Dutch Art In The 17th Century
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Dutch Art In The 17th Century Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Dutch Art in the 17th Century
  • 2. The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632
  • 3. JosephWright of Derby, 1768
  • 4.
  • 5. The Scientific Revolution
    The development of Royal Societies in the 16th century – the sharing of knowledge, public demonstrations (Rembrandt, Thomas Wright)
    The move away from Ptolemaic astronomy and a heliocentric view of the universe
    Understanding Nature from Observation, not from authoritative texts or governing bodies
    The Idea that Human Reason can provide for the betterment of human life on earth (as opposed to Faith and Ceremony)
    The profound questioning of authority in any guise
  • 6.
  • 7. The Bird in a glass Bowl which is about to be sealed and air pumped out
    Birdcage – if it lives (or dies)
    Moonlight and the Enlightenment (reference to the Lunar Society)
    2 sisters, torn between curiosity and distress
    The Philosopher
    The Modern magician
    Blind Love
    Questioning Gesture
    Candle for Light and Skull
    Fascinated Observer
    Our Invitation
    The Experiment With An Air Pump
  • 8. Giordano Bruno
    1548 – 1600
    Burned alive by the Inquisition in Rome
    There is neither limit nor center to the universe – everything depends on the relative point of observation.
    Suggested the vast number of other worlds and universes
  • 9. Michel de Montaigne
    1522-1592
    Virulent critic of medieval Scholasticism
    “I aim here only at revealing myself, who will perhaps be different tomorrow, if I learn something new which changes me. I have no authority to be believed, nor do I want it, feeling myself too ill-instructed to instruct others.”
    Intellectual detachment is necessary to understanding.
    Proponent of diversity in nature and man, and the need for tolerance.
  • 10. Rene Descartes
    1596 – 1650
    Determined to find a unified system of nature based on mathematics
    The first step is to wipe away all earlier and accepted authority
    Believe only in that which can be proved through observation
    Cogito ergo sum
  • 11. Thomas Hobbes
    1588-1679
    Pre-social state of man is a life that is “nasty, brutish and short”
    We enter into a social contract based on mutual self-interest
    Sovereignty gains its authority through psychological reasons, not theological
    We are limited in our knowledge of the external world by our interpretations of the stimuli we receive
    Author of Leviathan
  • 12. John Locke
    1632-1704
    Concentrated on the faculty of knowledge, or how we come to know what we know - epistemology
    Insisted on natural morality of pre-social man
    Ruling bodies that offend against natural morality must be deposed
    We are born with the tabula rosa
  • 13. The Principia
    Isaac newton (1642-1727)
    Offered irrefutable proof – mathematical proof – that Nature had order and meaning that was not based on Faith but on human Reason
    The notion of progress in the human mind toward an ultimate end
    If definable laws can be discerned to govern Nature, they can be discerned to govern men and society
    The notion that bodies at a distance are governed in their motion by a specific force that can be measured (gravity).
  • 14. Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    Characteristics of Dutch Art:
    No church or aristocracy to commission paintings
    Art has a bourgeois character
    Paintings used to cover bare walls, give pleasure to the eye
    Cheerful subjects, unpleasant ones are given a humorous slant
    Artists worked on the open market, not for patrons: specialization according to subject matter
    Small paintings for small homes
    Subjects were easily understandable, some allegorical representations, no religious ecstasies and few pagan myths
  • 15. Jacob van RuisdaelPieter de HoochJan Steen
    Willem Heda
    Pieter Saenredam
  • 16. Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    Jacob van Ruisdael, View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen
    Flat horizon of the Netherlands: sky takes up ¾ of painting
    Sullen clouds, dramatically painted
    Receding spaces through dark and light passages
    Bleaching linen manufactured in Holland
    Long strips of treated cloth were spread out to bleach in the fields
    Openness and height, very distant and elevated point-of-view
  • 17. Jacob van Ruisdael, View of Haarlem with Bleaching Grounds, c 1665
  • 18. Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    Jan Steen, The Feast of Saint Nicholas
    Genre painting
    Saint Nicholas has visited the children with various results
    A girl grabs her doll as her mother pleads to look at it, or perhaps asks her to share
    Boy at left is crying over his disappointed gift
    Chaos in search for gifts
    Man on right points out to small child how Saint Nicholas descended the chimney
    Ten figures in a complex arrangement
    Complicated series of diagonals unify figures that seem to bend this way and that in reflection of one another
    Adult meaning to this children’s scene
  • 19. Jan Steen, 1663
  • 20. Willem Claez Heda, 1648
  • 21. Frans Hals, Archers of Saint Hadrian
    • Responsible citizen mentality among the Dutch
    • 22. No static arrangements; no interaction
    • 23. Strong horizontal emphasis with vertical spears punctuating the composition
    • 24. Left group around dominant figure of Col. Johan Claez. Loo, his cane indicates his authority
    • 25. Right group is a separate unit: Lt. Hendrick Gerritsz. Pot holds a book (minutes of meeting?)
    • 26. Back to back groups
    • 27. Distinct individuality of figures
    • 28. Dynamically grouped with strong diagonals of composition
  • Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    Common Motifs in Vermeer’s Paintings
    Checkerboard floor
    Horizontal beam ceiling
    Light from the left
    Heavy drapery and/or map
    Figures seen from the back or side
    Figures occupied in daily pursuit
    Sensitivity to light
    Back wall is always flat against picture plane
  • 29. Vermeer, The Letter
    • Light filtering from a unseen window at left
    • 30. We look in, they are unaware
    • 31. Figures framed by portal and a curtain
    • 32. Smile on servant, surprised look on the woman
    • 33. Woman is well-dressed, holding a lute
    • 34. A lute was a symbol of serenading, hence of love
    • 35. Is a love letter being brought?
    • 36. Sense of quiet expectation
  • Vermeer, Allegory on the Art of Painting
    Painter’s costume, chandelier and maps out of date
    Woman is Clio, Muse of History
    Laurel and garland, holds a trumpet of fame in her right hand
    Map frames “history”
    Nostalgia for bygone days of Catholic rule over Holland and Catholic patronage of artists
    Artist in his studio (Vermeer?)
    Looking in on figures who seem unaware
    Quiet and stillness
    Touches of light flicker across the map, revealing the pulled edges
  • 37. Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    Rembrandt, Anatomy Lesson of Doctor Tulp
    First great commission
    Dutch law: open cadavers of executed criminals only, allowed for entertainment purposes like this
    Specific anatomy lesson in January 1632
    Lessons took 4-5 days, Descartes may have attended this one
    Dr. Tulp is singled out seated in a chair of honor
    He wears a broad rimmed hat: academic badge of chairman
    His hands (alone) are prominently shown
    Cadaver’s body compared to the book at right
    Caravaggesque background
    Figures stare out into space
  • 38. Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    Rembrandt, The Night Watch
    18 men portrayed in the commission, represented according to how much they paid, but 29 figures in total, 2 figures cut off when the painting was cut down at left
    Civic guard group getting ready for a march, makes for a lively composition
    Captain Frans Banning Cocq holds a baton in right hand and wears a red sash, wears a gorget of steel barely visible under his white collar
    Captain gestures as if to speak
    Orders given to his lieutenant to march forward
    Central figures come forward
    Use of musket shown: musketeer in red is charging his musket by transferring powder into the muzzle from one of the wooden cartridges attached to his bandolier
    Figure behind Cocq is firing musket
    Third figure behind lieutenant is clearing the pan by blowing off the powder that remained there after the shot
    Deep chiaroscuro
    Liveliness of figures, psychological penetration
  • 39. The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642
  • 40. Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    Rembrandt, Self-Portrait
    Probed states of human soul
    Changing lights and darks suggest changing of human mood
    Self-satisfied artist at the height of his career
  • 41.
  • 42. Oath of Claudius Civilis
  • 43. Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait
    • Smile: she greets us casually, as does the fiddler
    • 44. Self-assured, charming, sociable
    • 45. Meets the viewer’s gaze, as if to speak to us
    • 46. Signed her paintings with her initials and a star, punning meaning of her name “leading star”
    • 47. Well-dressed while painting
    • 48. Quick sure brushstrokes