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Baroque Post2 Baroque Post2 Presentation Transcript

  • Baroque in Flanders
    • Rubens, Allegory on the Outbreak of War
    • Mars has left the Temple of Janus open, normally closed during times of peace
    • Venus and Cupids try to restrain Mars
    • Fury Alecto, torch in hand, pulls him forward
    • Below woman with a broken lute: harmony is destroyed
    • Mother and child indicate fertility cannot bloom
    • Fallen architect symbolizes the fall of civilization
    • Mars literally tramples on literature
    • Crying woman in black is Europe
    • Strong diagonals and masterful use of color
    • Painterly brushstroke
    • Baroque dynamics and composition
    • Developed musculature
  • Baroque in Flanders
    • Rubens, Arrival of Marie de’Medici at Marseilles
    • Part of the Marie de’Medici cycle of 21 paintings in the Louvre
    • Real people exist side-by-side with nymphs, sea monsters, naiads, genii
    • Neptune and the three sirens, a sea god and a triton escort the boat in the harbor
    • France in blue cape with gold fleur-de-lis falls to his knees before Marie
    • Fame salutes her with two trumpets
    • Arms of the Medici over the arch of the boat
    • Commander of ship wears a cross of the Knights of Malta, is a sharp counterpoint to the other figures in the painting
    • Dynamic movement
    • Rich vivid color
    • Heavily muscled men; ample females
    • Union of Northern and Italian painting that started with Dürer
  • Baroque in Flanders
    • Van Dyck, Charles I Dismounted
    • Unstressed royal authority
    • A king and a cavalier
    • Venetian landscape with the Thames behind
    • Charles has dismounted and his horse is being held for him
    • He glances sharply at us from the side
    • Haughty pose
    • Van Dyck established the tradition of the graceful monarch, regal yet at ease
  • Baroque in Spain
    • Velazquez, Surrender of Breda
    • Battle in 1625, Dutch forced to yield Breda to the Spanish
    • Magnanimity, humanity and valor of the victors is stressed
    • Dutch on left seen as youthful, disorganized
    • Spanish on right are dignified, with lances indicating their military precision
    • Key to the city is emphasized in the center
    • Emotional tone of generosity and mutual respect
    • Effect of the battle seen in the smoky background
    • Topography is accurate: artist interviewed participants in the battle and consulted other renderings of the area
    • Light and color are compositional devices that unify the elements
  • Baroque in Spain
    • Velazquez, Las Meninas
    • Velázquez working on a huge canvas that could not fit through the door of the room. He pauses and takes a step back to study us.
    • Velázquez wears the Cross of the Order of Santiago, a symbol of nobility: painter enjoyed a court appointment and desired respect
    • Princess Margarita with two maids-in-waiting is the central focus of the painting
    • Dwarves on right; Philip IV had a large collection of dwarves, no abnormalities are glossed over by Velázquez
    • Blurring of figures on right suggests painter’s understanding of peripheral vision
    • Older woman is lady of honor, wears a nun’s outfit to indicate she is a widow
    • Man in conversation with her is her escort
  • Baroque in Spain
    • Velazquez, Las Meninas (continued)
    • Silhouetted man is José Nieto, aposentador of the Queen, head of the Queen’s tapestry works, rests his hand on a tapestry as he goes out, but pauses
    • Regular rhythm of the frames on the back wall anchors composition as opposed the irregular rhythm of the groups
    • Paintings above are works that illustrate mortals who challenged the gods
    • Perspective pulls you into the painting, but the mirror reflects out
    • Extension laterally: canvas on easel, windows
    • Alternating darks and lights reach into the painting
    • King and Queen are in the mirror, but what is being reflected? The painting Velázquez is working on? The King and Queen themselves? A portrait of the King and Queen hanging on the opposite wall?
    • What is Velázquez painting? This group? A painting of this painting? The King and Queen?
  • Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    • Characteristics of Dutch Art:
    • No church or aristocracy to commission paintings
    • Art has a bourgeois character
    • Paintings used to cover bare walls, give pleasure to the eye
    • Cheerful subjects, unpleasant ones are given a humorous slant
    • Artists worked on the open market, not for patrons: specialization according to subject matter
    • Small paintings for small homes
    • Subjects were easily understandable, some allegorical representations, no religious ecstasies and few pagan myths
    • Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait
    • Smile: she greets us casually, as does the fiddler
    • Self-assured, charming, sociable
    • Meets the viewer’s gaze, as if to speak to us
    • Signed her paintings with her initials and a star, punning meaning of her name “leading star”
    • Well-dressed while painting
    • Quick sure brushstrokes
  • Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    • Steen, The Feast of Saint Nicholas
    • Genre painting
    • Saint Nicholas has visited the children with various results
    • A girl grabs her doll as her mother pleads to look at it, or perhaps asks her to share
    • Boy at left is crying over his disappointed gift
    • Chaos in search for gifts
    • Man on right points out to small child how Saint Nicholas descended the chimney
    • Ten figures in a complex arrangement
    • Complicated series of diagonals unify figures that seem to bend this way and that in reflection of one another
    • Adult meaning to this children’s scene
  • Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    • Jacob van Ruisdael, View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen
    • Flat horizon of the Netherlands: sky takes up ¾ of painting
    • Sullen clouds, dramatically painted
    • Receding spaces through dark and light passages
    • Bleaching linen manufactured in Holland
    • Long strips of treated cloth were spread out to bleach in the fields
    • Openness and height, very distant and elevated point-of-view
    • Frans Hals, Archers of Saint Hadrian
    • Responsible citizen mentality among the Dutch
    • No static arrangements; no interaction
    • Strong horizontal emphasis with vertical spears punctuating the composition
    • Left group around dominant figure of Col. Johan Claez. Loo, his cane indicates his authority
    • Right group is a separate unit: Lt. Hendrick Gerritsz. Pot holds a book (minutes of meeting?)
    • Back to back groups
    • Distinct individuality of figures
    • Dynamically grouped with strong diagonals of composition
  • Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    • Rembrandt, Anatomy Lesson of Doctor Tulp
    • First great commission
    • Dutch law: open cadavers of executed criminals only, allowed for entertainment purposes like this
    • Specific anatomy lesson in January 1632
    • Lessons took 4-5 days, Descartes may have attended this one
    • Dr. Tulp is singled out seated in a chair of honor
    • He wears a broad rimmed hat: academic badge of chairman
    • His hands (alone) are prominently shown
    • Cadaver’s body compared to the book at right
    • Caravaggesque background
    • Figures stare out into space
  • Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    • Rembrandt, The Night Watch
    • 18 men portrayed in the commission, represented according to how much they paid, but 29 figures in total, 2 figures cut off when the painting was cut down at left
    • Civic guard group getting ready for a march, makes for a lively composition
    • Captain Frans Banning Cocq holds a baton in right hand and wears a red sash, wears a gorget of steel barely visible under his white collar
    • Captain gestures as if to speak
    • Orders given to his lieutenant to march forward
    • Central figures come forward
    • Use of musket shown: musketeer in red is charging his musket by transferring powder into the muzzle from one of the wooden cartridges attached to his bandolier
    • Figure behind Cocq is firing musket
    • Third figure behind lieutenant is clearing the pan by blowing off the powder that remained there after the shot
    • Deep chiaroscuro
    • Liveliness of figures, psychological penetration
  • The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642
  • Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    • Rembrandt, Self-Portrait
    • Probed states of human soul
    • Changing lights and darks suggest changing of human mood
    • Self-satisfied artist at the height of his career
  • Dutch Painters of the Baroque
    • Common Motifs in Vermeer’s Paintings
    • Checkerboard floor
    • Horizontal beam ceiling
    • Light from the left
    • Heavy drapery and/or map
    • Figures seen from the back or side
    • Figures occupied in daily pursuit
    • Sensitivity to light
    • Back wall is always flat against picture plane
    • Vermeer, The Letter
    • Light filtering from a unseen window at left
    • We look in, they are unaware
    • Figures framed by portal and a curtain
    • Smile on servant, surprised look on the woman
    • Woman is well-dressed, holding a lute
    • A lute was a symbol of serenading, hence of love
    • Is a love letter being brought?
    • Sense of quiet expectation
    • Vermeer, Allegory on the Art of Painting
    • Painter’s costume, chandelier and maps out of date
    • Woman is Clio, Muse of History
    • Laurel and garland, holds a trumpet of fame in her right hand
    • Map frames “history”
    • Nostalgia for bygone days of Catholic rule over Holland and Catholic patronage of artists
    • Artist in his studio (Vermeer?)
    • Looking in on figures who seem unaware
    • Quiet and stillness
    • Touches of light flicker across the map, revealing the pulled edges
  • French Baroque Painting
    • Poussin, Et in Arcadia Ego
    • Influenced by Raphael
    • Three shepherds in idyllic landscape of Arcadia
    • “ And I am in Arcadia, also” phrase related to person buried in tomb
    • Death is present, even in Arcadia
    • Shadow of man’s arm is the sickle of Death
    • Shepherd places his finger on the tip of the shadow
    • Tomb is ruined
    • Compact, balanced grouping
    • Elegiac mood
    • Woman: ambivalent, expression of joy and sadness. Does she represent Death?
    • Trees turn from green on left to grey and barren on right (life to death)
    • Grand Manner of Painting
    • Rigaud, Louis XIV
    • Majestic, awesome
    • Very richly designed
    • Sumptuous display of garments, drapery, rugs
    • Louis XIV felt he had good legs: they are exposed to view
    • Long flowing wig
    • Stately parade
    • Essence of the Sun King in his glory
    • Baroque ornateness
  • English Baroque Architecture
    • Wren, Saint Paul’s, London
    • Exterior:
    • Drum of dome resembles Saint Peter’s
    • Influence of the Tempietto
    • Three domes: hidden central element is a brick cone that holds the dome up, outside dome gives a rounded shape, the hemispherical dome is of wood and is painted
    • Façade:
    • Two storied façade is classicizing
    • Frontispiece is an equilateral triangle
    • Coupled columns
    • Juxtaposition of concave and convex designs in the towers recalls Borromini
    • Contrasts of dark and light in the porch
    • Interior:
    • Octagonal crossing is the dominant central space in nave