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Early20thpost 1

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  • 1. 1901 Pablo Picasso Self-Portrait 1901
  • 2. <ul><li>Kandinsky, Improvisation 28 </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of the “Blue Rider” school of German Expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Representative elements of art eliminated: birth of abstract art </li></ul><ul><li>Subconscious sensations in art </li></ul><ul><li>Titles inspired by musical compositions </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant black lines broadly play horizontally, vertically, diagonally </li></ul><ul><li>Lines define space, color added at intervals around lines </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>Kirchner, Street, Dresden </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of “The Bridge” a German Expressionist movement that saw itself as a bridge between traditional and modern art </li></ul><ul><li>Jarring and dissonant colors and shapes, clashing colors </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontational art </li></ul><ul><li>Ghoulish figures, seemingly fashionably dressed but in reality they appear threatening </li></ul><ul><li>Tilted perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Bright pink street offset by darker sinister figures </li></ul><ul><li>Paint thickly applied in broad brushstrokes </li></ul>
  • 4. 1906 'Rouault was a deeply religious man, considered by some to be the greatest religious artist of the 20th century. The terrible compassion with which he shows his wretched creatures makes a powerful impression. A savage indictment of human cruelty; she is a travesty of femininity although poverty drives her still to prance miserably before her mirror in hope of work. Yet the picture does not depress but holds out hope of redemption. This work is for Rouault a profoundly moral one. She is a sad female version of his tortured Christ, a figure mocked and scorned, held in disrepute.' From: D Solle, Great Women of the Bible in Art and Literature (Eerdmans 1994)
  • 5. &quot;Then came the awesome Les Demoiselles d'Avignon of 1907, the shaker of the art world (Museum of Modern Art, New York). Picasso was a little afraid of the painting and didn't show it except to a small circle of friends until 1916, long after he had completed his early Cubist pictures. Cubism is essentially the fragmenting of three-dimensional forms into flat areas of pattern and color, overlapping and intertwining so that shapes and parts of the human anatomy are seen from the front and back at the same time. The style was created by Picasso in tandem with his great friend Georges Braque , and at times, the works were so alike it was hard for each artist quickly to identify their own. The two were so close for several years that Picasso took to calling Braque, &quot;ma femme&quot; or &quot;my wife,&quot; described the relationship as one of two mountaineers roped together, and in some correspondence they refer to each other as &quot;Orville and Wilbur&quot; for they knew how profound their invention of Cubism was.
  • 6. <ul><li>Picasso, Gertrude Stein 1906 </li></ul><ul><li>Famed patron of the arts in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Said to have posed 80 times for the painting </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of ancient sculpture, African abstraction, Cézanne </li></ul><ul><li>Beginnings of Cubism seen in the angularity of the image </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy-lidded eyes, mask-like face </li></ul><ul><li>Head painted separately and not from life. Picasso was asked it if looked like Stein. He responded, “It will.” </li></ul>
  • 7. &quot;Then came the awesome Les Demoiselles d'Avignon of 1907, the shaker of the art world (Museum of Modern Art, New York). Picasso was a little afraid of the painting and didn't show it except to a small circle of friends until 1916, long after he had completed his early Cubist pictures. Cubism is essentially the fragmenting of three-dimensional forms into flat areas of pattern and color, overlapping and intertwining so that shapes and parts of the human anatomy are seen from the front and back at the same time. The style was created by Picasso in tandem with his great friend Georges Braque , and at times, the works were so alike it was hard for each artist quickly to identify their own. The two were so close for several years that Picasso took to calling Braque, &quot;ma femme&quot; or &quot;my wife,&quot; described the relationship as one of two mountaineers roped together, and in some correspondence they refer to each other as &quot;Orville and Wilbur&quot; for they knew how profound their invention of Cubism was.
  • 8. <ul><li>Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon </li></ul><ul><li>First cubist painting </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily influenced by Cézanne, African art </li></ul><ul><li>Five prostitutes from Avignon Street in Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>No movement, an indication that one is standing in a doorframe, one is seated near a table with a still life </li></ul><ul><li>Most are posing for customers in a living room </li></ul><ul><li>Three on left: more conservative; other two: more radical, reflects the split in Picasso </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple views of each person, all seen at the same time: face seen from side, below, frontally, all from different perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Angular wedges act like facets </li></ul><ul><li>Shaded for three-dimensionality </li></ul>
  • 9. Georges Braque, Piano and Mandola (Piano et mandore), winter 1909–10 Picasso, Accordionist, 1909-1910
  • 10. <ul><li>Braque, The Portuguese, 1911 </li></ul><ul><li>Each object has a fragment of surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneously juxtapose different aspects under various angles </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform harmony of color: shadings of monochromatic tones </li></ul><ul><li>Man holding a guitar, elements of the composition have to be reconstructed </li></ul><ul><li>Cubist interest in using letters and numbers which add and detract from “the meaning” of the work </li></ul><ul><li>Painting seems to ask you to decode it, but resists a firm conclusion </li></ul>
  • 11. 1910 1911
  • 12. <ul><li>Braque, Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass, 1913 </li></ul><ul><li>A collage: strips of paper roughly and oddly cut </li></ul><ul><li>Charcoal drawing beneath the paper </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the paper is newspaper with printed words to entice interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Some papers have the charcoal drawing continued into their surface </li></ul><ul><li>The pipe is not drawn, but cut out of brown paper </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>Picasso, Guernica </li></ul><ul><li>Painted for the Spanish Pavilion of the 1937 Paris World’s Fair </li></ul><ul><li>Picasso rarely concerned with politics in his art </li></ul><ul><li>Guernica bombed 26 April 1937 during the Spanish Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Town of 7000 with no military infrastructure, 70% of town destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>News shocked the world </li></ul><ul><li>Bull: Minotaur, symbol of violence; blood of the bull symbolic of sacrifice; bull symbolic of Spain herself </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Grünewald </li></ul><ul><li>Gaping mouth, bared teeth, tongue sticking out </li></ul><ul><li>Dagger like forms </li></ul><ul><li>Pietà: stigmata on the Child, ladder of the crucifixion behind </li></ul><ul><li>Horse: seems to have newsprint on it </li></ul><ul><li>Horse is a pyramid shape within an overall pyramid composition </li></ul><ul><li>Fallen soldier with broken sword indicates futility of war </li></ul><ul><li>Done in black and white to simulate news photo or newspaper print </li></ul><ul><li>Largest painting he ever did </li></ul>
  • 14. 1937 The Spanish struggle is the fight of reaction against the people, against freedom. My whole life as an artist has been nothing more than a continuous struggle against reaction and the death of art. How could anybody think for a moment that I could be in agreement with reaction and death? When the rebellion began, the legally elected and democratic republican government of Spain appointed me director of the Prado Museum, a post which I immediately accepted. In the panel on which I am working which I shall call Guernica , and in all my recent works of art, I clearly express my abhorrence of the military caste which has sunk Spain in an ocean of pain and death...
  • 15. Futurism <ul><li>Begun in 1909 in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>An interpretation of Cubism </li></ul><ul><li>Saw artistic heritage of Italy as a strangulation of contemporary art </li></ul><ul><li>Glorified machines, action, adventure, World War </li></ul>
  • 16. Duchamp, 1912
  • 17.  
  • 18. Boccioni, 1913 Unique Forms of Continuity in Space <ul><li>Boccioni, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space </li></ul><ul><li>“ Break open the figure and enclose it in its environment” </li></ul><ul><li>Figure appears to disappear behind a blur of movement </li></ul><ul><li>Figure dynamically walking in space </li></ul><ul><li>cf. Nike of Samothrace </li></ul>
  • 19. Futurists <ul><li>Machine Romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-pacifist (stultification of society) </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Forms of Continuity </li></ul>
  • 20. De Stijl <ul><li>The Style, begun in 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural outgrowth of Cubism to its most analytical </li></ul><ul><li>Piet Mondrian (1872 – 1944) </li></ul><ul><li>Renounced all representation in paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated on a severely limited palette and series of shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Primary colors: red, yellow and blue </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrals: black, white, grey </li></ul><ul><li>All forms at right angles </li></ul><ul><li>Balance of composition </li></ul>
  • 21. Mondrian imposed rigorous constraints on himself, using only primary colors, black and white, and straight-sided forms. His theories and his art are a triumphant vindication of austerity. Diamond Painting in Red, Yellow, and Blue (c. 1921-25; 143 x 142 cm (56 1/4 x 56 in)) appears to be devoid of three-dimensional space, but it is in fact an immensely dynamic picture. The great shapes are dense with their chromatic tension. The varying thicknesses of the black borders contain them in perfect balance. They integrate themselves continually as we watch, keeping us constantly interested. We sense that this is a vision of the way things are intended to be, but never are.
  • 22. Composition No. 10 1939-42
  • 23. The Schroder House, Utrecht Gerrit Rietveld architect, at Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1924 to 1925
  • 24. De Stijl <ul><li>Rietveld, Schroder House, Utrecht, Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural interpretation of a DeStijl painting </li></ul><ul><li>Colors in conformity with DeStijl paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Private rooms on bottom floor </li></ul><ul><li>Living room upstairs </li></ul><ul><li>Designed with sliding partitions to open or close space </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting free-floating interior </li></ul><ul><li>Large flat areas of space define exterior </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical flat columns of color break up exterior white spaces </li></ul>
  • 25. <ul><li>Malevich, Suprematist Composition: Airplane Flying, 1915 </li></ul><ul><li>Suprematism </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with pure form </li></ul><ul><li>Very early example of the artist’s work, discarding figuration </li></ul><ul><li>Non-objective reality </li></ul><ul><li>“ The supremacy of pure feeling” </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric patterns dominate on a white ground </li></ul><ul><li>Universal accessibility of abstract art </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement of geometric planes suggests airplane movement </li></ul>Modern Russian Art                                              
  • 26. <ul><li>Naum Gabo, Column 1920 -21 </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Used synthetic materials: glass, plastic, metal </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Forgoes traditional sculpture: stone or bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Opens up column’s structure, see into interior </li></ul><ul><li>Viewer can experience interior of volume of space </li></ul><ul><li>Two intersecting planes rise up through the middle </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical and horizontal elements balanced by circular looping forms </li></ul>
  • 27. <ul><li>Tatlin, Monument to the Third International </li></ul><ul><li>Design principles based on inner behavior and loading capacities of a diverse assemblage of material </li></ul><ul><li>Formal response to Cubism, Futurism </li></ul><ul><li>Experimented with glass, iron, sheet metal, wood </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that non-objective art was the ideal for a new society, free of past symbolism </li></ul><ul><li>Honors the Russian Revolution of 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Huge glass and iron building that would have been world’s largest </li></ul><ul><li>Center of Moscow, propaganda and news center for the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Axis pointed to star Polaris: symbol of universal humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Three geometrically shaped chambers were to rotate around a central axis inside a titled spiral cage </li></ul><ul><li>Each chamber housed a facility for a different kind of government activity </li></ul><ul><li>Each rotated at a different speed </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom: glass structure for lectures and meetings, rotated once a year </li></ul><ul><li>Middle: room intended for administrative needs, rotated monthly </li></ul><ul><li>Top: information center rotated daily </li></ul><ul><li>Existed only as a metal and wooden model, now lost or destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks a main façade; seems to burrow into the earth </li></ul>
  • 28. Vladimir Tatlin, Monument to the Third International, 1919-20
  • 29. <ul><li>Malevich, Suprematist Composition: Airplane Flying, 1915 </li></ul><ul><li>Suprematism </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with pure form </li></ul><ul><li>Very early example of the artist’s work, discarding figuration </li></ul><ul><li>Non-objective reality </li></ul><ul><li>“ The supremacy of pure feeling” </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric patterns dominate on a white ground </li></ul><ul><li>Universal accessibility of abstract art </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement of geometric planes suggests airplane movement </li></ul>Modern Russian Art                                              
  • 30. Malevich 1918 White paintings
  • 31. Kasimir Malevich, White Cross
  • 32.  
  • 33. Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism
  • 34. Ready mades
  • 35. Untitled (Medici Boy) 1942-52 Grand Hotel Semiramis 1950
  • 36. Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram, 1955-59 Robert Rauschenberg, Bed, 1955
  • 37. Dada <ul><li>Movement begins in 1916 in Zurich </li></ul><ul><li>Dada means hobbyhorse(? Maybe) </li></ul><ul><li>Movement essentially merges into Surrealism by 1924 </li></ul><ul><li>Marcel Duchamp, Fountain </li></ul><ul><li>A ready-made </li></ul><ul><li>American Society of Independent Artists sponsored a show that any artist who paid $6 could enter; the show was without a panel of experts; Fountain was refused </li></ul><ul><li>A fixture from the JL Mott Iron Works company, signed it R Mutt </li></ul><ul><li>Humorous reference to comic strip Mutt and Jeff </li></ul><ul><li>Art is not in the artist’s creation, but in his selection of an object as a work of art </li></ul><ul><li>Ironic title: few women would have known what this was or had seen it before </li></ul>
  • 38. Marcel Duchamp “ Fountain”, 1917
  • 39. Dada <ul><li>Duchamp, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even </li></ul><ul><li>Diptych, but one panel is placed above the other </li></ul><ul><li>Females and males separated </li></ul><ul><li>Top: female exhales a gas; three strips of gauze in her sigh reveal this </li></ul><ul><li>She is a motor fueled by a “love gasoline” </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom: nine bachelors below in different costumes; shapes based on forms of uniformed Frenchmen: policemen, bellboys, priest, undertakers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Wheel resembles a chocolate grinder, a symbol of masturbation </li></ul><ul><li>Strip-tease is a spectacle </li></ul><ul><li>Sent to the Brooklyn Museum on exhibit, on the way back the glass panels were shattered. Duchamp glued the pieces together and proclaimed it as complete! </li></ul>
  • 40. Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass) 1915-23
  • 41. Dada <ul><li>Kurt Schwitters, (1887 –1948) </li></ul><ul><li>Merz, 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>Bits of paper pieced together from garbage Schwitters found </li></ul><ul><li>Found objects collaged together </li></ul><ul><li>Signed and dates as if it were a conventional painting </li></ul>
  • 42. Hannah Hoch, Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada through Germany’s Last Wiemar Beer Belly Cultural Epoch , 1919
  • 43. The Armory Show <ul><li>Armory Show of 1913 introduced European modern art to an American audience </li></ul><ul><li>Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase </li></ul><ul><li>Stieglitz established a gallery to showcase photography as an art form, and bring to America avant-garde European artists </li></ul><ul><li>Cubist painting, Futurist inspired </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous painting of the Armory Show, a succès de scandale </li></ul><ul><li>Earth tones </li></ul><ul><li>Person seen in profile descending stairs </li></ul><ul><li>Stairs more realistically rendered than the figure </li></ul><ul><li>Figure not recognizably nude </li></ul>
  • 44.  
  • 45. Surrealism <ul><li>Breton proposes the unification of the subconscious with the conscious </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to be a total liberation of the mind </li></ul><ul><li>2 basic avenues of interpretation:Realistic objects (Dali, Magritte) and the so-called automatic surrealists who abstracted the real (Arp, Miro) </li></ul><ul><li>Imagery of dreams influenced by psychology, esp. Freud. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis in literature on automatic writing </li></ul>
  • 46. Nostalgia of the Infinite, 1913-14 Giorgio De Chirico (1888-1978) &quot;De Chirico is often said to have used Renaissance space in his pictures, but as Rubin points out, this is a myth. De Chirican perspective was not meant to set the viewer in a secure, measurable space. It was a means of distorting the view and disquieting the eye. Instead of one vanishing point in his architectonic masterpiece, The Melancholy of Departure , 1914 there are six, none &quot;correct.&quot; This cloning of viewpoints acts in a way analogous to Cubism. It jams the sense of illusionary depth and delivers the surface to the rule of the flat shape, which was the quintessential modernist strategy. In color, in tonal structure and in its contradictory lighting, Rubin argues, de Chirico's style up to 1918 &quot;was as alien to its supposed classical, fifteenth-century models as it was dependent on the Parisian painting of its own moment.&quot;
  • 47. Mystery and Melancholy of a Street
  • 48. Song of Love, 1914
  • 49. Andre Breton, 1896 - 1966 Breton joined first in 1916 the Dadaist group, but after various quarrels continued his march forward: &quot; Leave everything. Leave Dada. Leave your wife. Leave your mistress. Leave your hopes and fears. Leave your children in the woods. Leave the substance for the shadow. Leave your easy life, leave what you are given for the future. Set off on the road.&quot; He turned then to Surrealism and cofounded with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault the review Littérature . Very important for his literary work were his wartime meetings with Apollinaire. His MANIFESTE DU SURRÉALISME was published in 1924. Influenced by psychological theories, Breton defined Surrealism as &quot; pure psychic automatism, by which an attempt is made to express, either verbally, in writing or in any other manner, the true functioning of thought. The dictation of thought, in the absence of all control by reason, excluding any aesthetic or moral preoccupation.&quot; In the Second Manifesto Breton stated that the surrealists strive to attain a &quot;mental vantage-point (point de l'esprit) from which life and death, the real and the imaginary, past and future, communicable and incommunicable, high and low, will no longer be perceived as contradictions .“ Breton and his colleagues believed that the springs of personal freedom and social liberation lay in the unconscious mind. They found examples from the works of such painters as Hieronymus Bosch and James Ensor and from the writings of Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud, Alfred Jarry - and from the revolutionary thinking of Karl Marx. The Surrealist movement was from the beginning in a constant state of change or conflict, but its major periodicals, La Révolution surréaliste (1924-30) and Le Surréalisme au service de la révolution (1930-33), channeled cooperation and also spread ideas beyond France.
  • 50. Surrealism <ul><li>Surrealism Manifesto appeared in 1924 </li></ul><ul><li>Max Ernst, Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale, 1924 </li></ul><ul><li>Painting and sculpture together </li></ul><ul><li>Nightingale, a harmless bird, frightens two figures, one collapses </li></ul><ul><li>A third is a huddling female form reaching for a three-dimensional bell </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly drawn shapes, but oddly juxtaposed </li></ul><ul><li>Three-dimensional gate could swing closed, but would not enclose two figures </li></ul><ul><li>Strange house-like box with a lever is the stage for a painted figure which reaches for a button </li></ul><ul><li>Button not attached to anything </li></ul>
  • 51. Elephant of the Celebes, 1921
  • 52. Europe After the Rain, 1940-42
  • 53. The Anti-Pope, 1941-42
  • 54. <ul><li>Salvador Dali (1904 – 1989), Persistence of Memory, 1931 </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinatory, illusionistic, mysterious </li></ul><ul><li>Time is unfathomable </li></ul><ul><li>Emptiness, barrenness, uninhabited plane </li></ul><ul><li>Horizon drifts off endlessly </li></ul><ul><li>Irony of the softness of watches, which are supposed to be hard and keep crisp movements </li></ul><ul><li>One watch is covered with bugs in a patterned design </li></ul><ul><li>Bone-like features, maybe Dalí’s caricature </li></ul><ul><li>Hard outline of water and reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Sharply drawn, clear vision of features </li></ul><ul><li>Dead tree, but how could it ever grow on a solid block? </li></ul><ul><li>Titles often add to the confusion, irony, interest and symbolism </li></ul>
  • 55. Soft Construction with Boiled Beans, 1936
  • 56.  
  • 57. Rene Magritte, 1898 - 1867 The fascinating and challenging images in Magritte's works stem from revelations of the mystery of the visible world. To him this world was a more than adequate source of lucid revelations, so that he did not need to draw on dreams, hallucinations, occult phenomena, cabalism. Nonetheless, preconsciousness - that is, the state before and during waking up - always played an important role in his work. <ul><li>Magritte, The Treachery (or Perfidy) of Images </li></ul><ul><li>“ This is not a pipe.” It is a picture of a pipe </li></ul><ul><li>Irony of contrasting images and titles </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly and precisely drawn </li></ul><ul><li>Firm three-dimensionality hovering in space </li></ul>
  • 58.  
  • 59. The Human Condition, 1934
  • 60. The Son of Man, 1964
  • 61. <ul><li>Frida Kahlo (1907-1954), </li></ul><ul><li>Two Fridas </li></ul><ul><li>Twin figures on a low bench </li></ul><ul><li>Barren landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Right: simple Mexican costume of Indian origin </li></ul><ul><li>Left: wedding dress </li></ul><ul><li>Two images express contradictory forces in Mexican feelings toward European and Native American traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of folk art </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed hearts with arteries connect them </li></ul><ul><li>One artery ends in forceps spilling blood on dress, the other artery ends in a portrait of her husband as a child </li></ul>
  • 62. Self portrait, 1926
  • 63. A few small snips, 1935
  • 64. Constellations, 1938 (linocut) Jean Arp (1887-1966)
  • 65. Human Concretion, 1933
  • 66. Joan Miro (1893 – 1983) Reveled in fantasy Biomorphic, carnival like shapes often inhabit his works The Beautiful Bird Revealing the Unknown to a Pair of Lovers (from the Constellation series) . July 23, 1941
  • 67. The Birth of the World 1925
  • 68. Birthday, 1915 I and the Village, 1911 Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Personal mythology with childlike frankness Treasury of Russian Folklore
  • 69. <ul><li>Paul Klee (1879 – 1940) </li></ul><ul><li>Taught at the Bauhaus </li></ul><ul><li>Deeply interested in the art of children </li></ul><ul><li>Combined deceptively simple drawings with sophisticated wit </li></ul>Senecio, 1922
  • 70. Ad Parnassum, 1932
  • 71. Gallery 291 <ul><li>Stieglitz established a gallery to showcase photography as an art form, and bring to America avant-garde European artists </li></ul><ul><li>Stieglitz, Steerage </li></ul><ul><li>Voyage to Europe in 1907, saw steerage passengers allowed out for air </li></ul><ul><li>Moved around the ship to frame the composition </li></ul><ul><li>People unaware of the photographer, acting in a natural way </li></ul><ul><li>Photograph framed by natural horizontals, verticals, and diagonals of mast, stairs, walkways and funnels </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of black, white and grey tones </li></ul>
  • 72. Gallery 291 <ul><li>Georgia O’Keeffe, New York, Night, 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Stieglitz guided her career, exhibited her work at 291, then married her </li></ul><ul><li>Largeness of simple forms </li></ul><ul><li>Looming monolithic presence </li></ul><ul><li>Energy of lights of city </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Cubism in shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Flatness and tilted perspective </li></ul>
  • 73. Alfred Steiglitz, 1907
  • 74. Georgia O'Keeffe , 1921 Georgia O'Keeffe , 1918
  • 75. East River from the Thirtieth Story of the Shelton Hotel, 1928
  • 76. Georgia O'Keeffe on the Portal, Ghost Ranch 1964
  • 77. Red, White, and Blue , 1931
  • 78. Black Cross, New Mexico, 1929 &quot;I saw the crosses so often — and often in unexpected places — like a thin dark veil of the Catholic church spread over the New Mexico landscape,&quot; said Georgia O’Keeffe of the Southwestern territory near Taos , where she would eventually settle. A member of the circle of avant-garde artists who exhibited at Alfred Stieglitz’s New York gallery, 291, O’Keeffe married Stieglitz in 1924. She made her first visit to New Mexico in 1929. During late-night walks in the desert, she encountered mysterious crosses, one of which she transformed in Black Cross, New Mexico. These sacred monuments were probably erected near remote chapels (moradas) by secret Catholic lay brotherhoods called Penitentes.
  • 79. Red Canna c. 1923
  • 80. Jack-in-the-Pulpit No. IV , 1930 Jack-in-the-Pulpit No. VI , 1930
  • 81. The Depression <ul><li>Lange, Migrant Mother </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by the US Government to photograph the Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Came upon a deserted campground with a mother and her children living on frozen peas and dead birds </li></ul><ul><li>Two children turn away so we can concentrate on the mother’s face </li></ul><ul><li>Infant wrapped in rags </li></ul><ul><li>Look on face: strength, worry, concern, fear </li></ul><ul><li>Documentary Photography </li></ul>
  • 82. <ul><li>Jacob Lawrence, Migration of the Negro 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>Series depicts the migration of African-Americans from the rural South to industrial North around World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>Sixty panels in all </li></ul><ul><li>Trains seen as the link the series, appearing in first and last paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Improved social conditions of the North, comes at a price of overcrowding and prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Flattened grey background with tilted perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Cubist shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Few brushstrokes indicate facial features </li></ul><ul><li>Little detail, simplicity and directness of message </li></ul>
  • 83. <ul><li>Edward Hopper, Nighthawks </li></ul><ul><li>Motion is stopped, time suspended </li></ul><ul><li>A solitary diner with huge plate glass windows and no visible street entrance </li></ul><ul><li>Man and woman almost, but do not, touch </li></ul><ul><li>Evocative lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Vacant streets and storefronts </li></ul><ul><li>Little communication </li></ul><ul><li>People alone in a modern world </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract emptiness of much of the painting </li></ul><ul><li>Hawk: a bird that preys on others </li></ul>
  • 84. Nighthawks, 1942
  • 85. The Depression <ul><li>Grant Wood, American Gothic, 1930 </li></ul><ul><li>Expressions of disapproval </li></ul><ul><li>Austere costumes, bibbed overalls, starched shirts </li></ul><ul><li>Rural people </li></ul><ul><li>Window curtains echoed in dress of woman </li></ul><ul><li>Pitchfork reflected in jeans and shirt of farmer </li></ul><ul><li>Represents types artist knew his whole life </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, precise, realistic drawing </li></ul>
  • 86. 1930
  • 87. Bruce Thiher is the current tenant of the house in Eldon, Iowa, that served as the backdrop of American Gothic .

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