Japanese Art After 1392 Ashley, Will, Megan

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  • 1. Japanese Art After 1392 Will Conway Megan Sheppard Ashley Wong
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4. Muromachi Period 1392-1573
  • 5. Important Historical Events
    • Power of emperor and court gave way to rule by warriors (samurai) in 12 th century
    • Shogun = military dictator
    • Beginning in 1338, Ashikaga family occupied the position of shogun for 150 years
      • Moved capital to Kyoto
      • reunited northern and southern Japan
    • 1467-77 Onin Wars
      • Civil war between daimyo (provincial warlords) and shogun
      • Destruction of Kyoto and end of shogunate’s power
  • 6. Stylistic Influences
    • Period is marked by ascendance of Zen Buddhism
      • Patronized by the samurai
      • Became dominant cultural force in Japan
      • Focus on meditation  enlightenment
    • Cultural influences from China and Korea
  • 7. Period Characteristics
    • High levels of sophistication in both religious and secular arts
    • Natural materials
    • Asymmetry
    • Sense of humor
    • Tolerance for paradoxical/contradictory characteristics
  • 8. Ink Painting
    • Monochrome painting in black ink and diluted grays
    • Most popular visual art during time period
    • Influenced by Zen painting
    • Earlier Zen tradition, painting depicts monks and teachers
    • Now, Chinese-style ink landscapes
  • 9. Shubun and Bunsei
    • Shubun 1418-63
    • First great master of ink landscape
    • Monk-artist
    • No surviving works
    • Bunsei 1450-60
    • Shubun’s pupil
    • Two landscapes survived
  • 10.
    • Bunsei
    • Landscape
    • Muromachi period
    • Mid-15 th Century
    • Ink on paper
  • 11.
    • Bunsei- Landscape
    • Mid-15 th Century
    • Limbourg Brothers- Book of Hours: Tres Riches Heures
    • 1413-1416
  • 12. Sesshu
    • By 1600, there were monks that specialized in art
    • Sesshu was most famous monk-artist (1420-1506)
    • Visited China in 1467 – saw landscape and Chinese artists
    • Returned to Japan in midst of Onin Wars
    • Led to violent feeling in landscapes
  • 13.
    • Sesshu
    • Winter Landscape
    • Murumachi period
    • 1470s
    • Ink on paper
  • 14. Ikkyu
    • 1394-1481
    • One of most famous Zen masters in Japanese history
    • Derided the Zen of his day
    • Success was distorting spirit of Zen
      • Used to be form of counterculture
    • Zen monks act as government advisers, teachers
    • Known for his calligraphy
  • 15.
    • Ikkyu
    • Calligraphy Couplet
    • Muromachi period
    • Mid-15 th century
    • Ink on paper
  • 16.
    • Tugra of Sultan Suleyman
    • C. 1555-60
    • Used as propaganda for sultan
    Islamic Calligraphy
  • 17. Zen Dry Garden
    • Karesansui – dry landscape gardens exist In perfect harmony with Zen Buddhism
    • Simple tasks (e.g. weeding the garden) are occasions for meditation in search for enlightenment
    • Began to be built in 15 th and 16 th centuries
    • Influenced by Chinese landscape painting
  • 18.
    • Rock Garden
    • Ryoan-ji, Kyoto
    • Muromachi period
    • 1480
  • 19. Momoyama Period 1568-1615
  • 20.  
  • 21. Stylistic Influences
    • Continuing influence of China and Korea
    • 1453 arrival of Portuguese and Dutch merchants and Catholic missionaries
    • New awareness of different religions
    • New technologies
      • Introduction of firearms
      • Led to fortified castles
    • New markets and goods
  • 22. Important Historical Events
    • Onin Wars showed flaw in Ashikaga system
      • Samurai were primarily loyal to feudal lord, daimyo , rather than central government
    • Oda Nobunaga (1534-82) invaded Kyoto, signaled end of Ashikaga family’s power
    • Succeeded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1437-98)
    • 1600 stable government emerged finally under Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616)
  • 23. Period Characteristics
    • Characterized by a robust, opulent, and dynamic style with gold decoration
    • Also supported a counter-aesthetic of rustic simplicity
      • e.g. tea ceremony
  • 24. Architecture
    • Introduction of European muskets and cannons
    • Led to monumental fortified castles
    • Built in late 16 th century
    • Large buildings on top of hills or mountainsides
  • 25.
    • Himeji Castle
    • Hyogo, Japan (near Osaka)
    • Momoyama period
    • 1601-1609
  • 26.
    • Chateau de Chenonceau
    • France, 1513-21
    • built with idea of regularity and symmetry
  • 27. Kano School Decorative Painting
    • Castles were lavishly decorated
    • Artists now underwent formal training
    • Professional school of artists founded by Kano family
    • combined ink-painting tradition with new skills in decorative subjects and styles
    • School was patronized by government leaders for several centuries
  • 28. Kano Eitoku
    • 1543-90
    • From Kano School of Painting
    • Vigorous use of brush and ink
    • Powerful jagged outlines
    • Dramatic compositions
    • Similar to Sesshu
    • Bold sense of scale
  • 29.
    • Kano Eitokku
    • Fusuma
    • Momoyama Period
    • 1563-73
    • Ink and gold on paper
  • 30. Tea Ceremony
    • Interest in the quiet, restrained, natural expressed through tea ceremony
    • Advent of Zen brought Japan new way of preparing tea
      • Crushed leaves into power, then whisked in bowls with hot water
      • Considered form of medicine and aid for meditation
  • 31. Sen No Rikyu
    • 1522-91
    • Most famous tea master in Japanese history
    • Conceived of tea ceremony as intimate gathering
    • A small rustic room to drink tea and to discuss tea utensils or a Zen scroll
    • Aesthetic of modesty, refinement, rusticity
  • 32. Tearoom Architecture
    • Small and simple
    • Made of natural materials like bamboo and wood
    • Mud walls
    • Paper windows
    • Floor covered with tatami- mats of woven straw
    • Tokonoma- alcove where a Zen scroll or simple flower arrangement may be displayed
    • Sense of irregularity
    • Tearoom aesthetic = important element in Japanese culture, influencing secular architecture
  • 33.
    • Sen no Rikyu
    • Tai-an Tearoom
    • Momyama period
    • 1582
  • 34. Edo Period 1615-1868
  • 35. Important Historical Events
    • Era when Tokugawa Ieyasu’s family controlled shogunate
    • Lasted more than 250 years
    • Peace and prosperity
    • increasingly rigid and repressive government
    • New capital Edo (Tokyo)
    • Cut off from rest of the world by government
      • Japanese were forbidden to travel abroad
      • Foreigners not permitted in Japan
  • 36. Edo Society
    • Zen Buddhism supplanted by neo-Confucianism
      • Philosophy originated in China
      • Stressed loyalty to state
    • Society divided into 4 classes
      • Samurai officials, farmers, artisans, merchants
    • Merchants began to control money supply
    • Reading and writing became widespread
    • Many segments of population were able to patronize artists
  • 37.
    • Appreciation for tea ceremony- including the utensils
    • Raku ware = hand-built, low-fired ceramic developed especially for use in tea ceremony
    • Inspired by Korean-style rice bowls made for peasants
    • Beauty of teabowl considered by characteristics:
      • How well it fits into the hands
      • How shape and texture of bowl appealed to the eye
      • Who had previously used and admired it
    Tea Ceramics
  • 38.
    • Hon’ami Koetsu
    • Teabowl, called Mount Fuji
    • Edo period
    • Early 17 th century
    • Raku ware
  • 39. Rimpa School of Painting
    • Grouping of artists with similar tastes rather than a formal school
    • Excelled in decorative designs of expressive force
    • Worked in several mediums
    • Considered quintessentially Japanese in spirit
      • Expressive power of art
      • Use of poetic themes from Japan’s past
  • 40. Tawaraya Sotatsu
    • 1600-50
    • First great painter of Rimpa school
    • Painted golden screens
    • Boldly decorative style
    • Asymmetrical and almost abstract patterns of waves, pines, island forms
  • 41.
    • Tawaraya Sotatsu
    • Pair of Six-Panel Screens, known as the Matsushima Screens
    • Edo Period
    • 17 th century
    • Ink, mineral colors, and gold leaf on paper
  • 42. Nanga School of Painting
    • Painters that responded to new Confucian atmosphere
    • Took up Chinese literati painters’ ideas
    • Name comes from southern school of amateur artists described by Chinese literati theorist Dong Qichang
    • Painters are individualists, own variations of literati paintings
    • Blended Chinese models, Japanese aesthetics and personal brushwork
  • 43.
    • Uragami Gyokudo
    • Geese Aslant in the High Wind
    • Edo Period
    • 1817
    • Ink and light colors on paper
  • 44. Zen Painting
    • Without support of government, Zen painting initially went into decline but was revived by Hakuin Ekaku (1685-1769)
    • Important teacher who used painting and calligraphy as forms of Zen expression
    • Favorite subject was Daruma (Bodhidharma)- Indian monk who began Zen tradition
  • 45.
    • Hakuin Ekaku
    • Bodhidharma Meditating
    • Edo period
    • 18 th century
    • Ink on paper
  • 46. Maruyama-Shijo School Painting
    • Merchants wanted to display increasing wealth- demand for golden screens and other decorative arts
    • Maruyama-Shijo School, founded by Maruyama Okyo (1733-95)
    • Okyo studied Western-style “perspective pictures”
    • Incorporated shading and perspective
    • New sense of volume
    • Portrayed subjects like birds, animals, hills, trees
    • Suited tastes of emerging upper middle class
  • 47.
    • Maruyama Okyo
    • Pine Tree in Snow
    • Edo Period
    • 1765
    • Hanging scroll, ink and color on silk
  • 48.
    • Nagasawa Rosetsu
    • Bull and Puppy
    • Edo period
    • 18 th century
  • 49. Ukiyo-E
    • Prosperity --> Pleasure
    • Ukiyo- “floating world” (enjoy life to fullest)
    • Ukiyo-E- woodblock prints created for common people
    • Suzuki Harunobu (1724-70)
      • First to design prints to be printed in many colors
      • Portrayals of feminine beauty
  • 50.
    • Suzuki Harunobu
    • Geisha as Daruma Crossing the Sea
    • Edo period
    • Mid-18 th century
    • Polychrome woodblock print on paper
  • 51. Hiroshige and Hokusai
    • During 19 th century, landscape became major theme in woodblock prints
    • Not idealized landscape of China but actual sights of Japan
    • Two great masters: Hiroshige (1797-1858) and Hokusai (1760-1849)
    • Hiroshige- Fifty-Three Stations of the Tokaido
    • Hokusai- Thirty-Six Views of Mt. Fuji
    • Most successful sets of graphic art the world has known
  • 52.
    • Katsushika Hokusai
    • The Great Wave
    • From Thirty-Six Views of Mt. Fuji
    • Edo period
    • 1831
    • Polychrome woodblock print on paper
  • 53. Meiji and Modern Periods 1868-Present
  • 54. Important Historical Events
    • Mid-19 th century strong pressure from West for entry into Japan
    • 1853 policy of national seclusion ended
    • Led to downfall of Tokugawa shogunate
    • 1868 emperor restored to power (Meiji Restoration)
    • Court moved from Kyoto to Edo, renamed Tokyo
  • 55. Meiji Period
    • Marked major change for Japan
    • Influx of West
      • Western education, governmental systems, clothing, medicine, industrialization, technology
    • Ernest Fenollosa (1853-1908)- American who traveled to teach at Tokyo University
      • Urged artists to study traditional Japanese arts rather than focus exclusively on Western art styles
      • Yokoyama Taikan (1868-1958) developed style within Japanese painting genre
      • Drew from Japanese and Western tradition
  • 56.
    • Yokoyama Taikan
    • Floating Lights
    • Meiji period
    • 1909
    • Pair of hanging scrolls, ink, colors, gold on silk
  • 57. Modern Japan
    • Push to become a modern industrialized country
    • Did not lose sense of tradition
    • Japanese art today has both Western and native aspects
  • 58.
    • Miyashita Zenji
    • Wind
    • 1989
    • Stoneware
  • 59.
    • Chuichi Fujii
    • Untitled ’90
    • 1990
    • Cedar wood
  • 60.
    • Takashi Murakami
    • Magic Ball (Positive)
    • 1999
    • Seven panels, acrylic on canvas