Baroque Post2


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Baroque Post2

  1. 1. Baroque in Flanders <ul><li>Rubens, Allegory on the Outbreak of War </li></ul><ul><li>Mars has left the Temple of Janus open, normally closed during times of peace </li></ul><ul><li>Venus and Cupids try to restrain Mars </li></ul><ul><li>Fury Alecto, torch in hand, pulls him forward </li></ul><ul><li>Below woman with a broken lute: harmony is destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Mother and child indicate fertility cannot bloom </li></ul><ul><li>Fallen architect symbolizes the fall of civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Mars literally tramples on literature </li></ul><ul><li>Crying woman in black is Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Strong diagonals and masterful use of color </li></ul><ul><li>Painterly brushstroke </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque dynamics and composition </li></ul><ul><li>Developed musculature </li></ul>
  2. 2. Baroque in Flanders <ul><li>Rubens, Arrival of Marie de’Medici at Marseilles </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the Marie de’Medici cycle of 21 paintings in the Louvre </li></ul><ul><li>Real people exist side-by-side with nymphs, sea monsters, naiads, genii </li></ul><ul><li>Neptune and the three sirens, a sea god and a triton escort the boat in the harbor </li></ul><ul><li>France in blue cape with gold fleur-de-lis falls to his knees before Marie </li></ul><ul><li>Fame salutes her with two trumpets </li></ul><ul><li>Arms of the Medici over the arch of the boat </li></ul><ul><li>Commander of ship wears a cross of the Knights of Malta, is a sharp counterpoint to the other figures in the painting </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic movement </li></ul><ul><li>Rich vivid color </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily muscled men; ample females </li></ul><ul><li>Union of Northern and Italian painting that started with Dürer </li></ul>
  3. 3. Baroque in Flanders <ul><li>Van Dyck, Charles I Dismounted </li></ul><ul><li>Unstressed royal authority </li></ul><ul><li>A king and a cavalier </li></ul><ul><li>Venetian landscape with the Thames behind </li></ul><ul><li>Charles has dismounted and his horse is being held for him </li></ul><ul><li>He glances sharply at us from the side </li></ul><ul><li>Haughty pose </li></ul><ul><li>Van Dyck established the tradition of the graceful monarch, regal yet at ease </li></ul>
  4. 4. Baroque in Spain <ul><li>Velazquez, Surrender of Breda </li></ul><ul><li>Battle in 1625, Dutch forced to yield Breda to the Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Magnanimity, humanity and valor of the victors is stressed </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch on left seen as youthful, disorganized </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish on right are dignified, with lances indicating their military precision </li></ul><ul><li>Key to the city is emphasized in the center </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional tone of generosity and mutual respect </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of the battle seen in the smoky background </li></ul><ul><li>Topography is accurate: artist interviewed participants in the battle and consulted other renderings of the area </li></ul><ul><li>Light and color are compositional devices that unify the elements </li></ul>
  5. 5. Baroque in Spain <ul><li>Velazquez, Las Meninas </li></ul><ul><li>Velázquez working on a huge canvas that could not fit through the door of the room. He pauses and takes a step back to study us. </li></ul><ul><li>Velázquez wears the Cross of the Order of Santiago, a symbol of nobility: painter enjoyed a court appointment and desired respect </li></ul><ul><li>Princess Margarita with two maids-in-waiting is the central focus of the painting </li></ul><ul><li>Dwarves on right; Philip IV had a large collection of dwarves, no abnormalities are glossed over by Velázquez </li></ul><ul><li>Blurring of figures on right suggests painter’s understanding of peripheral vision </li></ul><ul><li>Older woman is lady of honor, wears a nun’s outfit to indicate she is a widow </li></ul><ul><li>Man in conversation with her is her escort </li></ul>
  6. 6. Baroque in Spain <ul><li>Velazquez, Las Meninas (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Silhouetted man is José Nieto, aposentador of the Queen, head of the Queen’s tapestry works, rests his hand on a tapestry as he goes out, but pauses </li></ul><ul><li>Regular rhythm of the frames on the back wall anchors composition as opposed the irregular rhythm of the groups </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings above are works that illustrate mortals who challenged the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective pulls you into the painting, but the mirror reflects out </li></ul><ul><li>Extension laterally: canvas on easel, windows </li></ul><ul><li>Alternating darks and lights reach into the painting </li></ul><ul><li>King and Queen are in the mirror, but what is being reflected? The painting Velázquez is working on? The King and Queen themselves? A portrait of the King and Queen hanging on the opposite wall? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Velázquez painting? This group? A painting of this painting? The King and Queen? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dutch Painters of the Baroque <ul><li>Characteristics of Dutch Art: </li></ul><ul><li>No church or aristocracy to commission paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Art has a bourgeois character </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings used to cover bare walls, give pleasure to the eye </li></ul><ul><li>Cheerful subjects, unpleasant ones are given a humorous slant </li></ul><ul><li>Artists worked on the open market, not for patrons: specialization according to subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Small paintings for small homes </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects were easily understandable, some allegorical representations, no religious ecstasies and few pagan myths </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Smile: she greets us casually, as does the fiddler </li></ul><ul><li>Self-assured, charming, sociable </li></ul><ul><li>Meets the viewer’s gaze, as if to speak to us </li></ul><ul><li>Signed her paintings with her initials and a star, punning meaning of her name “leading star” </li></ul><ul><li>Well-dressed while painting </li></ul><ul><li>Quick sure brushstrokes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Dutch Painters of the Baroque <ul><li>Steen, The Feast of Saint Nicholas </li></ul><ul><li>Genre painting </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Nicholas has visited the children with various results </li></ul><ul><li>A girl grabs her doll as her mother pleads to look at it, or perhaps asks her to share </li></ul><ul><li>Boy at left is crying over his disappointed gift </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos in search for gifts </li></ul><ul><li>Man on right points out to small child how Saint Nicholas descended the chimney </li></ul><ul><li>Ten figures in a complex arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated series of diagonals unify figures that seem to bend this way and that in reflection of one another </li></ul><ul><li>Adult meaning to this children’s scene </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dutch Painters of the Baroque <ul><li>Jacob van Ruisdael, View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen </li></ul><ul><li>Flat horizon of the Netherlands: sky takes up ¾ of painting </li></ul><ul><li>Sullen clouds, dramatically painted </li></ul><ul><li>Receding spaces through dark and light passages </li></ul><ul><li>Bleaching linen manufactured in Holland </li></ul><ul><li>Long strips of treated cloth were spread out to bleach in the fields </li></ul><ul><li>Openness and height, very distant and elevated point-of-view </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Frans Hals, Archers of Saint Hadrian </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible citizen mentality among the Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>No static arrangements; no interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Strong horizontal emphasis with vertical spears punctuating the composition </li></ul><ul><li>Left group around dominant figure of Col. Johan Claez. Loo, his cane indicates his authority </li></ul><ul><li>Right group is a separate unit: Lt. Hendrick Gerritsz. Pot holds a book (minutes of meeting?) </li></ul><ul><li>Back to back groups </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct individuality of figures </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamically grouped with strong diagonals of composition </li></ul>
  12. 12. Dutch Painters of the Baroque <ul><li>Rembrandt, Anatomy Lesson of Doctor Tulp </li></ul><ul><li>First great commission </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch law: open cadavers of executed criminals only, allowed for entertainment purposes like this </li></ul><ul><li>Specific anatomy lesson in January 1632 </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons took 4-5 days, Descartes may have attended this one </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Tulp is singled out seated in a chair of honor </li></ul><ul><li>He wears a broad rimmed hat: academic badge of chairman </li></ul><ul><li>His hands (alone) are prominently shown </li></ul><ul><li>Cadaver’s body compared to the book at right </li></ul><ul><li>Caravaggesque background </li></ul><ul><li>Figures stare out into space </li></ul>
  13. 13. Dutch Painters of the Baroque <ul><li>Rembrandt, The Night Watch </li></ul><ul><li>18 men portrayed in the commission, represented according to how much they paid, but 29 figures in total, 2 figures cut off when the painting was cut down at left </li></ul><ul><li>Civic guard group getting ready for a march, makes for a lively composition </li></ul><ul><li>Captain Frans Banning Cocq holds a baton in right hand and wears a red sash, wears a gorget of steel barely visible under his white collar </li></ul><ul><li>Captain gestures as if to speak </li></ul><ul><li>Orders given to his lieutenant to march forward </li></ul><ul><li>Central figures come forward </li></ul><ul><li>Use of musket shown: musketeer in red is charging his musket by transferring powder into the muzzle from one of the wooden cartridges attached to his bandolier </li></ul><ul><li>Figure behind Cocq is firing musket </li></ul><ul><li>Third figure behind lieutenant is clearing the pan by blowing off the powder that remained there after the shot </li></ul><ul><li>Deep chiaroscuro </li></ul><ul><li>Liveliness of figures, psychological penetration </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642
  15. 15. Dutch Painters of the Baroque <ul><li>Rembrandt, Self-Portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Probed states of human soul </li></ul><ul><li>Changing lights and darks suggest changing of human mood </li></ul><ul><li>Self-satisfied artist at the height of his career </li></ul>
  16. 16. Dutch Painters of the Baroque <ul><li>Common Motifs in Vermeer’s Paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Checkerboard floor </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal beam ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Light from the left </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy drapery and/or map </li></ul><ul><li>Figures seen from the back or side </li></ul><ul><li>Figures occupied in daily pursuit </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to light </li></ul><ul><li>Back wall is always flat against picture plane </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Vermeer, The Letter </li></ul><ul><li>Light filtering from a unseen window at left </li></ul><ul><li>We look in, they are unaware </li></ul><ul><li>Figures framed by portal and a curtain </li></ul><ul><li>Smile on servant, surprised look on the woman </li></ul><ul><li>Woman is well-dressed, holding a lute </li></ul><ul><li>A lute was a symbol of serenading, hence of love </li></ul><ul><li>Is a love letter being brought? </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of quiet expectation </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Vermeer, Allegory on the Art of Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Painter’s costume, chandelier and maps out of date </li></ul><ul><li>Woman is Clio, Muse of History </li></ul><ul><li>Laurel and garland, holds a trumpet of fame in her right hand </li></ul><ul><li>Map frames “history” </li></ul><ul><li>Nostalgia for bygone days of Catholic rule over Holland and Catholic patronage of artists </li></ul><ul><li>Artist in his studio (Vermeer?) </li></ul><ul><li>Looking in on figures who seem unaware </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet and stillness </li></ul><ul><li>Touches of light flicker across the map, revealing the pulled edges </li></ul>
  19. 19. French Baroque Painting <ul><li>Poussin, Et in Arcadia Ego </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Raphael </li></ul><ul><li>Three shepherds in idyllic landscape of Arcadia </li></ul><ul><li>“ And I am in Arcadia, also” phrase related to person buried in tomb </li></ul><ul><li>Death is present, even in Arcadia </li></ul><ul><li>Shadow of man’s arm is the sickle of Death </li></ul><ul><li>Shepherd places his finger on the tip of the shadow </li></ul><ul><li>Tomb is ruined </li></ul><ul><li>Compact, balanced grouping </li></ul><ul><li>Elegiac mood </li></ul><ul><li>Woman: ambivalent, expression of joy and sadness. Does she represent Death? </li></ul><ul><li>Trees turn from green on left to grey and barren on right (life to death) </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Manner of Painting </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Rigaud, Louis XIV </li></ul><ul><li>Majestic, awesome </li></ul><ul><li>Very richly designed </li></ul><ul><li>Sumptuous display of garments, drapery, rugs </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV felt he had good legs: they are exposed to view </li></ul><ul><li>Long flowing wig </li></ul><ul><li>Stately parade </li></ul><ul><li>Essence of the Sun King in his glory </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque ornateness </li></ul>
  21. 21. English Baroque Architecture <ul><li>Wren, Saint Paul’s, London </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior: </li></ul><ul><li>Drum of dome resembles Saint Peter’s </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of the Tempietto </li></ul><ul><li>Three domes: hidden central element is a brick cone that holds the dome up, outside dome gives a rounded shape, the hemispherical dome is of wood and is painted </li></ul><ul><li>Façade: </li></ul><ul><li>Two storied façade is classicizing </li></ul><ul><li>Frontispiece is an equilateral triangle </li></ul><ul><li>Coupled columns </li></ul><ul><li>Juxtaposition of concave and convex designs in the towers recalls Borromini </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasts of dark and light in the porch </li></ul><ul><li>Interior: </li></ul><ul><li>Octagonal crossing is the dominant central space in nave </li></ul>