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Japanese Art After 1392 Ashley, Will, Megan
 

Japanese Art After 1392 Ashley, Will, Megan

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    Japanese Art After 1392 Ashley, Will, Megan Japanese Art After 1392 Ashley, Will, Megan Presentation Transcript

    • Japanese Art After 1392 Will Conway Megan Sheppard Ashley Wong
    •  
    •  
    • Muromachi Period 1392-1573
    • Important Historical Events
      • Power of emperor and court gave way to rule by warriors (samurai) in 12 th century
      • Shogun = military dictator
      • Beginning in 1338, Ashikaga family occupied the position of shogun for 150 years
        • Moved capital to Kyoto
        • reunited northern and southern Japan
      • 1467-77 Onin Wars
        • Civil war between daimyo (provincial warlords) and shogun
        • Destruction of Kyoto and end of shogunate’s power
    • Stylistic Influences
      • Period is marked by ascendance of Zen Buddhism
        • Patronized by the samurai
        • Became dominant cultural force in Japan
        • Focus on meditation  enlightenment
      • Cultural influences from China and Korea
    • Period Characteristics
      • High levels of sophistication in both religious and secular arts
      • Natural materials
      • Asymmetry
      • Sense of humor
      • Tolerance for paradoxical/contradictory characteristics
    • Ink Painting
      • Monochrome painting in black ink and diluted grays
      • Most popular visual art during time period
      • Influenced by Zen painting
      • Earlier Zen tradition, painting depicts monks and teachers
      • Now, Chinese-style ink landscapes
    • Shubun and Bunsei
      • Shubun 1418-63
      • First great master of ink landscape
      • Monk-artist
      • No surviving works
      • Bunsei 1450-60
      • Shubun’s pupil
      • Two landscapes survived
      • Bunsei
      • Landscape
      • Muromachi period
      • Mid-15 th Century
      • Ink on paper
      • Bunsei- Landscape
      • Mid-15 th Century
      • Limbourg Brothers- Book of Hours: Tres Riches Heures
      • 1413-1416
    • Sesshu
      • By 1600, there were monks that specialized in art
      • Sesshu was most famous monk-artist (1420-1506)
      • Visited China in 1467 – saw landscape and Chinese artists
      • Returned to Japan in midst of Onin Wars
      • Led to violent feeling in landscapes
      • Sesshu
      • Winter Landscape
      • Murumachi period
      • 1470s
      • Ink on paper
    • Ikkyu
      • 1394-1481
      • One of most famous Zen masters in Japanese history
      • Derided the Zen of his day
      • Success was distorting spirit of Zen
        • Used to be form of counterculture
      • Zen monks act as government advisers, teachers
      • Known for his calligraphy
      • Ikkyu
      • Calligraphy Couplet
      • Muromachi period
      • Mid-15 th century
      • Ink on paper
      • Tugra of Sultan Suleyman
      • C. 1555-60
      • Used as propaganda for sultan
      Islamic Calligraphy
    • Zen Dry Garden
      • Karesansui – dry landscape gardens exist In perfect harmony with Zen Buddhism
      • Simple tasks (e.g. weeding the garden) are occasions for meditation in search for enlightenment
      • Began to be built in 15 th and 16 th centuries
      • Influenced by Chinese landscape painting
      • Rock Garden
      • Ryoan-ji, Kyoto
      • Muromachi period
      • 1480
    • Momoyama Period 1568-1615
    •  
    • Stylistic Influences
      • Continuing influence of China and Korea
      • 1453 arrival of Portuguese and Dutch merchants and Catholic missionaries
      • New awareness of different religions
      • New technologies
        • Introduction of firearms
        • Led to fortified castles
      • New markets and goods
    • Important Historical Events
      • Onin Wars showed flaw in Ashikaga system
        • Samurai were primarily loyal to feudal lord, daimyo , rather than central government
      • Oda Nobunaga (1534-82) invaded Kyoto, signaled end of Ashikaga family’s power
      • Succeeded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1437-98)
      • 1600 stable government emerged finally under Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616)
    • Period Characteristics
      • Characterized by a robust, opulent, and dynamic style with gold decoration
      • Also supported a counter-aesthetic of rustic simplicity
        • e.g. tea ceremony
    • Architecture
      • Introduction of European muskets and cannons
      • Led to monumental fortified castles
      • Built in late 16 th century
      • Large buildings on top of hills or mountainsides
      • Himeji Castle
      • Hyogo, Japan (near Osaka)
      • Momoyama period
      • 1601-1609
      • Chateau de Chenonceau
      • France, 1513-21
      • built with idea of regularity and symmetry
    • Kano School Decorative Painting
      • Castles were lavishly decorated
      • Artists now underwent formal training
      • Professional school of artists founded by Kano family
      • combined ink-painting tradition with new skills in decorative subjects and styles
      • School was patronized by government leaders for several centuries
    • Kano Eitoku
      • 1543-90
      • From Kano School of Painting
      • Vigorous use of brush and ink
      • Powerful jagged outlines
      • Dramatic compositions
      • Similar to Sesshu
      • Bold sense of scale
      • Kano Eitokku
      • Fusuma
      • Momoyama Period
      • 1563-73
      • Ink and gold on paper
    • Tea Ceremony
      • Interest in the quiet, restrained, natural expressed through tea ceremony
      • Advent of Zen brought Japan new way of preparing tea
        • Crushed leaves into power, then whisked in bowls with hot water
        • Considered form of medicine and aid for meditation
    • Sen No Rikyu
      • 1522-91
      • Most famous tea master in Japanese history
      • Conceived of tea ceremony as intimate gathering
      • A small rustic room to drink tea and to discuss tea utensils or a Zen scroll
      • Aesthetic of modesty, refinement, rusticity
    • Tearoom Architecture
      • Small and simple
      • Made of natural materials like bamboo and wood
      • Mud walls
      • Paper windows
      • Floor covered with tatami- mats of woven straw
      • Tokonoma- alcove where a Zen scroll or simple flower arrangement may be displayed
      • Sense of irregularity
      • Tearoom aesthetic = important element in Japanese culture, influencing secular architecture
      • Sen no Rikyu
      • Tai-an Tearoom
      • Momyama period
      • 1582
    • Edo Period 1615-1868
    • Important Historical Events
      • Era when Tokugawa Ieyasu’s family controlled shogunate
      • Lasted more than 250 years
      • Peace and prosperity
      • increasingly rigid and repressive government
      • New capital Edo (Tokyo)
      • Cut off from rest of the world by government
        • Japanese were forbidden to travel abroad
        • Foreigners not permitted in Japan
    • Edo Society
      • Zen Buddhism supplanted by neo-Confucianism
        • Philosophy originated in China
        • Stressed loyalty to state
      • Society divided into 4 classes
        • Samurai officials, farmers, artisans, merchants
      • Merchants began to control money supply
      • Reading and writing became widespread
      • Many segments of population were able to patronize artists
      • Appreciation for tea ceremony- including the utensils
      • Raku ware = hand-built, low-fired ceramic developed especially for use in tea ceremony
      • Inspired by Korean-style rice bowls made for peasants
      • Beauty of teabowl considered by characteristics:
        • How well it fits into the hands
        • How shape and texture of bowl appealed to the eye
        • Who had previously used and admired it
      Tea Ceramics
      • Hon’ami Koetsu
      • Teabowl, called Mount Fuji
      • Edo period
      • Early 17 th century
      • Raku ware
    • Rimpa School of Painting
      • Grouping of artists with similar tastes rather than a formal school
      • Excelled in decorative designs of expressive force
      • Worked in several mediums
      • Considered quintessentially Japanese in spirit
        • Expressive power of art
        • Use of poetic themes from Japan’s past
    • Tawaraya Sotatsu
      • 1600-50
      • First great painter of Rimpa school
      • Painted golden screens
      • Boldly decorative style
      • Asymmetrical and almost abstract patterns of waves, pines, island forms
      • Tawaraya Sotatsu
      • Pair of Six-Panel Screens, known as the Matsushima Screens
      • Edo Period
      • 17 th century
      • Ink, mineral colors, and gold leaf on paper
    • Nanga School of Painting
      • Painters that responded to new Confucian atmosphere
      • Took up Chinese literati painters’ ideas
      • Name comes from southern school of amateur artists described by Chinese literati theorist Dong Qichang
      • Painters are individualists, own variations of literati paintings
      • Blended Chinese models, Japanese aesthetics and personal brushwork
      • Uragami Gyokudo
      • Geese Aslant in the High Wind
      • Edo Period
      • 1817
      • Ink and light colors on paper
    • Zen Painting
      • Without support of government, Zen painting initially went into decline but was revived by Hakuin Ekaku (1685-1769)
      • Important teacher who used painting and calligraphy as forms of Zen expression
      • Favorite subject was Daruma (Bodhidharma)- Indian monk who began Zen tradition
      • Hakuin Ekaku
      • Bodhidharma Meditating
      • Edo period
      • 18 th century
      • Ink on paper
    • Maruyama-Shijo School Painting
      • Merchants wanted to display increasing wealth- demand for golden screens and other decorative arts
      • Maruyama-Shijo School, founded by Maruyama Okyo (1733-95)
      • Okyo studied Western-style “perspective pictures”
      • Incorporated shading and perspective
      • New sense of volume
      • Portrayed subjects like birds, animals, hills, trees
      • Suited tastes of emerging upper middle class
      • Maruyama Okyo
      • Pine Tree in Snow
      • Edo Period
      • 1765
      • Hanging scroll, ink and color on silk
      • Nagasawa Rosetsu
      • Bull and Puppy
      • Edo period
      • 18 th century
    • Ukiyo-E
      • Prosperity --> Pleasure
      • Ukiyo- “floating world” (enjoy life to fullest)
      • Ukiyo-E- woodblock prints created for common people
      • Suzuki Harunobu (1724-70)
        • First to design prints to be printed in many colors
        • Portrayals of feminine beauty
      • Suzuki Harunobu
      • Geisha as Daruma Crossing the Sea
      • Edo period
      • Mid-18 th century
      • Polychrome woodblock print on paper
    • Hiroshige and Hokusai
      • During 19 th century, landscape became major theme in woodblock prints
      • Not idealized landscape of China but actual sights of Japan
      • Two great masters: Hiroshige (1797-1858) and Hokusai (1760-1849)
      • Hiroshige- Fifty-Three Stations of the Tokaido
      • Hokusai- Thirty-Six Views of Mt. Fuji
      • Most successful sets of graphic art the world has known
      • Katsushika Hokusai
      • The Great Wave
      • From Thirty-Six Views of Mt. Fuji
      • Edo period
      • 1831
      • Polychrome woodblock print on paper
    • Meiji and Modern Periods 1868-Present
    • Important Historical Events
      • Mid-19 th century strong pressure from West for entry into Japan
      • 1853 policy of national seclusion ended
      • Led to downfall of Tokugawa shogunate
      • 1868 emperor restored to power (Meiji Restoration)
      • Court moved from Kyoto to Edo, renamed Tokyo
    • Meiji Period
      • Marked major change for Japan
      • Influx of West
        • Western education, governmental systems, clothing, medicine, industrialization, technology
      • Ernest Fenollosa (1853-1908)- American who traveled to teach at Tokyo University
        • Urged artists to study traditional Japanese arts rather than focus exclusively on Western art styles
        • Yokoyama Taikan (1868-1958) developed style within Japanese painting genre
        • Drew from Japanese and Western tradition
      • Yokoyama Taikan
      • Floating Lights
      • Meiji period
      • 1909
      • Pair of hanging scrolls, ink, colors, gold on silk
    • Modern Japan
      • Push to become a modern industrialized country
      • Did not lose sense of tradition
      • Japanese art today has both Western and native aspects
      • Miyashita Zenji
      • Wind
      • 1989
      • Stoneware
      • Chuichi Fujii
      • Untitled ’90
      • 1990
      • Cedar wood
      • Takashi Murakami
      • Magic Ball (Positive)
      • 1999
      • Seven panels, acrylic on canvas