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  • GOTHIC VAULTS MYSTERY: The vaults of Gothic’s cathedral have subliminal symbolism. Nobody will get into a Gothic cathedral seeing the temple as before. (COPY / PASTE) :
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  • Fantastic work and thanks for sharing..... I love the Past !
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    Gothic08post Gothic08post Presentation Transcript

    • Gothic
    • Notre Dame, Paris vs. St. Sernin, Toulousse
    • Gothic Cathedrals vs. Romanesque
      Taller, more open structures
      High use of stained glass windows
      Rose Windows
      Smaller Transepts
      Use of Flying Buttresses vs. Salient Buttresses
      Much more decoration in terms of façade sculpture
      Use of the Pointed Arch
    • The Abbey of Saint-Denis
      About four miles north of Paris lies the Abbey of Saint-Denis. Originally founded in 630 by King Dagobert, it sits at the site of Saint Denis' martyrdom. The abbey underwent a reconstruction in the 12th century under Abbot Suger and became one of the earliest instances of Gothic architecture.The church grew in fame. Joan of Arc blessed her weapons here, and many French rulers and aristocrats were buried in its crypt, including Louis XII, Catherine de Medicis, Louis XVI, and Marie Antoinette. During the French Revolution, many royal tombs were desecrated and many sacred objects were lost. And in the years following, the church fell further into disrepair. It was, however, repaired under the rule of Napoleon.Among its treasures are a number of elaborate 12th Century stained-glass windows, carved tombs, mosaics, and the French Regalia, which were objects used during the coronation of French kings.
    • “a circular string of chapels by virtue of which the whole {church} would shine with the wonderful and uninterrupted light of most luminous windows, pervading the interior beauty”
      exterior buttresses of St. Denis
      right: plan of choir of St. Denis.
    • Important Dates
      1054 - Great Schism (East & West)
      1095 – First Crusade ordered by Pope Urban II
      1309 – 1378 – The Avignon Papacy (7 popes starting with Clement V)
      1337 - Hundred Years War (Valois and Plantangenents)
      1348 – The Black Death
    • “Gothic” Art
      "Then arose new architects who after the manner of their barbarous nations erected buildings in that style which we call Gothic (deiGotthi)." Florentine historiographer Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574)
      a transcendent experience of architecture is reinforced by the rich stained glass windows
      The shimmering, colored light called to mind the heavenly Jerusalem described in the Book of Revelations (the Apocalypse) as a city of gold and precious stones.
    • “the holy city, new Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven…having the glory of God, and her light like a most precious stone, even like a jasper clear as crystal…and the city was pure gold, like clear glass…whose foundations were garnished with all manner of gems: jasper, sapphire, chalcedony, emerald, sardonyx, sardius, chrysolite, beryl, topaz, chrysoprase, jacinth, amethyst…” – Abbott Suger
    • These are flying buttresses from Saint Denis. They are located on both the north and south sides of the church as well as around the east side connecting to the chevet. They were added on during the massive reconstruction of the church in the 12th century because a greater system of support was needed. The walls were made taller and without these flying buttresses they would have most likely fallen down. Flying buttresses work to support the walls by capturing the thrust from the inside walls, which travels through these buttresses' arms and then down the stationary buttresses that they are attached to. The thrust then reaches the base of these stationary buttresses, supporting the whole structure. Flying buttresses are common on most Gothic churches like Notre Dame and Chartres because the structures were made so large and tall and they needed extra support to hold them up. Flying buttresses were not necessary at the Carolingian Saint Denis because the structure was smaller and did not need much support. After the reconstruction the extra support was essential.
      St. Denis
    • This is the central nave of the Abbey Church of Saint Denis. This is yet another part of the church that was reconstructed in the beginning of the Gothic era, although not under the supervision of Abbot Suger who died before it was rebuilt. This part of the church is based on the foundation of the Carolingian church, which is buried beneath the ornate decorations of the Gothic influence. You can see in the picture above why the flying buttresses are needed: the walls of the nave are very high. There is a man sitting in one of the chairs, which allows you to see how large this structure is in relation to a person.The nave ceiling is vaulted with pentapartite groin vaults, that is, they are divided into four sections by two diagonal ribs and every other alternating vault is a single pointed arch (see picture below). The ribbed vaulting is similar to that found in cathedrals such as Durham. This type of vaulting system was quite popular in the Gothic period.
    • As you walk through the nave to the east end of the church, you come to the transept, which is the horizontal area that intersects with the nave. This particular transept is stubby; its arms are shorter than most other transepts. Most of the transepts from the Gothic time period are shorter than those from the Romanesque era. Cathedrals such as Amiens and Reims have transepts with arms similar in length to that at Saint Denis. One thing that is unique about the transept at Saint Denis is that it is the mausoleum for all of the kings and queens of France. If you go to either the north or south sides of the transept at Saint Denis you can see the tombs of the many kings and queens that are here.
    • This is an example of one of the effigy figures from Saint Denis. This particular king is Phillipe IV Le Bel who died in 1314. These figures are carved to resemble the actual person who died. Although tomb figures can be found throughout the world from many time periods those at Saint Denis are unique because they are of all of the kings and queens of France. No other French cathedral has a display of royal effigy figures like that here at Saint Denis.
    • Gothic Architecture
      Saint Denis, Saint Denis
      First Gothic building
      Inspired by patron, Abbot Suger
      Gets away from the sense of wall, opens up spaces in the ambulatory
      Spatial unity, spaces in apse flow one into the other: key to the understanding of the Gothic style
      Minimize mass and weight
      Small scale of building, it appears larger than it is
      Coming together of rib vaults, pointed arches, clustered linear accents, increased spatial flow
      Maximizing use of stained glass
    • Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Glass
      Incarnation window (Life of Christ) c. 1134
      Adoration of the Magi 1150
    • Gothic Stained Glass Windows
      Intricate pieces of colored glass joined bylead caning
      Illustrated biblical stories, Saint’s lives, and occasionally contemporary scenes of workers
      Jewel like colors and brilliance
      Painted surfaces
      Later Gothic windows allow more clarity and light into cathedral through lighter colors
    • Chartres
      Notre Dame
    • Laon Cathedral began around 1160, on the site of an ancient basilica that had burned down in 1111 during an insurrection. The new cathedral was completed in 1230.
      an irresistible upward pull symbolic of the Christian hope of leaving the terrestrial world for a heavenly realm
    • Gothic Architecture
      Notre Dame, Paris
      Ground floor: portal sculpture
      Second floor: King’s gallery of 28 kings of the Old Testament
      Third floor: Rose window for stained glass
      Fourth floor: Grand gallery for hanging of bells
      Fifth floor: bell towers
      Gargoyles a 19th century addition, not original to the building
    • west façade of
      Chartres Cathedral
      , c. 1134-1220,
      France (Gothic).
    • North Transept, left side
      West Entrance
    • Melchizedek, Abraham with Isaac, Moses, Samuel, and David
    • Jamb figures of Confessors with St. Theodore on the right. South Transept of Chartres Cathedral.
    • Gothic Sculpture
      Royal Portals, Chartres Cathedral
      Dominant columnar shape of jamb figures
      Robes almost hypnotic in concentric concentration, no nervous excitement as in Romanesque
      Far more rounded in volume than Romanesque, more 3d
      Rippling sense of surface
      Heads: serene, slightly heavy eyes, benevolent
      Salvation stressed rather than the terror of judgment as in Romanesque
      Bands of pockets of light and shadow
      Each piece of stone is united with column behind
      Jamb statues stand attached to wall, but also in front of it
      Greater than life size
      Hanging long robes
      Architecture dominates
      Christ in tympanum: tranquil ease, delicate, strong
    • Reims Cathedral
    • Chartres
    • Gothic Sculpture
      Visitation, Reims Cathedral
      Classical look, i.e. Greek contrapposto imitated
      Heads look like ancient Roman portraits
      Figures start to converse through gesture and expression
      Emerge more from the wall
    • Virgin of Paris
      • Worldly queen, royal garments
      • Gem-encrusted crown
      • Free-standing work
      • Christ richly attired, infant prince
      • Body hard to read behind drapery
      Notre Dame, Paris 13th century
    • Dormition of the Virgin, Strasbourg Cathedral, 1240
    • Gothic Sculpture
      Ekkehard and Uta
      Stately, quiet, regal
      Almost portrait statues
      Attached to wall behind
      Ekkehard: blunt, heavy-set, pouting, hand on sword as protector of the family
      Uta: graceful, aloof, gown is so long that she must pick it up to walk
      Body revealed beneath clothes
      Naumburg Cathedral, 13th century
    • St. Maurice, 1240 – 50
      Egyptian commender of Christian troops in Roman Army in late 3rd century.
    • Salisbury Cathedral, 1220 – 58
      And nave view
    • Salisbury vs. Chartres
    • Gothic Architecture outside France
      Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury
      English Gothic buildings: located in a park called a close
      Façade does not correspond to interior
      Sculpture covers façade
      Small towers
      Small portals
      Emphasis on central tower
      Buttresses subdued
      Horizontal look of interior
      Two transepts
      Larger apse
      Excessive length of nave
      English favor walls that meet at right angles
    • Gothic Architecture outside France
      Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster Abbey, London
      Culmination of English Perpendicular style
      More vertical than Salisbury
      Architectural embroidery
      Fan vaults hang like stalactites
      Lierne vaulting
    • Saint Elizabeth, Marburg
      • Without a use of a parade of flying buttresses
      • Double rows of tall windows
      • More unified and free-flowing
      • Hall church format: nave and side aisles same height, unified space interior
      • Exterior unified and compact
    • Gothic Architecture outside France
      Milan Cathedral, Milan, 1386
      Spacious hall church
      Reduced clerestory level
      Small flying buttresses
      Italian characteristic of unusual width of cathedrals
      Renaissance pediments
      Heavily decorated exterior
      Classical elements of the Renaissance added to façade
      Extremely protracted construction period
    • The Cathedral Pulpit is Giovanni Pisano's masterpiece, and was built between 1302 and 1311. The beautifully sculpted panels represent scenes from the life of Jesus.The Baptistery Pulpit was built in 1260 by Nicola Pisano. It is hexagonal in shape and the six sculpted panels depict the life and death of Christ.
      Note the trefoil Gothic Arches, Corinthian capitalscrouching lions and eagle book rest
      Nicola Pisano
      Pisa Baptistry
    • Nicola Pisano and Giovanni Pisano
    • CoppodiMarcovaldo. Crucifix, c. 1250