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Baroque <ul><li>Meant as derogatory, exaggerated, excessive, perverse </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced techniques of Renaissance...
Catholic Protestant <ul><li>Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><u...
Caravaggio (1573 – 1610) <ul><li>Rebelled against convention </li></ul><ul><li>Started in Rome, but fled after murder and ...
<ul><li>Caravaggio,  Calling of Saint Matthew </li></ul><ul><li>Tenebroso </li></ul><ul><li>Light comes from two sources o...
<ul><li>Caravaggio,  Conversion of Saint Paul </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown source of light </li></ul><ul><li>Common figures <...
 
Judith and Holofernes ( Judith 13,1-10 ) &quot;Judith was left alone in the tent, with Holofernes stretched out on the bed...
<ul><li>Gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes </li></ul><ul><li>Painted six versions of the story </li></ul><ul><li>Genti...
 
<ul><li>Bernini,  David </li></ul><ul><li>David is energetically swinging the slingshot </li></ul><ul><li>Chose not to wea...
Bernini (1598 – 1680) <ul><li>One of the most influential Baroque artists </li></ul><ul><li>Architect and sculptor </li></...
<ul><li>Bernini,  Ecstasy of Saint Theresa </li></ul><ul><li>Stage-like setting </li></ul><ul><li>Carved a vision by Saint...
Nile (covered head for unknown source) Danube Ganges Rio della Plata Americas (note coins on the ledge representing the ri...
<ul><li>Bernini, Colonnade of Saint Peter’s, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Plaza holds half million people, 284 columns, 4 rows, ...
Italian Baroque Sculpture <ul><li>Bernini,  Baldacchino </li></ul><ul><li>Over main altar of Saint Peter’s </li></ul><ul><...
Italian Baroque Architecture <ul><li>Borromini, St. Charles of the Four Fountains, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Very small site ...
Baroque Ceiling Painters <ul><li>Influenced by Mantegna, Corregio and Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>Use of flying figures...
<ul><li>Carracci,  Loves of the Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Gallery intended to exhibit antique sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Di ...
<ul><li>Reni, Aurora </li></ul><ul><li>Quadro riportato </li></ul><ul><li>Glowing dramatic colors </li></ul><ul><li>Aurora...
<ul><li>Pozzo,  Glorification of Saint Ignatius </li></ul><ul><li>Walls of church are foreshortened into painted architect...
<ul><li>Carracci,  Flight into Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Composed landscape: modeled on a combination of different places </...
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Baroque In Italy

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Transcript of "Baroque In Italy"

  1. 1. Baroque <ul><li>Meant as derogatory, exaggerated, excessive, perverse </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced techniques of Renaissance married to the intense emotions of Mannerism </li></ul><ul><li>Courts and palaces designed to impress visitors </li></ul><ul><li>Theatrical – emphasis on emotion over rationality </li></ul>
  2. 2. Catholic Protestant <ul><li>Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Provinces (Belgium) </li></ul><ul><li>Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Rhineland </li></ul><ul><li>Holy Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>England </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Scandinavia </li></ul><ul><li>Swiss Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>Holland </li></ul><ul><li>North Germany </li></ul>
  3. 3. Caravaggio (1573 – 1610) <ul><li>Rebelled against convention </li></ul><ul><li>Started in Rome, but fled after murder and worked in many cities </li></ul><ul><li>Used drowned corpse as a model for Death of a Virgin – refused by patron but purchased by Duke of mantua on advice of Rubens </li></ul><ul><li>Used prostitutes, drunks and street people for models </li></ul><ul><li>Died at 37 (unknown cause but lots of speculation) </li></ul><ul><li>Intense Light/Dark contrasts </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic chiarioscuro revolutionizes European art as well as the use of common people </li></ul><ul><li>Varicose veins, dirty fingernails, and other attributes of “truth” in painting </li></ul><ul><li>Often worked straight onto canvas without preliminary drawings </li></ul><ul><li>High Psychological content </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Caravaggio, Calling of Saint Matthew </li></ul><ul><li>Tenebroso </li></ul><ul><li>Light comes from two sources on the right; top source illuminates Saint Matthew </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary figures </li></ul><ul><li>Some dressed as 17th Century dandies, fashionably coiffed </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam in the hand of Christ: God’s hand but Adam’s reversed position </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Caravaggio, Conversion of Saint Paul </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown source of light </li></ul><ul><li>Common figures </li></ul><ul><li>Little to suggest a spiritual event </li></ul><ul><li>Dark tenebroso effect; limited color palette </li></ul><ul><li>Figures are very closely spaced </li></ul><ul><li>Awkwardness in the man holding the horse with his very long arms and legs that don’t line up with his head </li></ul><ul><li>Awkwardness of the foreshortened horse </li></ul><ul><li>Little depth; very shallow stage, figures pushed forward </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning of horse guides viewer “into” painting seen to the right </li></ul>
  6. 7. Judith and Holofernes ( Judith 13,1-10 ) &quot;Judith was left alone in the tent, with Holofernes stretched out on the bed, for he was overcome with wine (Judith 13,2)... She went up to the post at the end of the bed, above Holofernes' head, and took down his sword that hung there. She came close to the bed and took hold of the hair of his head, and said: &quot;Give me strength this day, O Lord God of Israel!&quot;. And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed his head from his body (Judith 13,6-8)... After a moment she went out and gave Holofernes' head to her maid (Judith 13, 9)&quot;. The Old Testament narrates the episode of Judith who saved her city of Bethulia from the siege of Holofernes, general of the Assyrian king Nabucodonosor, by killing him after a banquet at which he had been made drink, beheading him and bringing his head to his fellow citizens (Judith ch. 10-13).
  7. 8. <ul><li>Gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes </li></ul><ul><li>Painted six versions of the story </li></ul><ul><li>Gentileschi raped when young: is there a relationship of this event to the painting? </li></ul><ul><li>Artist identified with Judith, Gentileschi’s self-portrait as the heroine </li></ul><ul><li>Not idealized but realistic figures </li></ul><ul><li>Gory moment of decapitation, blood squirting out: shock value </li></ul><ul><li>Holofernes defenseless </li></ul><ul><li>Tenebroso </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic light effect from the left </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Bernini, David </li></ul><ul><li>David is energetically swinging the slingshot </li></ul><ul><li>Chose not to wear his armor to fight Goliath, it is at his feet and acts as a physical support for the statue </li></ul><ul><li>Harp at his feet suggests David as a poet and singer </li></ul><ul><li>Said to have Bernini’s likeness: intensity of expression </li></ul><ul><li>Must be seen in the round, though may have been originally set against a wall </li></ul><ul><li>Recalls Hellenistic Greek art </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque art: figures caught in the middle of action </li></ul>                                      
  9. 11. Bernini (1598 – 1680) <ul><li>One of the most influential Baroque artists </li></ul><ul><li>Architect and sculptor </li></ul><ul><li>Devotion to physical and psychological reality </li></ul><ul><li>Exquisite sense of textures </li></ul><ul><li>Patron Cardinal Barberini becomes Pope Urban VII and grants many commisions (especially for St. Peter’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture of many media in certain pieces </li></ul><ul><li>When called to France by Louis XIV – sculpture not used – portrait changed rto roman figure and placed in remote part of garden </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Theresa </li></ul><ul><li>Stage-like setting </li></ul><ul><li>Carved a vision by Saint Theresa of Avila </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the patron family, the Cornaro, look on from theatre boxes, in conversation or are reading about the event itself </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque as theatrical </li></ul><ul><li>Natural light from a hidden window shines on rays and figures </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of painting, sculpture and architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Directed view </li></ul><ul><li>Angel as sexless, Teresa in physical ecstasy, drained of all emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Carved marble differently depending on the texture of the surface: clouds are rough, wings are downy, drapery is smooth, and skin has a high shine </li></ul>
  11. 13. Nile (covered head for unknown source) Danube Ganges Rio della Plata Americas (note coins on the ledge representing the riches) 1648-50 (Pope Innocent X)
  12. 14. <ul><li>Bernini, Colonnade of Saint Peter’s, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Plaza holds half million people, 284 columns, 4 rows, 140 statues </li></ul><ul><li>Church in a congested area of Rome, Bernini wanted an open area to overwhelm visitors entering it through the four-deep colonnade with light and space </li></ul><ul><li>Tuscan Doric columns with classical temple front </li></ul><ul><li>Curving Baroque shape of colonnade </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the shape of two arms bringing people into the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Also the shape of a skeleton keyhole, symbolic of Saint Peter who holds the keys to the kingdom </li></ul>
  13. 15. Italian Baroque Sculpture <ul><li>Bernini, Baldacchino </li></ul><ul><li>Over main altar of Saint Peter’s </li></ul><ul><li>100 feet high, made of bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Twisting columns inspired by Early Christian designs, corkscrew motif </li></ul><ul><li>Lively ornate concept </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of the patron, the Barberini family, in the sun and bees motif on entablature </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque concept of directed view: focuses your eyes down the main aisle of Saint Peter’s and acts as a frame for the Cathedra Petri, which though later in date, was likely planned already </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze taken from the Pantheon: paganism transformed into Christianity </li></ul>
  14. 16. Italian Baroque Architecture <ul><li>Borromini, St. Charles of the Four Fountains, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Very small site </li></ul><ul><li>Complex ground plan </li></ul><ul><li>Alternating convex and concave patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior: </li></ul><ul><li>Façade higher than the rest of the building </li></ul><ul><li>Walls treated sculpturally </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on central portal with kiosk and formerly frescoed medallion above </li></ul><ul><li>Union of three major arts </li></ul><ul><li>Interior: </li></ul><ul><li>Chapels merge into the main room </li></ul><ul><li>Oval coffered dome </li></ul>
  15. 17. Baroque Ceiling Painters <ul><li>Influenced by Mantegna, Corregio and Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>Use of flying figures common </li></ul><ul><li>High achievement in perspective, foreshortening and issues of overlapping space, color and value in compositions. </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Carracci, Loves of the Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Gallery intended to exhibit antique sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Di sotto in sù and quadro riportato painting intermingled </li></ul><ul><li>Figures flow harmoniously </li></ul><ul><li>Each figure is studied from life </li></ul><ul><li>Figures overlap frames of paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Painted herms bordering main scenes, inspired by Sistine Chapel ignudi </li></ul><ul><li>Herms seem sculptural, seen from below </li></ul><ul><li>Golden frames seem three-dimensional but figures overlap them </li></ul><ul><li>Venetian color </li></ul><ul><li>Robust, healthy, muscular figures, defined contours: idealized </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Reni, Aurora </li></ul><ul><li>Quadro riportato </li></ul><ul><li>Glowing dramatic colors </li></ul><ul><li>Aurora leads Apollo’s chariot, Hours guide the chariot </li></ul><ul><li>Soft modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Idealized, sweetly lyrical females </li></ul><ul><li>Wavy compositional lines </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Pozzo, Glorification of Saint Ignatius </li></ul><ul><li>Walls of church are foreshortened into painted architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Di sotto in sù </li></ul><ul><li>Ceiling of church painted as if it were removed and figures are hovering above us </li></ul><ul><li>Four continents of the known world are represented between the windows: Europe, America, Africa and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>St. Ignatius floats above, his deeds and good works span to the four continents </li></ul><ul><li>Rays spring from his head to the four continents </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Carracci, Flight into Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Composed landscape: modeled on a combination of different places </li></ul><ul><li>Trees on left and right frame composition </li></ul><ul><li>Foreground shadowy, light background </li></ul><ul><li>Central open axis </li></ul><ul><li>Scene seems to unfold in layers receding deeper into work </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes drawn diagonally back </li></ul><ul><li>Man and nature have a harmonious existence </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque landscape always shows a trace of human activity, often a Biblical or mythological significance </li></ul>
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