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  1. 1. Gothic<br />Art<br />
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  4. 4. Notre Dame, Paris vs. St. Sernin, Toulousse<br />
  5. 5. Gothic Cathedrals vs. Romanesque<br />Taller, more open structures<br />High use of stained glass windows<br />Rose Windows<br />Smaller Transepts<br />Use of Flying Buttresses vs. Salient Buttresses<br />Much more decoration in terms of façade sculpture<br />Use of the Pointed Arch<br />
  6. 6. The Abbey of Saint-Denis<br />About four miles north of Paris lies the Abbey of Saint-Denis. Originally founded in 630 by King Dagobert, it sits at the site of Saint Denis&apos; martyrdom. The abbey underwent a reconstruction in the 12th century under Abbot Suger and became one of the earliest instances of Gothic architecture.The church grew in fame. Joan of Arc blessed her weapons here, and many French rulers and aristocrats were buried in its crypt, including Louis XII, Catherine de Medicis, Louis XVI, and Marie Antoinette. During the French Revolution, many royal tombs were desecrated and many sacred objects were lost. And in the years following, the church fell further into disrepair. It was, however, repaired under the rule of Napoleon.Among its treasures are a number of elaborate 12th Century stained-glass windows, carved tombs, mosaics, and the French Regalia, which were objects used during the coronation of French kings.<br />
  7. 7. “a circular string of chapels by virtue of which the whole {church} would shine with the wonderful and uninterrupted light of most luminous windows, pervading the interior beauty”<br />exterior buttresses of St. Denis<br /> right: plan of choir of St. Denis.<br />
  8. 8. Important Dates<br />1054 - Great Schism (East & West)<br />1095 – First Crusade ordered by Pope Urban II<br />1309 – 1378 – The Avignon Papacy (7 popes starting with Clement V)<br />1337 - Hundred Years War (Valois and Plantangenents)<br />1348 – The Black Death<br />
  9. 9. “Gothic” Art<br />&quot;Then arose new architects who after the manner of their barbarous nations erected buildings in that style which we call Gothic (deiGotthi).&quot; Florentine historiographer Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574)<br />
  10. 10.<br />a transcendent experience of architecture is reinforced by the rich stained glass windows<br />The shimmering, colored light called to mind the heavenly Jerusalem described in the Book of Revelations (the Apocalypse) as a city of gold and precious stones. <br />
  11. 11. “the holy city, new Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven…having the glory of God, and her light like a most precious stone, even like a jasper clear as crystal…and the city was pure gold, like clear glass…whose foundations were garnished with all manner of gems: jasper, sapphire, chalcedony, emerald, sardonyx, sardius, chrysolite, beryl, topaz, chrysoprase, jacinth, amethyst…” – Abbott Suger<br />
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  13. 13. These are flying buttresses from Saint Denis. They are located on both the north and south sides of the church as well as around the east side connecting to the chevet. They were added on during the massive reconstruction of the church in the 12th century because a greater system of support was needed. The walls were made taller and without these flying buttresses they would have most likely fallen down. Flying buttresses work to support the walls by capturing the thrust from the inside walls, which travels through these buttresses&apos; arms and then down the stationary buttresses that they are attached to. The thrust then reaches the base of these stationary buttresses, supporting the whole structure. Flying buttresses are common on most Gothic churches like Notre Dame and Chartres because the structures were made so large and tall and they needed extra support to hold them up. Flying buttresses were not necessary at the Carolingian Saint Denis because the structure was smaller and did not need much support. After the reconstruction the extra support was essential.<br />St. Denis<br />
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  16. 16. This is the central nave of the Abbey Church of Saint Denis. This is yet another part of the church that was reconstructed in the beginning of the Gothic era, although not under the supervision of Abbot Suger who died before it was rebuilt. This part of the church is based on the foundation of the Carolingian church, which is buried beneath the ornate decorations of the Gothic influence. You can see in the picture above why the flying buttresses are needed: the walls of the nave are very high. There is a man sitting in one of the chairs, which allows you to see how large this structure is in relation to a person.The nave ceiling is vaulted with pentapartite groin vaults, that is, they are divided into four sections by two diagonal ribs and every other alternating vault is a single pointed arch (see picture below). The ribbed vaulting is similar to that found in cathedrals such as Durham. This type of vaulting system was quite popular in the Gothic period.<br />
  17. 17. As you walk through the nave to the east end of the church, you come to the transept, which is the horizontal area that intersects with the nave. This particular transept is stubby; its arms are shorter than most other transepts. Most of the transepts from the Gothic time period are shorter than those from the Romanesque era. Cathedrals such as Amiens and Reims have transepts with arms similar in length to that at Saint Denis. One thing that is unique about the transept at Saint Denis is that it is the mausoleum for all of the kings and queens of France. If you go to either the north or south sides of the transept at Saint Denis you can see the tombs of the many kings and queens that are here.<br />
  18. 18. This is an example of one of the effigy figures from Saint Denis. This particular king is Phillipe IV Le Bel who died in 1314. These figures are carved to resemble the actual person who died. Although tomb figures can be found throughout the world from many time periods those at Saint Denis are unique because they are of all of the kings and queens of France. No other French cathedral has a display of royal effigy figures like that here at Saint Denis.<br />
  19. 19. Gothic Architecture<br />Saint Denis, Saint Denis<br />First Gothic building<br />Inspired by patron, Abbot Suger<br />Gets away from the sense of wall, opens up spaces in the ambulatory<br />Spatial unity, spaces in apse flow one into the other: key to the understanding of the Gothic style<br />Minimize mass and weight<br />Small scale of building, it appears larger than it is<br />Coming together of rib vaults, pointed arches, clustered linear accents, increased spatial flow<br />Maximizing use of stained glass<br />
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  22. 22. Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Glass<br />Incarnation window (Life of Christ) c. 1134<br />Adoration of the Magi 1150<br />
  23. 23. Gothic Stained Glass Windows<br />Intricate pieces of colored glass joined bylead caning<br />Illustrated biblical stories, Saint’s lives, and occasionally contemporary scenes of workers<br />Jewel like colors and brilliance<br />Painted surfaces<br />Later Gothic windows allow more clarity and light into cathedral through lighter colors<br />
  24. 24. Chartres<br />Notre Dame<br />
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  26. 26. Laon Cathedral began around 1160, on the site of an ancient basilica that had burned down in 1111 during an insurrection. The new cathedral was completed in 1230.<br />
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  28. 28.<br />an irresistible upward pull symbolic of the Christian hope of leaving the terrestrial world for a heavenly realm<br />
  29. 29. Gothic Architecture<br />Notre Dame, Paris<br /> Façade: <br />Ground floor: portal sculpture<br />Second floor: King’s gallery of 28 kings of the Old Testament<br />Third floor: Rose window for stained glass<br />Fourth floor: Grand gallery for hanging of bells<br />Fifth floor: bell towers<br />Gargoyles a 19th century addition, not original to the building<br />
  30. 30. west façade of<br /> Chartres Cathedral<br />, c. 1134-1220, <br />France (Gothic).<br />
  31. 31. North Transept, left side<br />West Entrance<br />
  32. 32. Melchizedek, Abraham with Isaac, Moses, Samuel, and David<br />
  33. 33. Jamb figures of Confessors with St. Theodore on the right. South Transept of Chartres Cathedral.<br />
  34. 34. Gothic Sculpture<br />Royal Portals, Chartres Cathedral<br />Dominant columnar shape of jamb figures<br />Robes almost hypnotic in concentric concentration, no nervous excitement as in Romanesque<br />Far more rounded in volume than Romanesque, more 3d<br />Rippling sense of surface<br />Heads: serene, slightly heavy eyes, benevolent<br />Salvation stressed rather than the terror of judgment as in Romanesque<br />Bands of pockets of light and shadow<br />Each piece of stone is united with column behind<br />Jamb statues stand attached to wall, but also in front of it<br />Greater than life size<br />Hanging long robes<br />Architecture dominates<br />Christ in tympanum: tranquil ease, delicate, strong<br />
  35. 35. Reims Cathedral<br />
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  37. 37. Chartres<br />Reims<br />
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  39. 39. Gothic Sculpture<br />Visitation, Reims Cathedral<br />Classical look, i.e. Greek contrapposto imitated<br />Heads look like ancient Roman portraits<br />Figures start to converse through gesture and expression<br />Emerge more from the wall<br />
  40. 40. Virgin of Paris<br /><ul><li>Worldly queen, royal garments
  41. 41. Gem-encrusted crown
  42. 42. Free-standing work
  43. 43. Christ richly attired, infant prince
  44. 44. Body hard to read behind drapery</li></ul>Notre Dame, Paris 13th century<br />
  45. 45. Dormition of the Virgin, Strasbourg Cathedral, 1240<br />
  46. 46. Gothic Sculpture<br />Ekkehard and Uta<br />Stately, quiet, regal<br />Almost portrait statues<br />Attached to wall behind<br />Ekkehard: blunt, heavy-set, pouting, hand on sword as protector of the family<br />Uta: graceful, aloof, gown is so long that she must pick it up to walk<br />Body revealed beneath clothes<br />Naumburg Cathedral, 13th century<br />
  47. 47. St. Maurice, 1240 – 50<br />Egyptian commender of Christian troops in Roman Army in late 3rd century.<br />
  48. 48. Salisbury Cathedral, 1220 – 58<br />And nave view<br />
  49. 49. Salisbury vs. Chartres<br />
  50. 50. Gothic Architecture outside France<br />Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury <br />English Gothic buildings: located in a park called a close<br />Façade does not correspond to interior<br />Sculpture covers façade<br />Small towers<br />Small portals<br />Emphasis on central tower<br />Buttresses subdued<br />Horizontal look of interior<br />Two transepts<br />Larger apse<br />Excessive length of nave<br />English favor walls that meet at right angles<br />
  51. 51. Gothic Architecture outside France<br />Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster Abbey, London<br />Culmination of English Perpendicular style<br />More vertical than Salisbury<br />Architectural embroidery<br />Fan vaults hang like stalactites<br />Lierne vaulting<br />
  52. 52. Saint Elizabeth, Marburg<br /><ul><li>Without a use of a parade of flying buttresses
  53. 53. Double rows of tall windows
  54. 54. More unified and free-flowing
  55. 55. Hall church format: nave and side aisles same height, unified space interior
  56. 56. Exterior unified and compact</li></li></ul><li>Gothic Architecture outside France<br />Milan Cathedral, Milan, 1386<br />Spacious hall church<br />Reduced clerestory level<br />Small flying buttresses<br />Italian characteristic of unusual width of cathedrals<br />Renaissance pediments<br />Heavily decorated exterior<br />Classical elements of the Renaissance added to façade<br />Extremely protracted construction period<br />
  57. 57. The Cathedral Pulpit is Giovanni Pisano&apos;s masterpiece, and was built between 1302 and 1311. The beautifully sculpted panels represent scenes from the life of Jesus.The Baptistery Pulpit was built in 1260 by Nicola Pisano. It is hexagonal in shape and the six sculpted panels depict the life and death of Christ.<br />Note the trefoil Gothic Arches, Corinthian capitalscrouching lions and eagle book rest<br />Nicola Pisano<br />Pisa Baptistry<br />
  58. 58. Nicola Pisano and Giovanni Pisano<br />
  59. 59. CoppodiMarcovaldo. Crucifix, c. 1250<br />