Art Of The Americas Before 1300  Grace, Nikhil, Kattie
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Art Of The Americas Before 1300  Grace, Nikhil, Kattie Art Of The Americas Before 1300 Grace, Nikhil, Kattie Presentation Transcript

  • Art of the Americas Before 1300 Nikhil Shah Grace Ewing Kattie Chen
  • Timeline 1500BC 1200BC 900BC 600BC 300BC 0 300AD 600AD 900AD 1200AD 1500AD Olmec Teotihuacan Mayan Diquis Chavin Paracas Nazca Moche Hopewell Florida Glades Culture Pueblo End
  • The New World
    • Hunters appeared in the Americas around 12,000 years ago and inhabited various regions of the two continents
      • Theorized that they came from Asia through a land bridge across the Bering Strait
      • There may have been connections with Europe along the Arctic Coast
    • Different cultures developed
    View slide
  • Mesoamerica
    • Encompasses the area from north of the Valley of Mexico to present day Honduras, Belize, and western Nicaragua
    • Region ranges in terms of climate
    • The civilizations shared cultural similarities and trade
      • Ritual ball game
      • Built monumental ceremonial buildings
      • Complex system of multiple calendars (260 day ritual cycle and a 365 day agricultural cycle)
    • Divided into elite and commoner classes
    • 3 periods: Formative or Preclassic (1500 BCE-250 CE), Classic (260-900 CE), and postclassic (900-1521 CE)
    View slide
  • Map of Mesoamerica
    • No form of writing
    • Large sculptures show desire to preserve history (great ruler and events)
    • Large earthen mounds show astronomical significance – possibly indicates a calendar system
    • Religion based on animal spirits – later included natural forces when agriculture began
    • Materials used give evidence of long distance trade
    • Art work classified under Formative/Preclassic period
    Mesoamerica-Olmec
    • Colossal Head
    • La Venta, Mexico
    • 900-400BCE
    • Carved from large basalt blocks (5-20 tons)
    • 102 heads found at La Venta (5’-12’ tall)
    • Shows large, rounded and soft features
    • Close-fitting skull cap
    • Decorated earlobes
    Mesoamerica-Olmec Timeline
  • In both cultures, imposing sculptures were used to commemorate rulers and events
  • Mesoamerica-Teotihuacan
    • Largest city in the Americas between 350-650 CE (200,000 people)
    • Wealth based on trade – controlled obsidian mines, made pottery
    • City Center was religious and governmental center. Could hold 60,000 people for religious ceremonies
    • Wealth decreased as you moved away from the city center
    • Houses were traditionally a simple rectangle surrounding a central open court. They had thatched roofs and plastered walls (the wealthy had frescos)
  • Mesoamerica-Teotihuacan
    • Temple of the Feathered Serpent
    • Uses talud-tablero (slope and panel) construction—each platform supports a raised tablero (entablature) that is surrounded by a frame filled with sculptural decorations
    • Made after 350CE
    • Demonstrates characteristics of Teotihuacan art—angular, flat, and abstract
    • Originally
    • painted
    Mesoamerica-Teotihuacan
  • Olmec vs. Teotihuacan
  • Teotihuacan
    • Bloodletting Ritual
    • Fresco (wet)
    • 600-750 CE
    • Geometric style
    • Flat, no use of
    • perspective
    • Blood revitalizes
    • the earth
    Timeline
  • Mayan
    • Civilization emerged during late Preclassic period (Tikal) around (250 BCE-250 CE), reached peak during Classic period (Palenque) in the lowlands of Guatemala, and dominated the Yucatan peninsula during the Postclassic period (Itza) (900-1521)
    • Most sculpture depicted elite men and women rather than gods
    • Favored low-relief carvings (seen on steles and buildings)
    • Artists had high status because of the importance of record keeping
    • Most painting has survived on ceramics and a few large murals (books were destroyed)
    • Influence of books seen in codex-style painting on vases
    • Used a sophisticated calendar system
    • Similar societal divisions as Greeks
      • Multiple competing cities
      • Nobles and priests hold higher class with large number of peasants/workers
      • Artisans gained greater prominence
      • Pantheon of Gods
  • Mayan
    • Temple of Inscriptions
    • Late 7 th Century CE during Classic period
    • In the Mayan temple
    • complex of Palenque
    • Present day Mexico
    • 9 leveled pyramid (75’)
    • Shrine
      • Vaulted chamber
      • Stucco façade
      • 3 large text panels on back give temple its name
      • Combed roof
    • Stairs lead down through pyramid to underground tomb of Lord Pakal
    • Portrait of Lord Pakal
    • Mid 7 th century CE
    • Meant to show ideal Mayan beauty
      • Elongated features, large nose, full, open lips
    • Originally painted like most Mayan sculpture
    Mayan
  • Portrait Comparison Colossal Head, Olmec Pericles, Classical Greece
    • Lady Xok’s Vision of a Giant Snake
    • Sculpture
    • 723-726 CE
    • Part of a set 3 of lintels of a palace at Yaxchilan
    • Shown in unusually high relief –allows very detailed carving (Ex. Xok’s garments and jewelry)
    • Queen appears serene and idealized indicating her importance in the court as well as elite Mayan women in general
    Mayan
    • Late Classical Cylindrical Vessel
    • Painted Ceramic
    • 600-900CE
    • Codex-style (featuring a fluid line and elegance similar to that of manuscripts)
    • May illustrate an episode from a Mayan sacred text, Popol Vuh
    • Hero Twins overcome death by defeating the lords of Xibalba, the Mayan underworld
      • Xibalba sits on a platform with five female deities attending to him
    • Old woman looks out the window to a seen where two men (possibly the Hero Twins) sacrifice a bound victim and then revive him to gain confidence of Xibalba
    • Inscriptions have not been entirely translated
    Mayan
    • El Castillo
    • Mayan architecture
    • 800-1000CE
    • Made under during
    • Postclassic period when
    • the Itza rose in power
    • Different than previous pyramids--uses pillars and columns also appears lower and broader
    • Columns look like inverted descending serpents
    • Brilliantly colored relief sculpture and animal paintings that emphasize valiant warriors and the skill of ritual ballplayers
    • During spring and fall equinoxes, entering the setting sun casts serpent bodies
    Mayan Timeline
  • Buildings were used to demonstrate power and authority of the city and serve gods Temple 1, Tikal Temple of Inscriptions, Palenque El castillo, Itza
    • People lived in extended family groups in towns led by chiefs—did not live in hierarchical societies
    • Group called Diquis occupied fortified villages lasting from 700-1500 CE
    • Metal work (especially with gold and copper) was widespread through Central America (lost-wax technique developed in present-day Columbia and spread north from there)
    Central America
    • Figural Pendant
    • 750-1550 CE
    • Gold pendant depicts eagle ready to attack (wings spread and claw visible)
    • Doubled-headed serpent sprouting from eagle’s head—this may be alluding to the various transformational stages of the Shaman (religious figure with magical powers)
    • According to Diquis mythology serpents and crocodiles occupied a lower world, while humans and birds inhabited the higher one
    • Gold pendant may have been amulets or indicators of high status
    • Worn to evoke fear from opponent
    Diquis Timeline
    • Developed complex hierarchical societies with varied artistic traditions
    • Drastic geographical differences in South America--narrow coastal plain is one of the driest deserts in the world, the Andes have high grasslands with sloping areas, and eastern slopes of the Andes descend into the tropical rain forests of the Amazon basin
      • The ecological variations impacted the art that developed in different regions
    South America
  • Chavin de Huantar
    • During 1000 to 200 BCE, the Early Horizon period, Chavin style art developed and spread
    • Art style developed at the site of Chavin de Huantar
    • Innovations in metallurgy, ceramics and textiles
    • Chavin people believed in an afterlife and that idea is reflected in their art
    • Raimondi Stone
    • Low relief sculpture in diorite
    • Found in a ceremonial complex
    • 1000-600BCE
    • Chavin Style art made during Early Horizon period
    • Figure’s headdress has snakes emerging and fills the entire surface
    • Typifies Chavin art style: frontal, symmetrical, curvilinear design and combination of human, animal, bird and reptile parts
    Chavin Timeline
  • Early Christian Manuscript vs. Animal Style Hiberno-Saxon art
    • Classified by intertwining designs with human and animal depictions
    • Mantle with Bird
    • Impersonators
    • Paracas textile
    • 200BCE-200CE
    • Culture flourished from about 1000 BCE to 200 CE, overlapping Chavin period
    • Known for textiles that were extensively wrapped around the bodies of the dead
    • Textiles were a source of prestige and wealth
    • Textile production was an important factor in the domestication of both cotton and llamas
    • Featured repeating embroidered patterns of warriors, dancers, and composite creators (bird people)
    Paracas—south coast of Peru (1000 BCE-200 CE) Timeline
    • Earth Drawing of a Hummingbird
    • Nazca geoglyph
    • 100BCE-700CE
    • Nazca’s dominated the south coast of Peru from about 200 BCE to 600 CE
    • Best known for colossal earthworks, geoglyphs.
    • Made on great stretches of desert by removing dark stones and exposing the light underlying stones
    • Each geoglyph was maintained by a clan and at certain times clans would gather and exchange goods and look for marriage partners
    • Purpose of geoglyphs is unclear
    Nazca—South Coast of Peru (200 BCE-600 CE) Timeline
    • North coast of Peru- Moche Valley
      • From Piura Valley to Huarmey Valley
      • 200 B.C.-600 C.E.
    • Pyramid of Sun and Moon
      • Adobe brick
      • Dominating structures of decentralized social government of Moche
    • Performed sacrificial ceremonies
      • Popular icon of art
      • Prisoners of war given as sacrifice
      • Priests would drink blood of the sacrificed
      • Warrior Priest, Bird Priest and Priestess
      • Belief of maintaining good favor with the gods
    • Well-known for their ceramic artwork
    • Created ceramic molds
      • Allowing mass production
    Moche
  • Moche
    • Moche Lord with a Feline
    • Naturalistic models of humans and animals
    • Portrait of Moche lord
    • Painted ceramic
    • Found in Moche Valley, Peru
    • 100-500 C.E.
    • 7 ½ in. tall
    • Spout and handle in back
    • Power and status in throne and dress
      • Wears earspools and headdress
    • Fine-line, decorative painting
      • Mythological narratives and ritual scenes
    • Believed animals to be sacred, anthropomorphic vessels of soul
      • Lord strokes jaguar cub or cat
    • Luxury item buried with its owner in ceremony
  • Comparison of the Human Form Khafre- Giza, Old Kingdom Kritian Boy- Acropolis Classical Period
  • Moche
    • Earspool
    • Common decorative pieces among Moche people
    • Inserted through holes of the earlobes
      • Used to stretch earlobes
      • Worn in pairs
      • Held in place by thread, connecting the two holes
    • Depiction of warriors
      • Held in high regard
      • Anatomical detail
      • Elaborate dress- wealth
      • Nose ornament, holding club and shield
      • Headdress with crescent shapes
        • Resemble knives used in sacrifices
      • Owl head necklace
    • Gold with turquoise, quartz and shell
    • 5 in. diameter
    • Found in Sipan, Peru
    • 2 nd -5 th century C.E.
    • Buried with their wearers
  • North America
    • Sparsely populated
    • Limited agriculture
    • Included different cultures
    • 100 B.C.- 550 C.E.
    • Part of Woodland Period
      • 300 B.C.-1000 C.E.
    • Traders and mound builders
    • Mississippi, Illinois, and Ohio cultures traded with other North and Central American cultures
      • Traded pipestones and flint-like stones for Floridian shark teeth and turtle shells
      • Used cooper from Upper Michigan and mica from Appalachian Mountains
    • Burial and ceremonial earthworks
      • Buried the dead with jewels and goods
    • Built mounds for shrines, sacred fires and holding homes of chiefs
    • Carved pipes with animal representations using naturalistic observations
    Hopewell
    • Beaver Effigy Platform Pipe
    • Found in Bedford Mound, Pike County, IL
    • 100-200 C.E.
    • Length 4 9/16 x 1 7/8 x 2”
    • Pipestone, river pearl, and bone
    • Used in trade and social groupings
    • Realism and stylized simplification
    • Beaver crouching on platform
    • White, shiny materials  spirituality
      • Pearl eyes= spirit world creature
    • Leaves placed in bowl of beaver’s back and lighted, then smoked from back end
    Hopewell
  • Great Serpent Mound
    • Located in Adams County, Ohio
    • 1070 C.E.
    • World’s largest effigy mound
    • Mounds of clay and rock, covered by soil
    • Built on meteor site (Permian Period)
      • Created plateau with cryptoexplosion structure
      • folded and faulted bedrock
    • 1,254 ft long, 3 ft high
    • National Historic Landmark- Department of Interior
    • Constructed among three cultures: Adena, Hopewell, and Fort Ancient
    • Undulating, intricate design
    • Great Serpent- mythological creature of Hopewell people
      • Embodied power of the Underworld
      • Contrasted against the falcon or birdman
      • Often horned or winged
    • Serpent holding an egg in its mouth
      • Symbolizes vast eternity
    Hopewell
    • Great Serpent Mound (continued)
    • Mississippians valued relationship between the universe and mankind
    • Surrounding burial sites
    • 1815 first map
    • 1967 Ohio Historical Society opens Serpent Mound Museum
    • 1886 excavated by Frederic Ward Putnam
    • Head and egg align with summer solstice sunset
      • 1987 Clark and Majorie Hardman
    • Astronomical influences
      • 1054 creation of Crab Nebula
      • 1066 Halley’s Comet
      • Designed after constellation Draco
    • Connecting the land and underground to heavens
    • Honoring significant event
    • Suggested representation of an eclipse
    • Purpose remains unidentified
    Hopewell Timeline
    • 500-1500 C.E.
    • Fort Center, Florida Glades
    • Warlike group dominating Southern Florida
    • Mainly hunted and fished
      • Fed off sea mammals, fish and shell fish
    • No agricultural fields
    • Dug waterways and canals
    • Mound temples and shrines
      • Decorated with posts holding animal head carvings
    • Simplified, painted carvings
      • Natural observations
    • Animal head and masks used in sacrifices and ceremonies
      • Sometimes of human features
      • Worn as headdresses by priests
    Florida Glades
    • Pelican Figurehead
    • 1000 C.E.
    • Key Marco
    • Decorative, architectural element—possibly part of a shrine
    • Wood and paint
      • Black, white, and gray
    • 4 3/8 x 2 3/8 x 3 1/8 ”
    • Once had wings
      • Found elsewhere later disintegrated
    • Clan symbols for bird or animal cult
      • Other animals include: sea turtle, alligator, fish-hawk, owl, bear, crab, wolf
    Florida Glades Timeline
  • Pueblo
  • Pueblo
    • 550-1250 C.E.
    • Four Corners Region: Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico
    • Developed irrigation system
    • Known for Pottery
    • Pueblo Bonito of Chaco Canyon
      • D-shaped, over 800 rooms in five or four storied apartment buildings
    • Also dwelled in community caves of canyons and cliffs
      • Protection and insulation
      • Community solidarity and responsibility
  • Pueblo
    • Art of pottery carried through generations
      • Still in practice today
    • Female potters
    • Low-fired ceramics
    • Earthenware, black-and-white pigment
    • 14 ½” diameter
    • 1150 C.E.
    • Designed for seed storage
      • Narrow mouth helps prevent spillage
      • Globular shape allows ample room
      • Holes at top used for hanging
        • Hung off the ground to prevent seeds from being eaten by rodents
    • Dotted square, zigzag pattern
      • Angular design contrasting round form
        • Emphasizes curviness
  • Pottery Comparison Death of Sarpedon (Euphronios Krater) Red Figure Vase- Archaic Period Achilles and Ajax Playing a Game Black Figure Vase- Archaic Period
  • More Comparisons Egyptian Vase- New Kingdom floral garlands, used at funerary feasts, wine jar Maebyeong Bottle-Goryeo Dynasty holding vinegar, wine, liquids Timeline
  • In Conclusion
    • South America
      • Advanced civilizations such as Aztecs, Mayans, Incans
        • Power and wealth symbolized in their building designs and massive city complexes
        • Similar to Mesopotamian Catal Huyuk and Greek civilizations
      • Knowledge=power
        • Mayans developed calendar and system of writing which includes 800 glyphs
      • Religion
        • Aztecs maintain good favor with their gods through blood sacrifices
          • Priests perform sacrifices atop step pyramids
    • Pyramid structure
      • Used in Egyptian, Mesopotamian and Indian art as well
      • Serving similar religious function
    • North America
      • Sparsely populated
      • Hunting, fishing, gathering plants
      • Concentrated populations around Missouri and Mississippi Rivers, Louisiana area
      • Development of agriculture (squash, sunflower, corn)
      • 1000 B.C. nomadic  settled communities
      • Earthworks