Hannah, Maddie, Cameron<br />Art of the Americas before 1300<br />
American Areas<br /><ul><li>Mesoamerica
Extending from Valley of Mexico to Honduras, Belize, and Western Nicaragua
Olmec, Teotihuacan, Mayas
Central America
Mexico
South America
Peru
Paracas, Nazca, Moche
North America
Mississippi, Ohio, Illinois, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Florida</li></li></ul><li>Before 1300 <br /><ul><li>Prec...
1500 BCE- 250 CE
Classic Period
260-900 CE
Postclassic Period
900-1521 CE
700-1500 CE
1000 BCE-200CE
200BCE-600CE
Woodland Period
100BCE-550CE</li></li></ul><li>Mesoamerica<br />
Mesoamerica<br /><ul><li>Location: Valley of Mexico to present day Honduras, Belize, and western Nicaragua
Region ranges in terms of climate, but all developed similarly
Complex system of multiple calendars
260 ritual cycle and 365 day agricultural cycle
Divided into elite and commoner classes
Formative or Preclassic (1500 BCE- 250 CE), Classic (260-900 CE), and Postclassic (900-1521 CE)
Consists of the Olmecs, Teotihuacan, and the Mayas </li></li></ul><li>Olmecs<br />Formative/Preclassic period<br />Located...
No form of written language
Highly descriptive arts– showing beliefs
In art, has 3 levels
 sky, earth, underworld
Sculpture and ceramics depict humans while taking the form of animals </li></li></ul><li>Olmecs<br />Produced a number of ...
Olmecs<br />Colossal Head, La Venta<br />900-400 BCE<br />7’5” <br />In Mexico<br />Made of Basalt <br />Closefitting caps...
Colossal Heads from Mesoamerica<br />
Comparison<br />Roman Patrician: Very realistic, not stylized (unlike the colossal heads) <br />Archaic Sculpture: stylize...
Teotihuacan<br /><ul><li>About 30 miles northeast of present day Mexico City
Largest city in the Americas between 350-650 CE
 population of 200,00o</li></li></ul><li>Teotihuacan<br /><ul><li>Wealth based on trade
Trading of obsidian tools and pottery, traded for luxury items such as green feathers (headdresses) and fur of the jaguar
City Center was religious and governmental center
Elite lived in large palaces; some having 45 rooms
Artisans, foreign traders, and peasants had much simpler homes: small rectangle surrounding a court</li></li></ul><li>Teot...
Let’s Compare! <br />Teotihuacan<br />Egyptian<br />Pyramid of the Sun<br />Not quite as tall as the Egyptian Pyramids<br ...
Teotihuacan<br /><ul><li>In the heart of the city is a vast sunken plaza surrounded by temples
The plaza could accommodate 60,000 people
Its central point was the Temple of the Feathered Serpent
7 tiered structure
Slope and panel construction– which is a feature of Teotihuacan architecture
This pyramid kept getting enlarged, each time enclosing the previous so like layers of an onion</li></li></ul><li>Teotihua...
The Maya<br />Preclassic Period, Classic, and Postclassic<br /> Located in tropical rain forest of the Yucatan<br />Develo...
Mayan<br />The society was divided into centers– each had ruler, elite class, nobles and priests, and then farmer-commoner...
Mayan<br />Palenque <br />Present day Mexican state of Chiapas rose in the Classic Period<br />Hieroglyphic writings recor...
Central America <br />
Central America<br />People lived in extended family groups in towns led by chiefs <br />The Diquis culture (700-1500 CE) ...
Central America<br />Shaman with Drum and Snake (13th-16th century, Gold)<br />Resides in Costa Rica<br />Came with the us...
Central America<br />(Continued)<br />Shaman is a small, exquisite pendant-good example of the style and tecnique of Diqui...
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Art in the americas before1300

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Art in the americas before1300

  1. 1. Hannah, Maddie, Cameron<br />Art of the Americas before 1300<br />
  2. 2. American Areas<br /><ul><li>Mesoamerica
  3. 3. Extending from Valley of Mexico to Honduras, Belize, and Western Nicaragua
  4. 4. Olmec, Teotihuacan, Mayas
  5. 5. Central America
  6. 6. Mexico
  7. 7. South America
  8. 8. Peru
  9. 9. Paracas, Nazca, Moche
  10. 10. North America
  11. 11. Mississippi, Ohio, Illinois, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Florida</li></li></ul><li>Before 1300 <br /><ul><li>Preclassic/Formative Period
  12. 12. 1500 BCE- 250 CE
  13. 13. Classic Period
  14. 14. 260-900 CE
  15. 15. Postclassic Period
  16. 16. 900-1521 CE
  17. 17. 700-1500 CE
  18. 18. 1000 BCE-200CE
  19. 19. 200BCE-600CE
  20. 20. Woodland Period
  21. 21. 100BCE-550CE</li></li></ul><li>Mesoamerica<br />
  22. 22. Mesoamerica<br /><ul><li>Location: Valley of Mexico to present day Honduras, Belize, and western Nicaragua
  23. 23. Region ranges in terms of climate, but all developed similarly
  24. 24. Complex system of multiple calendars
  25. 25. 260 ritual cycle and 365 day agricultural cycle
  26. 26. Divided into elite and commoner classes
  27. 27. Formative or Preclassic (1500 BCE- 250 CE), Classic (260-900 CE), and Postclassic (900-1521 CE)
  28. 28. Consists of the Olmecs, Teotihuacan, and the Mayas </li></li></ul><li>Olmecs<br />Formative/Preclassic period<br />Located in the swampy coastal area of present-day Veracruz and Tabasco<br />Faised earth mounds and constructed ceremonial centers<br />These centers most likely housed the elite<br /><ul><li>There are many known centers such as La Venta and San Lorenzo
  29. 29. No form of written language
  30. 30. Highly descriptive arts– showing beliefs
  31. 31. In art, has 3 levels
  32. 32. sky, earth, underworld
  33. 33. Sculpture and ceramics depict humans while taking the form of animals </li></li></ul><li>Olmecs<br />Produced a number of monumental basalt sculptures<br />Including colossal heads, altars, and seated figures<br />These huge works were transported among the centers<br />Heads were from 5 to 12 feet and 5-20 tons <br />
  34. 34. Olmecs<br />Colossal Head, La Venta<br />900-400 BCE<br />7’5” <br />In Mexico<br />Made of Basalt <br />Closefitting caps, chin straps, pierced ear<br />Each is different, possibly suggesting they were of individuals<br />
  35. 35. Colossal Heads from Mesoamerica<br />
  36. 36. Comparison<br />Roman Patrician: Very realistic, not stylized (unlike the colossal heads) <br />Archaic Sculpture: stylized with archaic smile and unrealistic hair texture <br />
  37. 37. Teotihuacan<br /><ul><li>About 30 miles northeast of present day Mexico City
  38. 38. Largest city in the Americas between 350-650 CE
  39. 39. population of 200,00o</li></li></ul><li>Teotihuacan<br /><ul><li>Wealth based on trade
  40. 40. Trading of obsidian tools and pottery, traded for luxury items such as green feathers (headdresses) and fur of the jaguar
  41. 41. City Center was religious and governmental center
  42. 42. Elite lived in large palaces; some having 45 rooms
  43. 43. Artisans, foreign traders, and peasants had much simpler homes: small rectangle surrounding a court</li></li></ul><li>Teotihuacan<br />Principle monuments are Pyramid of the Sun and Pyramid of the Moon<br />Pyramid of the Sun is the largest<br />slightly over 200 feet high and 720 feet at base<br />Artists worked in fresco technique: applied pigments on damp plaster<br />Painted in layers and was similar to sculpture<br /> it was flat, angular, and abstract<br />
  44. 44. Let’s Compare! <br />Teotihuacan<br />Egyptian<br />Pyramid of the Sun<br />Not quite as tall as the Egyptian Pyramids<br />Series of sloping steps<br />The Great Pyramid of Giza <br />Similar structure<br />
  45. 45. Teotihuacan<br /><ul><li>In the heart of the city is a vast sunken plaza surrounded by temples
  46. 46. The plaza could accommodate 60,000 people
  47. 47. Its central point was the Temple of the Feathered Serpent
  48. 48. 7 tiered structure
  49. 49. Slope and panel construction– which is a feature of Teotihuacan architecture
  50. 50. This pyramid kept getting enlarged, each time enclosing the previous so like layers of an onion</li></li></ul><li>Teotihuacan<br />Temple of the Feathered Serpent <br />
  51. 51. The Maya<br />Preclassic Period, Classic, and Postclassic<br /> Located in tropical rain forest of the Yucatan<br />Developed hieroglyphic writing and had a sophisticated calendar “Maya Record Keeping”<br /> In favor of low relief carvings<br />Artists had high status <br />
  52. 52. Mayan<br />The society was divided into centers– each had ruler, elite class, nobles and priests, and then farmer-commoners<br />Olmec influence <br />Tikal= largest Maya city <br />North Acropolis :<br />Containing royal tombs <br />
  53. 53. Mayan<br />Palenque <br />Present day Mexican state of Chiapas rose in the Classic Period<br />Hieroglyphic writings recorded the the beginning of the royal dynasty 431 CE<br />Lord Pakal <br />Portrait of Lord Pakal found in his tomb <br />
  54. 54. Central America <br />
  55. 55. Central America<br />People lived in extended family groups in towns led by chiefs <br />The Diquis culture (700-1500 CE) was a notable example of one of these groups (present day Costa Rica)<br />A very war-like people<br />Did not focus on architecture or sculpture<br />Produced fine featherwork, ceramics, textiles and gold/jade objects <br />
  56. 56. Central America<br />Shaman with Drum and Snake (13th-16th century, Gold)<br />Resides in Costa Rica<br />Came with the use of gold an copper-gold alloys in artwork (Metallurgy)<br />Used lost-wax casting technique<br />
  57. 57. Central America<br />(Continued)<br />Shaman is a small, exquisite pendant-good example of the style and tecnique of Diquis goldwork<br />Male figure wearing bracelets, anklets, and a belt with a snake-headed sheath<br />He plays a drum while holding the tail of a snake in his teeth and its head in his left hand<br />Wavy forms in elaborate reptile costume, inverted triangles on headdress represent bird tails<br />
  58. 58. Central America<br />Bird and snake imagery important to culture<br />Mythology- serpents/crocodiles inhabited lower world, humans and bird a higher one<br />Maybe shaman is transforming or performin a ritual?<br />Scrolls on side of head represent hearing or ability to understand animals<br />Shows a ritual of mediation between earthly and cosmic powers involving music, dance, and costume<br />
  59. 59. Central America<br />Gold thought to capture the energy and power of the sun (wore to inspire fear)<br />Energy used to travel into cosmic realms<br />
  60. 60. Compare/Contrast<br />Greek Earrings (330-300BCE)<br />Gold<br />Lost-wax process<br />Often placed on ears of marble statues of goddesses<br />2 inches tall<br />Drama, swift movement through space<br />Hellenistic<br />-Diquis pendant<br />-Gold<br />-3.25 inches tall<br />-Lost- wax casting<br />-animal imagery<br />-movement<br />-Wavy forms<br />-not as realistic<br />
  61. 61. South America<br />
  62. 62. South America<br />The Central Andes: (primarily located in Peru and Bolivia)<br />Development of hierarchical societies with diverse artistic traditions<br />Area between Andes and Pacific Ocean contains one of the driest deserts in the world<br />Life depended on Sea and the rivers flowing from Andes<br />
  63. 63. South America<br />Earliest evidence of monumental building in Peru during 3rd millennium BCE-- stone-walled structures with sunken central fire pits for burning ritual offerings<br />Chief crops included cotton (fishing nets), and gourds (floats)<br />Herding and Agriculture became prominent in second millennium BCE<br />Irrigation systems, ceremonial complexes<br />Spread of pottery and ceramics came with the shift to irrigation agriculture<br />
  64. 64. Chavin de Huantar: early site of Chavin style<br />Between 1000 and 200 BCE<br />Era known as the Early Horizon (first of 3 horizon periods)<br />Political and social forces behind Chavin style unknown (possibly religious cult)<br />Period of artistic and technical innovation in ceramics, metallurgy, and textiles<br />Artifacts found at burial sites (shows importance to the Chavin people of burial and afterlife)<br />
  65. 65. Chavin de Huantar<br />Site was located on a trade route between coast and Amazon basin<br />Chavin art features images of tropical forest animals<br />The Raimondi Stone (pictured) is very complex<br />Peru, 1000-600 BCE<br />Low relief sclupture carved into diorite<br />Large headdress (covers entire rectangular surface), staves in each paw<br />Frontal, symmetrical, curvilinear design<br />Snakes in hair, claws/fangs of a jaguar<br />Extra heads<br />Human, animal, bird, reptile parts<br />
  66. 66. Paracas<br />The Paracas culture in southern Peru flourished from about 1000 BCE to 200 CE<br />Well known for amazing textiles (wrapped around bodies of dead in cemeteries)<br />Art of textiles was and still is one of the most prized types of artwork in the region<br />Fine textiles= prestige and wealth<br />Production of textiles was an important factor in the domestication of plants (cotton) and animals (llamas)<br />Usually included many images of warriors, dancers, and composite creatures (bird people)<br />
  67. 67. Paracas<br /><ul><li>Mantle with Bird Impersonators (200 BCE-200 CE)
  68. 68. Tiny overlapping stitches
  69. 69. Colorful, curvilinear patterns, (some parts have as many as 21 different colors in a single stitch)
  70. 70. Amazing effect of clashing and contrasting colors and tumbling figures</li></li></ul><li>Nazca<br />Nazca culture dominated the south coast of Peru (200 BCE-600 CE)<br />Fine fabrics, multicolored pottery-images reminiscent to those of Paracas textiles<br />Best known for colossal earthworks (geoglyphs)<br />Geoglyphs drew into the earth, created gigantic light stoned images (such as a hummingbird- next slide)<br />
  71. 71. Nazca<br />(100 BCE- 700 CE)<br />Beak is 120 ft long<br />Other animals include a whale, monkey, spider, and duck<br />Also made abstract patterns of straight, parallel lines that extend up to 12 miles<br />Each geoglyph maintained by a clan<br />Purpose of them is a mystery <br />
  72. 72. Moche<br />North coast (Piura Valley to Huarmey Valley, 200 BCE- 600 CE)<br />Lords ruled from a ceremonial-administrative center, largest of these is Moche Valle (possibly capital)<br />Moche Valley contained the Pyramids of the Sun and the Moon<br />Moche were exceptional potters and metalsmiths<br />Used naturalistically modeled humans, animals, and architectural structures<br />Recorded mythical narratives and ritual scenes in art, and on walls/temples<br />One ceramic vessel is of a Moche Lord With a Feline (100 BCE- 500 CE)<br />Throne-like structure, elaborate headdress, stroking cat- item of luxury, shows high status, buried with people<br />
  73. 73. Moche<br />
  74. 74. Moche<br />Central theme in Moche iconography is the sacrifice ceremony (prisoners captured in battle are sacrificed and several elaborately dressed figures drink their blood)<br />Principal figure= Warrior Priest, other important figures= Bird Priest, Priestess<br />Possibly an actual Moche ritual by the lords<br />Evidence seen from tomb at Sipan (occupant dressed like Warrior Priest) and tomb at San Jose de Moro<br />
  75. 75. Moche<br />Earspool (Sipan, Peru)<br />Depicts 3 Moche warrios<br />Central figure made of gold and turquoise<br />All 3 have tiny gold earspools<br />Gold/turquoise headdresses, crescent shaped knives<br />Central figure has nose ornament, gold club, and shield<br />Has necklace of owl’s-head beads<br />Very detailed<br />
  76. 76. North America<br />
  77. 77. The Woodland Period<br />Spans from approximately 1000 BCE to 1000 CE<br />Consists of prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunting and gathering and the temple-mound-building Mississippian cultures in the eastern United States<br />The Woodland Period was marked by three distinct traits:<br />the manufacture of clay pottery<br />semi-permanent villages or settlements<br />development of horticulture, plants are now purposefully being cultivated and harvested for food<br />During this time period, group territories became smaller and more well-defined<br />The population begins to rise steadily<br />The Hopewell religion is spread throughout the North American region through the process of trade<br />
  78. 78. Adena Tradition<br />Spanned from 1000 BCE to 1 CE in the Ohio River Valley area<br />Because they were situated on the Ohio River, their arts were able to spread to other areas like New York, Pennsylvania, and southern Illinois<br />Although many cultures after it would have burial mounds, the Adena burial mounds are unique in that they vary greatly in size and take a conical shape<br />The Adena culture is seen as the precursor to the Hopewell culture by many scholars<br />Many pieces of art include shamanistic imagery  humans transforming into indigenous animals<br />
  79. 79. North American Northeast: The Hopewell Tradition<br />Originated in the Illinois area<br />Held superiority in the Midwestern and northeastern sections of the area that would become the United States from 200 BCE to 500 CE<br />The Hopewell tradition was not one singular culture or society, but an extensive set of related populations<br />Peoples of the Hopewell tradition practiced egalitarianism due to the abundance of resources<br />The signature structure of the Hopewell tradition was the burial mound; these burial mounds were more complex than the ones built previously by the Adena culture<br />burial complexes could be as large as 100 acres<br />The Hopewell tradition also hastened the progress of pottery by introducing a larger variety which were fired to make them more durable<br />Due to increased trade, luxury goods like mica and pearls became commonplace in Hopewell art <br />
  80. 80.
  81. 81. The Process of Pottery Making<br />Step 1 – Clay was gathered from eroding riverbanks and mixed with a tempering agent such as sand or crushed shells<br />Step 2 – The clay is rolled into long cylinders and then shaped into coils, these coils are then smoothed out by moistening the clay with water and running a stone along the outside of the pot that is being formed<br />Step 3 – The pottery is then decorated and the surface treatment is applied to the exterior of the pottery and it is set to dry in the sun<br />Step 4 – The pottery was then baked in an extremely hot fire to make the pottery more durable<br />
  82. 82. Beaver Effigy Platform Pipe<br />Found in the Bedford Mound, Pike County, Illinois<br />Hopewell culture<br />c. 100-200 CE<br />Utilizes pipestone, river pearls, and bone<br />Combined realism with stylized simplification of the animal’s form<br />
  83. 83. The Mississippian Period<br />This period originated in the Mississippi Valley and occurred approximately from 900 CE to 1700 CE<br />This era is typified by the construction of large, flat mounds that support a particular structure unlike the burial mounds of the Woodland Period<br />During this time, the indigenous people were developing a way to make pottery even more durable through the process of shell tempering which prevented the pottery from shrinking and cracking during the drying and firing process<br />Agricultural advancements led to increased dependence on maize crops while the population growth required a system of government to rule the people via a chiefdom<br />Mississippians lived in structures built of timber, mud, and thatch, however, the structures were created in a rectangular shape unlike the circular form of the Woodland Period houses<br />
  84. 84. Cahokia<br />Ancient Native American city located next to the Mississippi River near Collinsville, Illinois<br />Built and inhabited between 700 CE – 1400 CE<br />Covered a sprawling area of the countryside at its height (1100 CE – 1200 CE) six square miles with a booming population anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000<br />The city was supplied by agriculture in the surrounding area  one of the most fertile regions in North America<br />the population began to decline in 1200 CE and the site was abandoned by 1400 CE<br />late 1600s, the Cahokia Indians settled in the area which is where the village derived its name<br />
  85. 85. Construction of Cahokia<br />Comprised of 120 earthen mounds within the compound<br /> 68 of which are preserved within the site<br />Mounds made entirely of dirt  workers moved over 50 million cubic feet of soil leaving behind ditches called borrow pits<br />Built using large baskets estimated between 50 and 60 pounds<br />Intentionally selected different soils for the mound to give it internal stability and drainage<br />Two Types of Mounds:<br />Platform mound – typically supported structures used for political or religious ceremonies<br />Conical/Ridge mound – used as burial tombs<br />Mathematical, astronomical, and engineering skills were required to construct the city<br />
  86. 86. Structures Within Cahokia<br />Monk’s Mound:<br />The largest earthwork in North America<br />1,000 feet in length, 800 feet in width, and 100 feet tall<br />Construction started in 950 CE<br />Surrounded by a stockade two miles in length with guard towers placed at specific intervals<br />Acted as both a physical and psychological barricade between the ruling class and common people<br />Woodhenge:<br />Built around 1000 CE, these wood posts served as a calendar (mark the equinoxes and summer and winter solstices, observed from the center post)<br />The original circle was 410 feet in diameter and was composed of 48 cedar posts<br />During excavations, red ochre was found which indicates the poles were painted red<br />
  87. 87.
  88. 88. North American Southeast: The Florida Glades Culture<br />Many distinct regional cultures within the Glades area<br />Defined by its pottery and earthworks because the region contains very poor soil with low elevation and wetlands making it very difficult area to inhabit<br />Built habitation mounds to serve as a dry place to settle<br />The people of the Glades culture survived mainly on hunting and gathering since there was very little arable land<br />
  89. 89. Pelican Figurehead<br />Created by the Florida Glades culture<br />1000 CE<br />Wood and paint<br />(11.2 x 6 x 8cm)<br />Outstretched wings found nearby in excavation<br />Might have been attached to ceremonial posts  suggest clan symbols<br />The style is simplified and naturalistic<br />
  90. 90.
  91. 91. The North American Southwest: The Pueblo Culture<br />Mostly had influences within the four corners region (Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico)<br />Because agriculture was usually out of the question in such a deserted climate, the pueblo people would live together and build apartment-like and storied buildings creating massive communities<br />Some buildings were constructed to serve as communal food storage, others for religious purposes<br />Other cultures in the area adapted and built deep and narrow irrigation systems to accommodate the water shortage<br />
  92. 92. Anthropomorphs<br />Found in the Great Gallery in Horseshoe Canyon, Utah<br />Figures are variously dated<br />Archaeologists have dated some to be as early as 1900 BCE and others as late as 300 CE<br />Largest figure 8 feet tall<br />Consists of pictographs (painted onto the surface of the rock) and petroglyphs (pecked into the rock)<br />Subject matter unknown, but most likely depicted rain gods<br />The human form is very stylized and stiff  indicative of a divine subject matter<br />
  93. 93. Bibliography<br />"Morien Institute - Birds On The Pampa - a Tribute to the Work of Maria Reiche on the Nazca Plain." Morien Institute - Skywatching through the Ages Homepage. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. <http://www.morien-institute.org/nazca7.html>.<br />"Raimondi Stone (archaeology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/489821/Raimondi-Stone>.<br />-"Quick Study: Woodland Period." LEARN NC. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. <http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/1237>.-"Cahokia Mounds - The Largest Archeaological Site in America." Legends of America - A Travel Site for the Nostalgic and Historic Minded. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. <http://www.legendsofamerica.com/il-cahokia.html>.<br />-"Archaeological Sites." Web. 21 Dec. 2010. <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology/sites/northamerica/cahokia.html>.<br />-"Cahokia Mounds - The Largest Archeaological Site in America." Legends of America - A Travel Site for the Nostalgic and Historic Minded. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. <http://www.legendsofamerica.com/il-cahokia.html>.<br />-"Adena Culture." Then Again. . . Web. 21 Dec. 2010. <http://thenagain.info/WebChron/NorthAmerica/Adena.html>.<br />"Olmec Colossal Head." Mystic Unicorn Art, Gifts and Herb Shop. 21 Dec. 2010 <http://www.mysticunicorn.com/PCO-P13.html>. <br />"American Egypt / Ancient Cities of the Maya." American Egypt / All about Chichen Itza and Mexico's Maya Yucatan. 21 Dec. 2010 <http://www.americanegypt.com/feature/cities/chichenitza/bc.htm>. <br />"Pacal the Great, King of Palenque." Chapala.com " Your Window to Mexico " 21 Dec. 2010 <http://www.chapala.com/chapala/magnifecentmexico/pacal/pakal.html>. <br />"Maya Lady Xok." About Archaeology - The Study of Human History. 21 Dec. 2010 <http://archaeology.about.com/od/northamerica/ig/Ancient-Americas-/Maya-Lady-Xok.htm>. <br />"Mississippian Indians." Lycos. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. <http://www.lycos.com/info/mississippian-indians.html>."The Mayan Calendar | Calendars." Webexhibits. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. <http://www.webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-mayan.html>.<br />"Nazca Lines and Cahuachi Culture - Crystalinks." Crystalinks Home Page. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. <http://www.crystalinks.com/nazca.html>.<br />"Pre-Inca Paracas Culture and Textile, Fabric, Skulls, Geometric Art. Antonio Gutierrez." Geometry Step by Step from the Land of the Incas, Cuzco, Machu Picchu. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. <http://agutie.homestead.com/files/geometric_art/paracas_fabric_textile_1.html>.<br />
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