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    Impressionist2 Impressionist2 Presentation Transcript

    • Impressionism to Post- Impressionism
    • Pierre-Auguste Renoir
      One of the best loved Impressionist, largely due to subject matter – children, pretty women and flowers
    • Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette
      • Energetic dancing by the middle class in Paris
      • Dappling of light and shade
      • Artfully blurred figures in the picture
      • Casual and unposed natural placement of figures
      • Suggested space goes beyond the boundaries of the painting
      • People go about their business, don’t pose
      • Influence of candid photography in the casualness of groupings and the cut off figures at the edges
    • Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876
    • Girl With a Watering Can, 1876
    • Camille Pissaro
      1830 –1903
      Big Proponet of Plein Air painting
      Mentor to Cezanne
      Only Painter to show in ALL Impressionist exhibitions (8 in total)
    • The Stage Coach at Louveciennes 1870
    • Edgar Degas
      Master of drawing the Human Figure in Motion
      Known for use of pastels
      Ballet Dancers and Horses
    • L'absinthe1876 (larger version, 140 Kb); Oil on canvas, 92 x 68 cm (36 1/4 x 26 3/4 in); Musee d'Orsay, Paris
    • Degas, Ballet Rehearsal
      • Enjoyed depicting ballet movements
      • Composition inspired by Japanese prints: center of painting empty, spiral staircase at left cut off, ballerina being dressed at right cut off
      • Strong diagonals unify composition
      • Light feathery brushstrokes define dresses
      • Effect of light from window on the floor and on shapes
      • Faces in darkness or cut off
    • The Star [Dancer on Stage])1878
    • The Rehearsal, 1873-78
    • Girl Drying Herself1885
    • James Abbot McNeil Whistler
      American (New England), moved to Russia at age 9 then back to CT (Pomfret) then to Paris then to England
      Friend of Rossetti (pre-Raphaelites) and Oscar Wilde
    • Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the Painter's Mother 1871
    • He achieved international notoriety when Symphony No. 1, The White Girl was rejected at both the Royal Academy and the Salon, but was a major attraction at the famous Salon des Refusés in 1863.
      Symphony in White, No. 1: The White Girl1862
    • Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket
      • Reaches to the limit of abstraction
      • Fireworks in London over the Thames River
      • Clouds of black and dark blue represent the smoke of the rockets
      • Left: large tree looms in darkness
      • Art critic called the painting “a pot of paint in the public’s face.” Whistler sued for libel
      • Signed the painting with a Japanese anagram
      • Color effects decorate the painting
    • In 1877 the critic John Ruskin denounced Whistler's Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875; Detroit Institute of Arts), accusing him of "flinging a pot of paint in the public's face", and Whistler sued him for libel the following year. He won the action, but the awarding of only a farthing's damages with no costs was in effect a justification for Ruskin. Potential patrons were repelled by the negative publicity surrounding the case, and the expense of the trial led to Whistler's bankruptcy in 1879. His house was sold and he proceeded to Italy with a commission from the Fine Arts Society to make twelve etchings of Venice. He spent a year in Venice (1879-80), concentrating on the etchings-- among the masterpieces of 19th-century graphic art-- that helped to restore his fortunes when he returned to London.
      After returning to England in 1880 he painted a wide variety of subjects, continued with his interest in the graphic arts, and promulgated his aesthetic theories in print and in the Ten O'Clock lecture (1885); his polemical The Gentle Art of Making Enemies was published in 1890. In 1886 he was elected president of the Society of British Artists, but despite some successes his revolutionary ideas ran afoul of the conservative members, and he was voted out of office within two years.
    • Mary Cassatt
      Friend of Degas, showed with Impressioinists in 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886
      Born American but lived in Paris most of her adult life
      Contributed to the Interest of American Impressionism
    • Cassatt, The Bath
      • Not like other Impressionists, not a landscape or still life painter
      • Figures are never actors, nor do they appear to be models posing
      • Mother and child theme her specialty
      • Has a tenderness foreign to Impressionism
      • Figures seen from unusual angles as in Japanese prints
      • Flatness of background forms
      • Solidity of main figures
      • Japanese decorative details in background
      La Toilettec. 1891
    • The Boating Party 1893-94
    • Little Girl in a Blue Armchair1878
    • Mother and Child (The Oval Mirror)1901
    • Auguste Rodin
      1840 –1917
      Stunning Strength and realism
      Confronts distress and moral weakness as well as noble themes
      Emphasis on Hands and feet in his works
      A turn away from the smooth neo-classical styling common in sculpture
    • The Gates of Hell1880-1917
    • The Burghers of Calais1884-86
    • Post-Impressionism
      Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge
      Zigzag composition
      Pitiless representation of figures
      Gauguin’s influence in the large areas of flat color
      Joyless, oppressive; people out to have a good time, but achieve none
      Self-portrait as a short bearded man in background with his very tall cousin
      Off-key colors
      Tilted perspective of Japanese prints
      People tend to be aging, flabby, cynical
    • Vincent Van Gogh 1853 - 1890
    • q       Tactile surface of painting
      q       Brushstrokes conveying emotion and inner reality
      q       Not an imitation of nature
      q       Forerunner of expressionism
      q       Major emphasis on texture, line and color
      q       Colors were vivid, bright and strong
      q       Deeply impressed by Millet and Social art
      Missionary zeal
    • Post-Impressionism
      Van Gogh, The Starry Night
      Painted from his room at the hospital at St-Rémy
      Mountains of the Lapillus could be seen from his window
      Steepness of the mountains is exaggerated
      Deep forces of the universe playing out on the canvas
      Visionary sense of power
      Discordant colors
      Thick, swirling paint strokes
      Unconventional perspective
      Strong waves splashing from left to right
      Sky movement echoed in mountains and trees
      Two verticals interrupt flow: cypress tree and church steeple
      A religious message?
    • Paul Gauguin (1848 – 1903)
      • q       Emphasizes the use of bright, non-naturalistic colors
      • q       Emphasizes the use of flat planes of color
      • q       Rejected notions of Western naturalism
      • q       Often employs symbolic or primitive subjects
      • q       Interested in the primitive man, a removal from the norms and mores of society
      • q       Rejected notions of Western naturalism
      • q       Uses nature as a starting point from to abstract figures and symbols
      • q       Stressed linear patterns and color harmonies
      • q       Tried to include a profound sense of mystery
      BOTH strength and intensity over the slick and superficial
    • Post-Impressionism
      Gauguin, The Vision after the Sermon
      After hearing an impassioned sermon on the Biblical account of Jacob wrestling with the angel, the pious rural people envision the struggle
      Tree trunk separates the real from the vision
      Red heat of sermon matches red coloring
      Color used as an emotional response not as a physical description
      Rejection of perspective
      Priest at lower right is a self-portrait
      Heavily enclosed forms
      Renounced Impressionism
      Many sharply drawn black outlines
      Broad areas of color, relatively flatly applied, containing some subtly that gives it a rich glow
    • 1888
    • Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?1897
    • Post Impressionism
      Seurat, La Grande Jatte
      Analyzed color relationships in a pictorial space
      Small brush strokes of complementary color: reds and greens, violets and yellows, blues and oranges
      Pointillist technique
      Result is sort of a mosaic like quality with a geometric structure
      Accent on the loneliness of modern life, figures together yet in isolation
      Most are faceless
      Conventional perspective used
      Reduced intensity of color to give effect of distance
      Interest in geometric shapes
      An Egyptian stillness: figures are posed to run but become frozen statues
    • Paul Cezanne (1839 – 1906)
      The “Father of Modern Art” – an artist’s artist
      Obsessed with form over content
      Development of planes to comprise the surface
      Forunner of Cubism
    • Post Impressionism
      Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire
      Broad splashes of color in suggestive rather than descriptive passages
      Areas of the canvas left unpainted
      No human figures
      Not a countryside of Impressionism, lacking in human contact
      Aim is to create a unity within the picture in which each element has a clearly defined role and a relationship to the elements around it
      Solidity achieved through massing of shapes
      Grand and monumental form of the mountain
      Worked in color patches
    • 1902-06
    • Cezanne, The Basket of Apples
      • Each form round and solid
      • Sought to represent each shape as if it were a geometric principle
      • Geometric forms determine shapes of apples, bottle, biscuits
      • Studied forms in volumes and solids
      • Breaking down of objects into its basic shapes
    • The Symbolists
      Rousseau, The Sleeping Gypsy
      Displays the characteristics of primitive artists: flat surfaces, minute detail, stiff and frontally posed figures and arbitrary proportions
      Influence of Japanese prints and Persian manuscripts
      Frame inscription: “The feline, though ferocious, is loathe to leap upon its prey, who, overcome by fatigue, lies in a deep sleep”
      Vase for drinking water in the desert
      Play of light on the lion
      Lion is not ferocious, but curious, a cat with its tail up
      Where is gypsy’s left hand?
      Hair of gypsy forms a pattern with the dress
      Cut out moon and landscape
      What is the lion doing in the desert?
      Is the lion the gypsy’s dream?
    • 1897
    • The Symbolists
      Munch, The Scream
      Lengthy brushstrokes
      Linear pattern of diagonal movement
      Straight and curving patterns
      Exaggerated perspective
      Figure twists like a worm
      Unnerving impression on viewer
      Scream echoed in the composition
      Sexless emasculating figure
      Final painting on a series about love
      Represents a closing scene in a battle between the mind and sex, out of which sex comes through triumphant
    • 1893