Impression Sunrise from the 1874 Impressionist Show
Introduction to PhotographyPre-Photographic Inventions Early PhotographsCamera obscura Daguerreotype• A box (in earlier times a room) • A unique item of very high clarity with a hole and a lens at one end • Has a mirror surface• An image is projected onto the • Three-dimensional effects are opposite end striking• The image is traceable with pen • Highly vulnerable to physical and paper damage and scratchingPhotogram • Placed in an individualized frame• A flat object is placed on photo- with a top sensitive paper • Very expensive procedure• The paper is exposed to light and a • No negatives silhouette is rendered Calotype • Makes a positive and a negative image • Negatives were not clear • Has a grainy texture
Questions about the Nature of Photography• Photography has become accepted as a fact. How can we question the facts that photographs present?• How can the vantage point change our impression of a subject in a photograph?• How is time the subject of all photographs?• Is photography a mirror of the world, or a window onto the world?
Louis Daguerre• 1787 – 1851• Produced his first photo in 1939• Inventor of the Daguerreotype• This used a copper plate with a finely polished silver layer on its surface. It was made light-sensitive by reaction with iodine (and later bromine) vapour which produced a coating of silver iodide. Following an exposure - perhaps 10 minutes using a camera in bright sunlight - the almost invisible image was made visible by suspending the plate above a heated mercury bath. The mercury did not alter the silver iodide, but where an image had been formed this consisted of small particles of silver. This combined with the mercury to form a light gray silver amalgam in the lighter parts of the image. The darker parts of the scene were unchanged silver iodide and this was dissolved using a strong salt (sodium chloride) solution, revealing the polished silver surface. Later hypo (sodium thiosulphate) was found to be better for this fixing process.
Early Photography Daguerre, Still Life in a Studio • First photographs imitate painted still lives • Long shutter speeds meant that inanimate objects were a natural choice • Variety of textures in this photography to reveal its capabilities” cloth, flask, sculpted cherub heads, framed painting, relief sculpture, etc. • Reference to the vanitas of Dutch still life painting
Ever open to new ideas and discoveries, Nadar wasthe first in France to make photographsunderground with artificial light and the first tophotograph Paris from the basket of an ascendantballoon. Even though a proponent of heavier-than-air traveling devices, he financed the constructionof Le Giant, a balloon that met with an unfortunateaccident on its second trip. Nonetheless, he wasinstrumental in setting up the balloon postal servicethat made it possible for the French government tocommunicate with those in Paris during theGerman blockade in the Franco-Prussian War of1870.Ruined financially by this brief but devastatingconflict, Nadar continued to write andphotograph, running an establishment with his sonPaul that turned out slick commercial work.Always a rebel, at one point he lent the photostudio to a group of painters who wished to bypassthe Salon in order to exhibit their work, thusmaking possible the first exhibition of theImpressionists in April, 1874. Although he was tooperate still another studio in Marseilles during the1880s and 90s Nadars last photographic idea ofsignificance was a series of exposures made by hisson in 1886 as he interviewed chemist EugeneChevreul on his 100th birthday, thusforeshadowing the direction that picture journalismwas to take. During his last years he continued tothink of himself as "a daredevil, always on thelookout for currents to swim against." At hisdeath, just before the age of ninety, he had outlivedall those he had satirized in the famousPantheon, which had started him in photography Nadar
•Portrait photography becomes popular with shorter shutter speeds •Deeper richer black and white tones in more modern photography •Figures still had to hold a pose for a long time •Stern, severe, commanding presence •Artistic genius at the summit of his career •Autocratic lookingManet Delacroix
Muybridge, HorseGalloping•Muybridge settled adebate about whether ornot a horse, in fullgallop, would naturallyhave all four hoofs off theground at the same time•Successive camera shotsat paced intervals revealedthe answer•Multiple-camera motionstudies with azoopraxiscope•The transitional figurebetween still photographyand motion pictures 1878
Pre-Raphaelites• The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood • The Brotherhoods early doctrines (also known as the Pre- were expressed in four Raphaelites) was a group of declarations: English painters, poets and 1. To have genuine ideas to express; critics, founded in 1848 by John 2. To study Nature attentively, so as Everret Millais, Dante Gabriel to know how to express them; Rossetti and William Holman 3. To sympathise with what is direct Hunt. and serious and heartfelt in• Against the what they perceived as previous art, to the exclusion of the mechanistic approach to art what is conventional and self- parading and learned by rote; from the Mannerists on. Felt raphael’s classical influence to be 4. And, most indispensable of all, to produce thoroughly good pictures bad. and statues.• Often considered the first avant- garde movement in art
Christ In the House of His Parents, John Everett Millais, 1850
The Barbizon School• Name derived from a village in Northern France• Rejected Classical Landscape style and insisted on Direct Observation• Inspired by Constable (Salon of 1824)• Closely allied with Realists, pre-cursors to the Impressionists• Artists included Millet and Courbet as well as Jean- Baptiste-Camille Corot and Theodore Rousseau
Impressionism Timeline• 1863 – Le Dejeuner sur l’herbe • 1870 – Franco-Prussian War & the Salon des Refuses (50 • 1871 – France defeated women artists, 13%)• 100 or more women at the Napolean III unseated, Adolphe official salon yearly Theirs becomes President of the• 1865 – Olympia accepted and Third Republic jeered. American Civil War Kaiser Wilhelm crowned Emperor ends of Germany at Versailles• 1866- Baudelaire dies, Monet at • 1874 – The First “Impressionist the Salon Exhibtion”• 1867 - Maximillian is executed. “Salon of Newcomers” (Renoir, Monet, Pissaro, Degas)
Impressionist Artists of Note• Eduoard Manet• Claude Monet• Berthe Morisot• Auguste Renoir• Camille Pissaro• Edgar Degas• James McNeil Whistler• Mary Cassatt• August Rodin
Eduoard Manet• 1832 – 1883• Considered the Godfather of the Impressionists• Never Showed in an Impressionist Exhibition• Well educated, close friends with Baudelaire and Zola• Achieved both Notoriety and some recognition through the official Salon• Became Friends with Monet and painted some “au plein air”• Influenced other Impressionists through his unique technique
RealismManet, Luncheon on the Grass• A modern response to Giorgione and Raphael• Rejected by the official salon and exhibited in the Salon of the Refuses• Models are obviously posing, no unity of figures and landscape• She is undressed rather than nude• Two men dressed in contemporary clothes contrasts with the nudity of the foreground female• Nude figure directly engages us• Still life very unrealistic• Sketchy broad brushstrokes• Triangular composition• Flattening of perspective
The Judgement of ParisEngraving after Raphael Marcantonio Raimondi c. 1516
Manet, Olympia• Based on Giorgione and Titian• Unashamed of nudity; direct confrontational stare• Absence of modeling• Doubtful morals suggested; prostitute receiving flowers from an admirer• Created a scandal at the Salon of 1865• Black cat: an exclamation point at her feet• Bouquet from a customer• Cold and practical look, no curiosity, no joy• Realistic nude, contemporary setting• Contrast of black and white tones• Black servant caused concern: references to animal behavior and the lower classes
RealismManet, Bar at the Folies-Bergere• Melancholy and absent gaze at customer ordering a drink• Mirrors reflect the world around her• Artificiality of perspective• Strong verticals down center• Impressionist brushwork• Fruit and flowers defined by a few brushstrokes• Is the woman in the back a reflection of the main figure in a mirror?
Influence of Japanese prints 1867 Exposition Universelle in Paris introduced Japanese culture to Europe. European artists were inspired by the following characteristics of Japanese woodblock prints:• 1 Flat quality that lacked perspective• 2 Flat areas of color• 3 Odd angles of composition• 4 Curving lines• 5 Charm, without sentimentality• 6 Lack of shadow
Hokusai is generally more appreciated in the West than in Japan. His prints, as well as those by other Japaneseprintmakers, were imported to Paris in the mid-19th century. They were enthusiastically collected, especially bysuch impressionist artists as Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, whose work wasprofoundly influenced by them
Sanno Festival Procession at Kojimachi I-chome 1857 (130 Kb); From "One Hundred Famous Views of Edo"; Woodblock print, 13 1/4 x 8 5/8 in; The Brooklyn MuseumHiroshige (1797-1858), Japanesepainter and printmaker, known especially for hislandscape prints. The last great figure of the Ukiyo-e, orpopular, school of printmaking, he transmuted everydaylandscapes into intimate, lyrical scenes that made himeven more successful than his contemporary, Hokusai.
Ushimachi, Takanawa1857 (130 Kb); From "One HundredFamous Views of Edo"; Woodblock print,13 1/4 x 8 5/8 in; The Brooklyn Museum
Claude Monet• 1840 - 1926• The archetypal Impressionist• Interested in in the transient nature of light and effects of color• Spent time in England with Pissaroduring Franco- Prussian War and studied Constable and Turner
Impression Sunrise from the 1874 Impressionist Show
Monet, Impression: Sunrise•Painting inadvertently founded the name ofImpressionism•Form and substance vanish•Light transforms objects and surfaces into atmosphericspaces•Color was not the property of an object, but the lightcontrols color intensity•Color affected by time or day and movement of the sun•Monet worked outdoors, plein-air
Monet, Rouen Cathedral•One of Monet’s paintings in a series•Cf. Muybridge•Fixed composition and view in most ofthe series•Subtle gradations of tone and color•Limited palette, subtle handling of paint•Gothic cathedral, religious and culturalsignificance•Stone work of cathedral dissolves in light
Berthe Morisot• 1841-1895• First Woman to Join the Impressionist Painters• Friend and Model for Manetwho influenced her highly
Morisot, Villa at the Seaside•Shaded verandah at a summer resort•Figures are informally grouped•Private balcony•Discreetly fashionably dressedwomen•Woman sits elegantly covered toavoid a tan•Brisk broad brushstrokes•Women neither spectacles nor onparade•Plein-air