Art Of South And Southeast Asia After 1200 Alex, Ivana, Callie 1
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Art Of South And Southeast Asia After 1200 Alex, Ivana, Callie 1 Art Of South And Southeast Asia After 1200 Alex, Ivana, Callie 1 Presentation Transcript

  • ART OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA AFTER 1200 Ivana Zak, Alexandra Lopez-Vila, Callie Schiff Period 1 AP Art History
  • Regions
    • South Asia
      • India
      • Tibet
    • Southeast Asia
      • Cambodia
      • Thailand
      • Vietnam
      • Laos
      • Burma
      • Indonesia
      • Malaysia
  • India After 1200
  • Luxury Arts of India
    • Technically superb, crafted from precious materials, tableware, jewelry, furniture
    • Metalwork, rock crystal, agate, jade, ivory
    • Because of their value, pieces have been disassembled, melted down, reworked
    • Many pieces have no dates or records, and have been removed from their original places
  • Buddhist Art
    • Religion based on teachings of Buddha “the awakened one”
    • Shared his insights to help sentient beings end suffering, achieve nirvana, and escape a cycle of suffering and rebirth
    • 2 types: Theravada ("The School of the Elders") and Tantric Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle")
    • Practices of Tantric Buddhism included technique for visualizing deities-development of images with iconographic details
  • Buddhist Philosophy
    • Rich cultural iconography
      • The Lion: a symbol of Buddha’s royalty
      • The Wheel: Buddha’s law
      • Lotus: symbol of Buddha’s pure nature (grows in swamps, but mud slides off its surface)
      • Columns surrounded by a wheel: Buddha’s teaching
      • Empty Throne: Buddha, reminder of Buddha’s presence
  • Characteristics of Art
    • Buddhist Architecture
      • Stupa-mound shaped shrine with no interior
        • Reliquary-worshippers gain spiritual merit through being in close proximity to its contents
    • Buddhist Painting + Sculpture
      • Buddha’s with compact pose with little negative space
        • Often seated
        • Drapery varies
      • Generally frontal, symmetrical, have nimbus (halo)
      • Bodhisattvas : helpers usually near Buddha
      • Buddha’s actions + feelings are revealed by hand gestures mudras
      • Head has top knot, ushnisha, and hair has series of tight curls
      • Yakshas (males) + yakshis ( females): nature spirits
  • Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara
    • Avalokiteshvara: bodhisattva of greatest compassion – bows to forgo buddhahood until all others become buddhas
    • Has garments, unlike buddha who wears monk’s robes
    • Holds lotus flower & wears crown of parent
      • Has 3 eyes = ability to see in miraculous ways
      • Wheel of his palm = ability to teach Buddhist truth
      • Relaxed pose = posture of royal ease
    • Body bends gracefully
      • Chest scarf & garment reveal body
      • Detail of varied textures: flowers, ribbons
      • Formalized image
    1200, India & East Asia Guilt bronze, 10’’
  • Jain Art
    • Traces roots to spiritual leader Mahavira (599-527)
      • Final in a series of 24 saviors known as pathfinders, tirthankaras
    • Devotees seek through purification to become worthy of rebirth in heaven of the pathfinders-zone of pure existence a zenith of universe
    • Monks live life of austerity
    • More private forms of artistic expression
      • Illustrating sacred texts rather than public temples
  • Detail of a Leaf with the Birth of Mahavira
    • Illustrated manuscript from Kalpa Sutra (explicates the lives of the pathfinders
    • 1 st Jain manuscript on paper rather than palm leaf
    • Medium : gouache on paper
    • Mahavira shown being cradled in his mother’s arms after birth
    • Vibrant colors impart an energy to the painting that suggests the arrival of the divine in the mundane world
    • Swelling curves of the figures show a sense of importance
    Date : c. 1375-1400 Size : 8.5 X 7.6 cm
  • Goache Painting
    • Pronounced “gwash.” Comes from the Italian word “guazzo” for mud
    • Mix of pigment and Gum Arabic (the binder for the pigment, giving it a creamy, flowing consistency)
    • Opaque, dries quickly, matt finish, very amenable, covers well
  • Indian Process of Painting on Paper
    • Painter applies a thin wash of chalk-based white (sealing the surface)
    • Fill outlines with thick washes of opaque unmodulated color
    • When colors dry, the painting was laid facedown on a smooth, marble surface & burnished with a rounded agate stone (to polish)
    • Details were then added with a fine brush
  • Hindu Art
    • Dominant religious tradition in India
    • Building programs spurred by wealthy rules
      • Structures of era were monumental with complexity and grandeur of proportion
      • Largely in south of India
    • Most powerful southern Hindu Kingdom was Vijayanagar (1336-1565)
      • Viewed themselves as defenders/preservers of Hindu faith & culture
      • Kings lavished donations on sacred shrines
  • Hindu Philosophy
    • Infinite variety of divine-expressed through gods, nature, human beings
    • Shiva is one of principal Hindu deities-dances the world to destruction and rebirth
  • Characteristics of Art
    • Hindu Architecture
      • Hindu temple is not for worship but residence for a god
        • Used corbelled-vaulting techniques to create cavelike look
        • Thick walls protect deity from outside forces
      • Northern India-vertical character
    • Hindu Painting
      • Miniatures, illustrations
      • Tend to be crowded and colorful
      • Perspective tilted upward
      • Figures painted with delicacy-generally small compared to landscape
    • Hindu Sculpture
      • Temple sculpture integrated to architecture
      • Mithuna: pairs of divine couples
      • To touch image is to touch god himself-images treated with respect
  • Minakshi-Sundareshvara Temple
    • Temple at Madurai, Hindu faith (13 th century)
    • Dedicated to goddess Minakshi & Sundareshvara (the Shiva)
    • Dramatic features include the thousand-pillar halls, large ritual bathing pools, entrance gateways ( gopuras)
    • Tallest structures in temple cities are at the periphery, rather than central temples
    • The complex at Madurai has 11 gopuras , over 160 ft tall
    • Gopura originates from the vimana (7 th century pyramidal tower)
      • has graceful concave silhouette
      • Exterior has 1000s of sculpted figures, evoking a world of gods & goddesses
  • Outer Gopura of Minakshi-Sundareshvara Temple
  • Tantric Influence in the Art of Nepal & Tibet
    • Inlaid Devotional Sculpture
      • Metalwork style-use of polished stones
      • Inlaid gems and semiprecious stones enlivened copper or bronze sculptures
      • Complex representations of deities
        • Celestial attributes, multiarmed, adorned
    • Tangka Painting
      • Wrathful manifestatins of deities, mysterious and powerful
  • Maya, Mother of Buddha
    • Holds legendary tree branch while Buddha emerges from her side
    • Details: fluttering scarves, jewelry, large studded crown
    • Tree also richly inlaid w/ stones = auspicious nature of birth
    • Figure and tree rise from pedestal = blossoming lotus, Buddha’s purity
    18 th century, gilt bronze 22’’
  •  
  • Achala
    • Medium : gouache on cottton
    • Deities associated with truth, resolve, and the overcoming of obstacles
    • Background-green hills + blue sky=material world + cosmic geometry of Tantric Buddhism
    • Repeated representations of the deity
      • conspicuous power of image
    Date : 19 th century, Tibet Size : 85 X 60 cm
  • Southeast Asia after 1200
  • Theravada Buddhism in Burma/Thailand
    • 11 th -13 th century-rulers built many religious monuments-temples, monasteries, stupas in Pagan plain
    • Artists working under royal patrons developed classic statement of Theravada ideals in bronze sculptures of Buddha
  • Shwe-Dagon Stupa (Pagoda)
    • Established in Rangoon (capital) by Mon rulers
    • Enshrines relics of Buddha
    • Shwe-dagon = “Golden Dragon”
    • Reflects centuries of restoration & enhancement
    • Center of Theravada devotion
    • Contains lotus elements symbolic of the Buddha’s purity
    • Decoration in gilding & precious stones
    • Pagoda = temple or sacred building (pyramid-like tower) w/ upward curving roofs over individual stories
    Northern Burma, 11 th – 13 th century
  • Buddha Calling the Earth to Witness
    • Thailand, Sukhothai kingdom
    • Bronze sculptures of Buddha
    • Inspired by devotional texts and poetry
    • Iconographic & stylistic elements of perfection
    • Cranial protuberance = flame of divine knowledge
    • Details of ecclesiastical costume now reduced to few elegant lines
    • Mudras = hand gestures (eloquent)
    Mid 13 th – 14 th century
  •  
  • Kouros
    • Greek Archaic smile
    • Perfection of the body
    • Symmetry & balance
  • Ceramics from Hoi An Hoard (Vietnam)
    • Burmese and Thai kingdoms produced ceramics
    • Inspired by stonewares & porcelains from China
    • Excavation of Hoi An “hoard” = contents of sunken ship laden w/ ceramics for export
    • Embellished with overglaze enamels
    • Vietnamese potters
    • Late 15 th -16 th century
    • Porcelain with underglaze blue decoration
  • Ramayana Scene
    • Indonesia experienced Hindu revival following the Buddhist period (8 th -9 th century)
    • Ramayana = Hindu epic
    • Javanese versions of epics can be found illustrated in narrative reliefs from shrines of 14 th century
    • Modeling reduced, rhythmic surface ornamentation increased
    • Wayang style : similar to leather shadow puppets of Indonesian wayang theater
    • Botanic motifs
  • Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
    • Scenes (religious)
    • Relief sculpture
    • Roman
    • 1526–1858
    Mughal Empire
  • Mughal Period
    • Islam touched South Asian subcontinent in 8 th century-Arab armies captured territory near Indus
    • From 1206-Turkish dynasties ruled portions of subcontinent from Delhi
    • Sultanates constructed forts, mausoleums, monuments, mosques
  • Mughal Architecture
    • Mughal architects were heir to 300 yr-old tradition of Islamic buildings in India
    • Forts housing government + court buildings
    • Ancestors= 2 fundamental Islamic structures: mosque + tomb
      • Construction based on arch + dome
      • Borrowed decorative + structural elements to create hybrid styles
        • Synthesized Indian, Persian, Central Asian elements
    • Cenotaphs = tombs or monuments to someone whose remains are actually somewhere else
  • Buland Darvaza (The Lofty Gate)
    • Akbar: patron of architecture, constructed capital at palace of Fatehpur Sikri
    • The gate is built on a high plinth, leading to a central courtyard
    • Gateway of proportion
    • Inscription dated 1601 cites kbar’s triumphant return from the Deccan
    1573-1574
  •  
  • Taj Mahal
  • Taj Mahal (1631-48)
    • Indian Islamic structure, on the bank of Yamuna River at Agra
    • Commissioned as a mausoleum for his wife by emperor Shah Jahan  leader of the Moguls
    • The enclosure is divided into quadrants planted with trees & flowers  pool & gardens
    • Walkways & stone inlaid in geometric patterns
    • Made of red sandstone & white marble
    • Tomb is raised higher than other structures on marble platform
    • A minaret (slender tower) defines the surrounding space with three levels
    • Crowning each minaret is a chattri (pavilion)
    • Lucid geometric symmetry & proportions (height & width)
    • Weightless effect
    • On the roof, 4 octagonal chattris create a visual transition to the bulbous dome
    • Sides of platform are carved in relief with a blind arcade motif and cared from the Quran inlaid in black marble
    • Spandrels are decorated with floral arabesques inlaid in colored stones  pietra dura
    • Each façade is identical with central iwan (vaulted opening with an arched portal
    • Iwans contribute to sense of weightlessness
    Taj Mahal
  • TAJ MAHAL
  • Hagia Sophia, 537 CE
    • Ordered by emperor Justinian
    • Byzantine
    • Religious
    • 1453: ordered conversion into mosque
    • Islamic features: minarets
    • Domed ceiling, balance & symmetry
  • The Duomo, 1418
    • By Brunelleschi, Gothic
    • Dome of Florence Cathedral
    • Striking impact
    • balance
  • Mughal Painting
    • Akbar-most control over solidification of Mughal Empire and creation of Mughal art (loved the arts)
    • Created imperial atelier (workshop) of painters
      • Placed under direction of 2 artists from Persian court
        • Learning from 2 masters-Indian painters of atelier transformed Persian styles into more vigorous, naturalistic
  • Mughal Painting
    • Painting in the Court of Akbar
      • Paintings documenting Akbar’s own life + accomplishments in Akbarnama
      • Illustrated manuscript of Hamzanama
        • Persian classic about adventures of Hamza
    • Painting in the Court of Jahangir
      • Preferred courtly life to adventurous one-painting reflect subdued + refined taste (realistic detail)
      • Fidelity in portraiture
  • Akbar Inspecting The Construction of Fatehpur Sikri
    • Artist : Tulsi the Elder with Bandi and Madhu Kalan
    • Medium : opaque watercolor on paper
    • Akbar’s inspection of stone masons and other craftsmen
    • Rendering of Buland Darwaza (Lofty Gate)
    Date : c. 1590 Size : 37.5 X 25 cm
  • Akbarnama
  • Hamza’s Spies Scale The Fortress
    • Medium : gouache on cotton
    • Shows Hamza’s spies scaling a fortress wall
    • Receding lines of architecture provide reasonably believable 3D setting
    • Sense of depth-boldly undercut by richly variegated geometric patterns of tilework
      • Flat tiles contrast rounded human figures
    • Robust, naturalistic figure style
    • Sensuous landscape
    Date : c. 1567-82 Size : 76 X 61 cm
  • Jahangir in Darbar
    • Medium : gouache on paper
    • Emperor holding an audience, darbar , at court
    • Symmetrical format
    • Jahngir=top center
    • Audience divided along central axis (figures lined up in profile or ¾ view)
    Date : c. 1620 Size : 35 X 20 cm
  • Jama Masjid in Delhi 1656
  • Jama Masjid
    • Principle mosque in Old Delhi
    • Commissioned by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (builder of Taj Mahal)
    • Largest known mosque in India
    • Can hold up to 25,000 worshippers
    • Enhances majesty with placement of high ground
    • Easter gate (royal) has 35 steps
      • Used to house food stalls, shops & street entertainers
    • Faces west with open arched colonnades, and has 2 lofty minarets
  • Inlay detail of the interior arches Iron Door of the Main Entrance
  • Rajput Painting
    • Northern India governed regionally by local Hindu princes, descendants of Rajput warrior clans
    • Supported painters-variety of strong, indigenous Indian painting styles perpetuated
    • More abstract + poetic than Mughal style
      • Royal portraits, court scenes, indigenous subject (myths, love poetry, Ragmala)
    • Bhakti= Hindu devotional movement
      • Inspired poetic literature, especially to Krishna
      • Gita Govinda= cycle of rhapsodic poems about love between God and humans
  • Krishna and the Gopis
    • Manuscript of Gita Govida
    • Krishna sits in dalliance with group of cowherd women
    • Radha peers through trees-overcome with jealousy
    • Radha=cool blue behind her
    • Crimson red behind Krishna=passion
    • Curving stalks + bold patterns-exuberance of springtime
    • Figures of single type (plump faces & oversized eyes)
      • Variety of texture provides individuality
    Region of Rajasthan 1525-50 Size: 12.3 x 19 cm
  • Krisna and the Gopis Comparison
  • Hour of Cowdust
    • Medium : gouache on paper
    • Shows influence of Mughal naturalism on later schools of Indian painting
    • Krishna wearing peacock crown, garland of flowers, yellow garment
      • returns to village with his fellow cowherds + cattle
    • Charming village with pastel houses (creates space)
    • Diagonal movement of cows
    • Trees on horizon-naturalism
    Date : c. 1790 Size : 36 X 31.9 cm
  • India’s Engagement with West
  • Indian Influence in the West
    • British Colonial Period
      • Under mercantile interests of British East India Company in 17 th /18 th century
      • Political concerns extended to arts, architecture
    • Modern Period
      • Wake of WWII, imperial powers of Europe shed colonial domains
  • British Colonial Period
  • India Gate, 1931
    • 1911 British had intention to move the government seat from Calcutta to New Delhi
    • Sir Edwin Lutyens: architect
    • Lutyens developed Viceroy’s House w/ focal point of triumphal arch of All India War Memorial
    • Inspiration from Classical antiquity, models from Washington, D.C.
    • Lutyens sought to maintain tradition of Classical architecture
    • Developed “Delphi order” based on the Roman Doric
  • Arch of Constantine, 312-15 CE
    • Barrel-vaulted arches
    • High pedestals
    • Highly decorated, although India Gate is simple
    • Also mean to commemorate Constantine’s victory over Maxentius
    • Reliefs symbolize his power and generosity
  • Bharat Mata (Mother India)
    • Artist : Abanindranath Tagore
    • Medium : watercolor on paper
    • Style that reflected ethnic origins
    • Invents nationalistic icon by using Hindu symbols
      • Drew upon format/technique of Mughal painting
    Date : c. 1905 Size : 26.7 X 15.3 cm
  • Modern Period
  • Gandhi Bhavan
  • Gandhi Bhavan
    • Gandhi Bhavan at Punjab University in Chandigarh (N. India)
    • After Indian independence in 1947, a modern, internationalist approach was introduced
    • Used for lectures & prayer
    • Designed late 1950’s by B.P. Mathur with Pierre Jeanneret
    • International Style: pinwheel plan and abstract sculptural qualities reflect modern version
    • Robust combination of angles & curves  from Sanskrit letterforms
  • Dharma And The God
    • Artist : Manjit Bawa
    • Medium : oil on canvas
    • Juxtapose illusionistically modeled figures and animals against colored backgrounds of flat, unmodulated color
    Date : c. 1984 Size : 216 X 185.4 cm