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Chinese And Korean Art After 1279 Emily Andrew Sam
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Chinese And Korean Art After 1279 Emily Andrew Sam

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  • 1. Andrew Maude Emily Nadelmann
    Samantha D’Onofrio
    Chinese and Korean Art After 1279
  • 2. Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368)
    Ming Dynasty (1368–1644)
    Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
    Modern Period (1911- Present)
    Periods of Control- China
  • 3. Mongols established northern capital in Beijing
    Combined the tensions of Yuan rule, separation of Chinese political and cultural centers created a new situation dynamic in the arts
    Literati (cultural elite) painting came to be grouped with calligraphy and poetry as a trio of accomplishments
    Yuan Dynasty ( 1279-1368)
  • 4. The literati elevated the status of painting so they were totally separate from and superior to traditional painting
    The Yuan dynasty continued the imperial role of patron of the arts commissioning building and murals, gardens, paintings, and decorative arts
    Scholars now tended to turn inward to search for solution of their own to try to express themselves in personal and symbolic terms
    The Literati
  • 5. ZhaoMengfu (1254-1322)
    Most famous piece- Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains
    Piece depicts the mountains of Shandong province
    1296, handscroll, ink and color on paper. 11 ¼ x 36 inches
    Not painted in the modern naturalistic period of his time, but the archaic period of the Tand dynasty (618-907)
  • 6. Common techniques were unassuming brushworks, and subtle colors used sparingly
    The landscape was created to covey personal meaning (drawing from one literati to another)
    the literati did not create works for public display but for each other
  • 7. Favored small formats such as hand scrolls, hanging scrolls, and album leaves(book pages)
    Easily could be shown to friends at small gatherings
    Pieces usually entirely done in ink
    Calligraphy popularly used to describe meaning
    Mediums and Techniques
  • 8.
    • They favored handscrolls, hanging scrolls, or album leaves
  • RongxiStudio
    Ni Zan created the Rongxi Studio
    Done completely out of ink
    1372, hanging scroll, ink on paper.
    29 3/8 inches
    It depicts the lake district of Ni’s hometown
    It is sketched with minimum detail using dry brush technique (brush not fully loaded with ink)
  • 9. Style has a sense of simplicity and purity
    Embodies the Literati style
    It is believed to reflect a painter s personality
    Zan’s style became associated with noble spirit, many other painters pay homage to it
    Ni Zan (1301-74)
  • 10. Contrast between luxury of the court and austere ideals of the literati continued
    Founded by Tai Zu who came from the poor uneducated class
    Worked his way up to power through military
    Drove Mongols from Beijing and established himself as emperor – establishing the Ming Dynasty
    He grew to distrust intellectuals
    His rules was despotic and ruthless
    Court taste in the arts changed with rule
    Ming Dynasty (1368–1644)
  • 11. Hundreds of Birds Admiring Peacocks
    Large painting on silk by Yin Hong
    Late 15th-early 16th century, hanging scroll, ink and color on silk, 7’10 ½ inches
    Painted during the late 15th and early 16th centuries
    Example of bird and flower genre
    Homage of birds to peacocks is symbolic to the homage of the court officials to the emperor
    Much of the piece reflects the ideals of the Song academy
  • 12. A bolder and less constrained landscape style
    Roots in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province where the Southern Court was located
    Influenced Korean + Japanese painters
    Zhe Style
    Returning Home from a Spring Outing (Dai Jin)
    • Reflects Chinese sources for An Gyeon + Sesshu
    • 13. Hanging scroll on silk
    • 14. 167.8 x 83.1 cm
  • Qui Ying (1492-1552)
    Spring Dawn in the Han Palace
    The preeminent professional painter in the Ming period
    Painted beautiful long hand scrolls
    Started painting to satisfy patrons
    Studies Tang paintings- concentrated on figures, leaving out the background entirely
    • Detail of sections
    • 15. the piece depicts women in the court of the Han dynasty
    • 16. Long handscroll on silk
    • 17. 1’ x 18’ 13/16 inches
  • Extremely famous in the Ming Dynasty
    Exquisite ceramics made of porcelain
    The imperial kilns in Jianqxi province became the most renowned center for porcelain in the world
    Lotus leafs drawn with glazed covering, showed high achievement of Ming artists
    Noteworthy for their blue + white wares
    Mainly produced during the reign of the Xuande Emperor (1426-1435)
    Ming Blue and White Wares
  • 18. Architecture and City Planning of the Ming
    Most famous remaining example of Chinese architecture is the Forbidden city, the imperial palace compound in Beijing
    City planning began in the 7th century in China
    Mongols made the basic plan- city laid out-traditional Chinese principles
    Walled city, with a rectangular grid, with evenly spaced streets, running east, west, north and south
    Northern end is where imperial complex is located
    Emperor’s role as the son of heaven- his duty to maintain the cosmic order from his throne in the middle of the world
    The Forbidden City’s balance and symmetry reflect ancient Chinese beliefs about the harmony of the universe
  • 19. Beijing was laid in a similar format
    Many halls located inside The Forbidden City
    Courtyards included ponds, that connected to waterways, that with bridges
    Marble detailing throughout
    Emperor’s throne was located in the Hall of Supreme Harmony
    The characteristics of the literati influence on architecture was very similar to painting
  • 20. Map of the Forbidden City
  • 21. Literati influence furniture as well
    16th + 17th Centuries: Chinese furniture made for domestic use reached the height of its development
    Constructed without the use of glue or nails
    Pieces fit together based on principle of mortise-and-tenon joint, one piece fits snuggly into the cavity of another
    This style represented simplicity, clarity, symmetry, and balance all literati ideals
    Furniture
  • 22. Known more today as tong and grove
    Modern Day Reference
  • 23. Many literati surrounded their homes with gardens
    Most famous gardens: southern cities of the Yangzi River (Chang Jiang) delta, especially in Suzhou
    Art of Landscape Gardening
    The Garden of the Cessation of Official Life
    • 1/3 of garden is devoted to water through artificially created brooks + ponds
    • 24. Pavilions, kiosks, libraries, studios + corridors
    • 25. Many buildings have poetic names
  • high official in late Ming period- poet, calligrapher, + painter
    literati theorist, who summarized views on proper training for literati painters
    famous statement “Read ten thousand books and walk ten thousand miles.”
    21’8 x 7’4 3/8 inches-1617
    Don Qichang, Literari Theorist
    Poet on A Mountain Top
    • Focuses on the poet who dominates the scene
    • 26. Poet on top of the mountain
    • 27. not a real focus on landscape
  • 1644- Manchu people to the northeast of China marched into Beijing and gained control of all of China
    Manchus had already many Chinese customs + institutions before their conquest
    Manchus showed respect for Chinese tradition- continued to follow literati approach
    Ming trends continued into the Qing Dynasty
    Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
  • 28. Wang Hui (1632-1717)
    Painted “A Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines” in 1693
    Exemplified basic Chinese landscape painting, featuring: mountains, rivers, waterfalls, trees, rocks, temples, pavilions, houses, bridges, boats, wandering scholars, and fishers
    • Hanging scroll, 1693, 8’2.5 x 44.5’
  • Modern Period (1911- Present)
    Pine Spirit
    All aspects of Chinese art modernizing
    Landscape still remains important subject
    New ideas filtered in from around the globe
    Calligraphy also plays an important role
    Chinese artists now have joined the international avant-garde
    • Wu Guanzhong- new aged Chinese artist
    • 29. 1984, Ink and color on paper, 2’3 5/8 x 5’3.5 inches
    • 30. Abstract expressionism
  • Korean Art
    The Joseon Dynasty to the Modern Era
  • 31. 1392- General Yi Seonggye overthrew the Goryeo dynasty and established the Joseon Dynasty
    Capital: originally Gaeseong, but moved to Seoul in 1394
    Rejected Buddhism- advocating Neo-Classicism as state philosophy
    China’s Ming Dynasty was a model- copied Ming emperors + blue-and-white porcelain
    Early Joseon Era: invented Han’geul (alphabet), the rain gauge, astrolabe, celestial globe + water clock
    The Joseon/Yi Dynasty (1392-1920)
  • 32. Joseon potters excelled in the manufacture of ceramics
    Ceramics were influenced by Chinese wares of that period, but they didn’t copy them directly
    Joseon Ceramics
  • 33. Buncheong Wares
    Stoneware descended from Goryeo celadons
    Use of white slip- stoneware resembles white porcelain
    15th century: slip is inlaid into repeating design elements stamped into the body
    16th century: embellished w/ fluid, calligraphic brushwork painted in iron-brown slip on white slip background
    Most buncheong wares have floral décor, some feature pictorial decoration
    1592-1597: Japanese armies invaded the Korean peninsula
    destroyed buncheong kilns + took buncheongpotters home with them to produce buncheong style-wares
  • 34. Buncheongware that features pictorial decoration
    Fresh, lively brushstrokes- a bird w/ outstretched wings grasps a fish that it has just caught in its talongs; waves roll below, while 2 giant lotus blossoms frame the scene
    Horizontal Wine Bottle with Decoration of a Bird Carrying a Newly Caught Fish
  • 35. Beginning in 15th century- Korean potters produced porcelains w/ designs in underglaze cobalt blue
    Inspired by Chinese Ming porcelains
    Porcelain kilns- 30 miles south of Seoul
    Painting on best Korean porcelains resembled that on paper or silk
    16th + 17th century: Korean porcelains feature designs painted in underglaze iron bronze rather than blue
    Korean jars have bulging shoulders, slender bases + short, vertical necks in the 17th century
    Painted Porcelain
  • 36. Secular painting continued Goryeo traditions- employed Chinese styles + formats
    Range of subjects expand from botanical motifs to include landscapes, figures, + a variety of animals
    Joseon Painting
    Dream Journey to the Peach Blossom Land- An Gyeon- 1447
    • Illustrates tale by Chinese poet Tao Qian
    • 37. 15.25’ x 41’ 7/8 inches
    • 38. Recounts a dream about chancing upon a utopia secluded from the world for centuries while meandering among the peach blossoms of spring
  • 18th century- truly Korean style emerged
    Silhak“practical learning” movement- emphasized the study of things Korean in addition to the Chinese classics
    JeongSeon chose well-known Korean vistas as the subjects of his paintings, rather than the Chinese themes favored by earlier artists
    Painted representations of the Diamond Mtns,
    Sin Yunbok active in late 18th, early 19th century- typically painted aristocratic figures in native Korean garb
    The Silhak Movement
    Panoramic View of the Diamond Mountains- JeongSeon
    Picnic at the Lotus Pond-
    Sin Yunbok
  • 39. “The Hermit Kingdom”- Korea closed its borders to most of the world, except China, until 1876
    1910- Japan annexed Korea- ended the Joseon Dynasty
    self-imposed isolation, colonial occupation (1910-45), World War II (1939-45), + the Korean War (1950-53) impeded Korea’s artistic + cultural development during the first half of the twentieth century
    Modern Korea
  • 40. Despite isolation- modern influences reached Korea indirectly via China + Japan
    1920s-30s: few Korean artists experimented w/ contemporary Western styles (Cezanne or Ganguin) and sometimes tried abstract, nonrepresentational styles
    GimHwangi- artist influenced by constructivism + geometric abstraction- would become one of 20th centuries most influential painters
    Modernism in Korea
    5-IV-71