern Japan <ul><li>Push to become a modern industrialized country </li></ul><ul><li>Did not lose sense of tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese art today has both Western and native aspects </li></ul>
  55. 58. <ul><li>Miyashita Zenji </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Stoneware </li></ul>
  56. 59. <ul><li>Chuichi Fujii </li></ul><ul><li>Untitled ’90 </li></ul><ul><li>1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Cedar wood </li></ul>
  57. 60. <ul><li>Takashi Murakami </li></ul><ul><li>Magic Ball (Positive) </li></ul><ul><li>1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Seven panels, acrylic on canvas </li></ul>

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