ART IN SOUTH AND
SOUTHEAST ASIA
BEFORE 1200
Eddie Hochman, Kenn Su, and Bayla Weick
Buddhism
 Buddha: original founder of Buddhism
 focuses on meditation, enlightenment, and the
pursuit of knowledge
 Bud...
Hinduism
 polytheistic religion
 Sacrifice is meant to please deities and gain favor with
them
 Hindu deities vary in f...
Overview of Time Period
 Indus Valley Civilization
 The Vedic Period
 The Maurya Period
 The Period of Shungas and Ear...
Indus Valley Civilization
2600 – 1900 BCE
Indus Valley Civilization
 As a whole, very little is known
 Existed around the same time as Old Kingdom
in Egypt
 Simi...
Torso of a “Priest-King” from
Mohenjo-Darjo c. 2000-1900
Nude Torso from Harappa c.
2000 BCE
Comparison
 Two main styles emerged: one similar to
Mesopotamian art and one that is
characteristic of Indian artistic tr...
2000 BCE – 500 BCE
Vedic Period
Vedic Period
 Mahavira teaches 599-
527 BCE
 Buddha teaches 563-483
BCE
 400 BCE Mahabharata
and Ramayana take
shape (e...
C. 322 – 185 BCE
Maurya Period
The Maurya Period
 3rd Century BCE Alexander
of Macedonia invades
India
 700 BCE cities start to
appear
 India becomes ...
Major Themes/Styles
 Depict popular deities such as yakshis (female)
and yakshas (male)
 Uphold ideal of dharma = moral ...
Yakshi Holding a Fly-Whisk
 C. 250 BCE, polished
sandstone, height 1.63
m—lifesize
 Yakshi = spirit
associated w/product...
Despite some
abstraction,
Mauryan art
had many
realistic
elements
similar to
Western art
Lion Capital from Sarnath
 C. 250 BCE, polished
sandstone, height 2.13
m
 At the site of Buddha’s
first sermon
 Lowest ...
185 BCE – 50 CE
Periods of the Shungas and
Early Andhras
The Period of the Shungas and
Early Andhras
 Local rule by regional dynasties returns
 Buddhism becomes very influential...
The Great Stupa at Sanchi
 Founded 3rd century BCE, enlarged c.150-50
BCE, c. 50 CE stone gateways added
 Functions as c...
The Chaitya Hall at Karla
 Rock-cut, 1st century
BCE – 1st century CE
 Carved from top to
bottom
 Chaitya means
sanctua...
Comparison
 The closely spaced columns that separate the
side aisles from the main aisle are unlike any
known in the West...
C. 30 BCE – 433 CE
Kushan and Later Andhra
Periods
The Kushan and Later Andhra
Periods
 3 schools developed: Gandhara, Mathura, and
Amaravati which had slighter figures tha...
Influential Artist
 Kushan King Kanishka I (127–147) was a
great patron of Buddhism
 He commissioned a stupa in Peshawar...
Standing Buddha
 C. 2nd-3rd century CE, Schist, 2.28 high (over
life size)
 Gandharan art combing Hellenistic, Persian,
...
Buddha and Attendants
 Yogic posture on
pedestal supported by
lions w/ halo and pipal
tree (where he achieved
enlightenme...
Comparison
 Robe treatment is very similar to Roman
statues
 Meant to show the shape of the body
 Ghandara lies near Ea...
Gupta Period
The Gupta Period
• 320-486 CE (Only 166
Years)
• Influence of Gupta culture
remained for centuries
• Renowned for flourish...
Chandragupta II
The Gupta Period
 Founded a dynasty at Magadha
 Expanded into northern and southern India
 Chandragupta I: 320-335 CE
...
Styles, Subjects, and Themes
• Relaxed, graceful pose
• Only a few garment lines
• Large, circular halo
• Downcast eyes in...
Standing Buddha vs. Western
Tradition  Balanced blend of the human and
the divine, halo, etc…
 Resembles Kouroi (Apollo)...
Styles, Subjects, and Themes
• Bodhisattvas: enlightened
beings who postpone nirvana
and buddhahood to help
others achieve...
Bodhisattva vs. Western Tradition
 Found at shrine entrance
 Byzantine Empress
Theodora: lavish jewelry
 Egyptian royal...
Post-Gupta Period
The Post-Gupta Period
• Influence of Gupta dynasty remained in religion
and the arts
• After the 5th century, Hinduism beg...
Shiva Nataraja of the Chola
Styles, Subjects, and Themes
• Northern: distinguished
by shikhara, which rises
as a solid mass above
the flat stone ceili...
Vishnu Narayana vs. Western
Tradition  Several connections to
Parthenon frieze:
 Reminiscent of the frieze’s
narrative n...
Styles, Subjects, and Themes
• Dance of Shiva
signifies cycle of death
and rebirth
• Signifies liberation of
the believer ...
Shiva Nataraja vs. Western
Tradition  Reminiscent of Roman arch
 Hieratic scale; resembles
Naram-Sin stomping his
enemie...
Dvaravati)
Khmer Rule at Angkor
Chola Dynasty
The Tenth Through Fourteenth
Centuries
Kingdom (C. 500-900CE
Overview of Time Period
 Dvaravati Kingdom (C. 500-900CE)
 Khmer Rule at Angkor (C. 9th-13th centuries)
 Chola Dynasty ...
Key Events
 800-1200 CE: Chola emerge to dominate the south
 800-1200 CE: Khmer Dynasty in Cambodia
 Circa 1000 CE: Bri...
Major Themes/Styles
 Hindu Temple reaches unparalleled heights of
grandeur
 Religious movements
 Tantric (esoteric) Mov...
Artists
 Artists usually viewed merely as craftsmen and artisans, not worthy of
mention
 Patron’s name is more likely to...
http://image.linkinn.com/userfile/pictures_1004/Image/Borobudur_the_Buddhist_Temple_in_Central_J
ava__32.jpg
Borobudur
 C. 800 CE, Central Java, Indonesia
 Buddhist site, (‘most monumental’)
 Rises more than 100 ft from ground l...
http://lh5.ggpht.com/_yaV_Nk30ezk/RfZ5_bABqPI/AAAAAAAABNQ/wRpg43C9Qys/IMG_1795_edited-1.jpg
Kandariya Mahadeva Temple
 C. 1000 CE, Madhya Pradesh, India.
 Chandella dynasty. Temple build by ruler (unknown).
Templ...
Rajarajeshvara Temple
 Thanjavur, India, C. 1000 CE
 Known alternately as the Brihadeshvara
 Dedicated to Shiva
 Exter...
http://www.voyana.com/VietnamAndCambodia/images/generic/Large/Angkor_Wat.jpg
Angkor Vat
 12th Century, Angkor, Cambodia
 Crowning achievement of Khmer architecture
 The site of royal (Khmer) capit...
Comparison
Western Tradition S. & SE Asian Art (900-1200CE)
 Monotheistic
 Jesus, Muhammad, Saints
 Architecture
 Reli...
Works Cited
 Blog Spot. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://greatindiantemples.blogspot.com/>.
 Book Rags. N.p., n.d. ...
THE END
Thank You!
Art in south and southeast asia before 1200   bayla, kenn, eddie
Art in south and southeast asia before 1200   bayla, kenn, eddie
Art in south and southeast asia before 1200   bayla, kenn, eddie
Art in south and southeast asia before 1200   bayla, kenn, eddie
Art in south and southeast asia before 1200   bayla, kenn, eddie
Art in south and southeast asia before 1200   bayla, kenn, eddie
Art in south and southeast asia before 1200   bayla, kenn, eddie
Art in south and southeast asia before 1200   bayla, kenn, eddie
Art in south and southeast asia before 1200   bayla, kenn, eddie
Art in south and southeast asia before 1200   bayla, kenn, eddie
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Transcript of "Art in south and southeast asia before 1200 bayla, kenn, eddie"

  1. 1. ART IN SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA BEFORE 1200 Eddie Hochman, Kenn Su, and Bayla Weick
  2. 2. Buddhism  Buddha: original founder of Buddhism  focuses on meditation, enlightenment, and the pursuit of knowledge  Buddha preached about the Wheel of the Law and the Four Noble Truths
  3. 3. Hinduism  polytheistic religion  Sacrifice is meant to please deities and gain favor with them  Hindu deities vary in form and natures  Three most important deities are Shiva, Vishnu, and the Goddess, Devi  Shiva- God of Creation and Destruction, both angry and peaceful, Most common attribute is the Trident  Vishnu- “The Preserver”, creator and destroyer of all existences, one who supports, sustains and governs the Universe and originates and develops all elements within.  Devi- The primary form of all Goddesses, balances out the male aspect o the Divine.
  4. 4. Overview of Time Period  Indus Valley Civilization  The Vedic Period  The Maurya Period  The Period of Shungas and Early Andhras  The Kushan and Later Andhra Periods  The Gupta Period  The Post-Gupta Period  The Tenth through the Fourteenth Centuries
  5. 5. Indus Valley Civilization 2600 – 1900 BCE
  6. 6. Indus Valley Civilization  As a whole, very little is known  Existed around the same time as Old Kingdom in Egypt  Similarities between cities suggest coherent culture  Built elevated citadels with 50 feet high walls, water tank, pool/public bath, drainage system, and streets  Many terra cotta figurines, a few stone and bronze statuettes, and many seal impressions have been found
  7. 7. Torso of a “Priest-King” from Mohenjo-Darjo c. 2000-1900 Nude Torso from Harappa c. 2000 BCE
  8. 8. Comparison  Two main styles emerged: one similar to Mesopotamian art and one that is characteristic of Indian artistic tradition  Similar to Mesopotamian art in motifs and abstract renderings  Tradition is to show sensuous naturalism  Ex. Nude male torso has then contrasting naturalistic style: emphasizes soft textures subtle nuances of muscular form unlike the Greek athletic male ideal
  9. 9. 2000 BCE – 500 BCE Vedic Period
  10. 10. Vedic Period  Mahavira teaches 599- 527 BCE  Buddha teaches 563-483 BCE  400 BCE Mahabharata and Ramayana take shape (epics)  Hereditary class structure and exclusive priesthood is unique  Vedic tradition evolves into Hinduism  2000 BCE Aryans (nomadic shepherds) enter India  Introduced horse, chariot, Sanskrit language, hierarchical social order, and religious practices  sacrificial with fire  3 Religions develop: Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism  800 BCE Upanishads texts composed
  11. 11. C. 322 – 185 BCE Maurya Period
  12. 12. The Maurya Period  3rd Century BCE Alexander of Macedonia invades India  700 BCE cities start to appear  India becomes an empire—Maurya Empire  General period of conquest  Under Emperor Ashoka (ruled c. 273-323 BCE) Buddhism becomes official state religion  Ashoka was a great patron  He denounces war and
  13. 13. Major Themes/Styles  Depict popular deities such as yakshis (female) and yakshas (male)  Uphold ideal of dharma = moral law  Many sculptures had lustrous polished quality  Linear patterning on clothing indicates someone of respect  Monolithic pillars usually placed in sites related to events in Buddha’s life  Elaborate capitals usually with animal figures  Axis mundi = axis of the world or joining link between human and celestial realms
  14. 14. Yakshi Holding a Fly-Whisk  C. 250 BCE, polished sandstone, height 1.63 m—lifesize  Yakshi = spirit associated w/productive forces of nature  Large breast and pelvis show that female beauty is associated with procreative abundance  Frontal rigor of pose suggest strong sense of authority  Jewelry is prominent  Common hairstyle with bun at front and back  Soft, youthful face and stomach muscles  Flesh shows polished sheen
  15. 15. Despite some abstraction, Mauryan art had many realistic elements similar to Western art
  16. 16. Lion Capital from Sarnath  C. 250 BCE, polished sandstone, height 2.13 m  At the site of Buddha’s first sermon  Lowest section = downturned petals of lotus blossom  Symbolize presence of divine purity in imperfect world  Originally had a bronze wheel supported by lions  Very realistic elements: Veins/tendons, claws,  Low-relief carvings of wheels/chakras on the abacus  Alternating lion, horse, bull, and elephant = possibly four great rivers of the world  Queen Maya saw a white elephant enter her womb when she conceived Buddha  Bull is Buddha’s desire during his life as a Prince Siddhartha  Horse might be Buddha’s departure from palatial life  Lion represents attainment of Nirvana  Back to back lions facing the four cardinal directions may indicate universal nature of Buddhism or Buddha himself  Sometimes interpreted as representative of Ashoka’s rule
  17. 17. 185 BCE – 50 CE Periods of the Shungas and Early Andhras
  18. 18. The Period of the Shungas and Early Andhras  Local rule by regional dynasties returns  Buddhism becomes very influential especially with Stupas—religious monuments enclosing relic chambers  2nd Century caves become common use for holy art  Rock-cut halls
  19. 19. The Great Stupa at Sanchi  Founded 3rd century BCE, enlarged c.150-50 BCE, c. 50 CE stone gateways added  Functions as carefully calculated mandala = diagram of the cosmos  Has four toranas pointing at four cardinal directions (35 feet tall)  Depict jakata tales= stories of Buddha’s life  Dome built up from rubble and dirt, faced with dressed stone echoes arc of sky  Railing at ground level provides for ritual circumambulation
  20. 20. The Chaitya Hall at Karla  Rock-cut, 1st century BCE – 1st century CE  Carved from top to bottom  Chaitya means sanctuary (usually enshrines a stupa in the apse) versus the vihara  Darkness leads to heightened awareness of the sacred space  Columns at entrance used to support a balcony  Arched windows are similar to a multistoried palace  Elephant statues create the illusion of supporting structure of their backs  Has a Chaitya window = horse-shoe shaped opening providing main source of light  Mithuna couples = figures evoking sense of harmony and fertility in life
  21. 21. Comparison  The closely spaced columns that separate the side aisles from the main aisle are unlike any known in the West.  They are important examples in the long and complex evolution of the many Indian styles.
  22. 22. C. 30 BCE – 433 CE Kushan and Later Andhra Periods
  23. 23. The Kushan and Later Andhra Periods  3 schools developed: Gandhara, Mathura, and Amaravati which had slighter figures than the other two  Gandhara School: Strong ties to Western style  Mathura School: Unique style evolving from Yakshas  The surviving school that continued to develop into the Gupta Period  Amaravati School: Generally depicted events from Buddha’s life  Commonly showed mithuna couples  Buddha has specific characteristics:  monk’s robe, golden-colored body, long arms to his knees, wheels on his palms and feet, white hair between his eyebrows  Elongated earlobes due to heavy earrings, ushnisha on his head (bun) to symbolize enlightenment
  24. 24. Influential Artist  Kushan King Kanishka I (127–147) was a great patron of Buddhism  He commissioned a stupa in Peshawar  Considered tallest building at time of construction  Common pilgrimage stop
  25. 25. Standing Buddha  C. 2nd-3rd century CE, Schist, 2.28 high (over life size)  Gandharan art combing Hellenistic, Persian, and native styles  Buddha is superhuman; as revealed by folds of garment he is broad massive, with heavy shoulders and limbs, and a well-defined torso  Kneed bend gently suggesting slightly relaxed pose  Robe treatment is very characteristic and very complex
  26. 26. Buddha and Attendants  Yogic posture on pedestal supported by lions w/ halo and pipal tree (where he achieved enlightenment)  Robe is pulled tightly to make him seem nude  Tendency to abstraction seen in face: geometric shapes like rounded forms of widely opened eyes  Naturalistic in torso  C. early 2nd century CE, red sandstone, height 69.2 cm  Style evolves from yakshas  High relief stele showing Buddha as powerful  Right hand raised = “have no fear”  mudra or hand gesture for communicating certain ideas  Urna, ushnisha, chakras on palms and soles are marks
  27. 27. Comparison  Robe treatment is very similar to Roman statues  Meant to show the shape of the body  Ghandara lies near East-West trade routes for Romans  Buddha does not show any of the athletic, Greek male ideal
  28. 28. Gupta Period
  29. 29. The Gupta Period • 320-486 CE (Only 166 Years) • Influence of Gupta culture remained for centuries • Renowned for flourishing artistic and literary culture • Produced India’s most widely admired sculpture and painting • Buddhism reaches its greatest influence in India • Gupta monarchs still supported Hinduism Bodhisattva
  30. 30. Chandragupta II
  31. 31. The Gupta Period  Founded a dynasty at Magadha  Expanded into northern and southern India  Chandragupta I: 320-335 CE  Samudragupta: Golden Age  Chandragupta II  Skandagupta repulsed a Huna attack in 455 CE  Use of resources in waging war led to Gupta decline
  32. 32. Styles, Subjects, and Themes • Relaxed, graceful pose • Only a few garment lines • Large, circular halo • Downcast eyes indicate otherworldly introspection • Broad shoulders • Perfection and equilibrium • Spiritual purity fused with physical purity • Blend of the fully enlightened with the fully human Buddha Preaching the First
  33. 33. Standing Buddha vs. Western Tradition  Balanced blend of the human and the divine, halo, etc…  Resembles Kouroi (Apollo)  Differs in body covering; not free- standing  Egyptian style; stoicism of Pharoahs  Archaic features  Not concerned with the human body in action; no contrapposto  Contrasts with Hellenistic representations of the everyday
  34. 34. Styles, Subjects, and Themes • Bodhisattvas: enlightened beings who postpone nirvana and buddhahood to help others achieve enlightenment • Princely garments; wear lavish ornaments • Crown, earrings, etc… • Outline drawing: a major ingredient in Indian painting; 3-D illusion • Lighter tones -> protrusion • Sophisticated, realistic detail • Achieve balance between the human and the divine Great Bodhisattva -
  35. 35. Bodhisattva vs. Western Tradition  Found at shrine entrance  Byzantine Empress Theodora: lavish jewelry  Egyptian royal headdress, bright colors, bold outline  Egyptian painting was more representational  Gupta (and other Eastern) influences made their way into Western art a few centuries later
  36. 36. Post-Gupta Period
  37. 37. The Post-Gupta Period • Influence of Gupta dynasty remained in religion and the arts • After the 5th century, Hinduism began to dominate Indian religion • 528 CE: Hun dynasty falls • Hindu temples and sculpture of the Hindu gods become increasingly common • Prevalence of monumental narrative reliefs
  38. 38. Shiva Nataraja of the Chola
  39. 39. Styles, Subjects, and Themes • Northern: distinguished by shikhara, which rises as a solid mass above the flat stone ceiling and windowless walls of the sanctum Temple of Vishnu at Deogarh • Southern: pyramidal tower called a vimana, featuring miniature shrines and a dome-shaped octagonal capstone Dharmaraja Ratha at Mamallapuram
  40. 40. Vishnu Narayana vs. Western Tradition  Several connections to Parthenon frieze:  Reminiscent of the frieze’s narrative nature  3-D: overlapping demonstrates understanding of space  Stylized: 4 arms -> resembles centaurs from Parthenon frieze  Hieratic scale for religious figures: Stele of Naram- Sin from Akkadian artVishnu Narayana on the Cosmic Waters
  41. 41. Styles, Subjects, and Themes • Dance of Shiva signifies cycle of death and rebirth • Signifies liberation of the believer through Shiva’s compassion • Dances upon Apasmaru; symbolizes “becoming” • Holds ball of fire: symbolizes destruction and our egocentric perceptions Shiva Nataraja of the Chola Dynasty
  42. 42. Shiva Nataraja vs. Western Tradition  Reminiscent of Roman arch  Hieratic scale; resembles Naram-Sin stomping his enemies  Symmetry that was evident in Egyptian sculpture  Also, head covering resembles royal Egyptian sculpture  Placement of legs reminiscent of contrapposto from classical Greece
  43. 43. Dvaravati) Khmer Rule at Angkor Chola Dynasty The Tenth Through Fourteenth Centuries Kingdom (C. 500-900CE
  44. 44. Overview of Time Period  Dvaravati Kingdom (C. 500-900CE)  Khmer Rule at Angkor (C. 9th-13th centuries)  Chola Dynasty (C. mid-9th- late 13th century)
  45. 45. Key Events  800-1200 CE: Chola emerge to dominate the south  800-1200 CE: Khmer Dynasty in Cambodia  Circa 1000 CE: Brihadeshvara Temple is built in Thanjavur  Paves way for greater temples,  Circa 1017 CE: Chola conquer Sri Lanka  Circa 1070 CE: Vijayabahu I of Rohanna (r. 1070–1110) expels the Cholas from Sri Lanka. Buddhism flourishes  Late 12th century: Buddhism in decline  1100-1200 CE: Ramanuja, the poet and philosopher and patriarch of the Shrivaishnava tradition describes theology of Bhakti (devotion)  1153-1186 CE: Parakrama Samudra (artificial lake), is built in Sri Lanka during the reign of Parakramabahu I  One of the greatest irrigation feats of the ancient world
  46. 46. Major Themes/Styles  Hindu Temple reaches unparalleled heights of grandeur  Religious movements  Tantric (esoteric) Movement  Bhakti (devotional) Movement  Thailand  Prakhon Chai Style  Dvaravati Style
  47. 47. Artists  Artists usually viewed merely as craftsmen and artisans, not worthy of mention  Patron’s name is more likely to be inscribed  The individual’s role was not supremely important  Ideal human forms created from metaphors derived from nature  Chin like mango stone, arms like elephant trunk, eyes like the curve of a fish  Hinduism and Buddhism co-existed  Same artists often employed  Muslim invaders  Artists received detailed instruction  Less room for changes in artistic style  Artists rarely signed artworks  Low social hierarchy  Patron often has name inscribed
  48. 48. http://image.linkinn.com/userfile/pictures_1004/Image/Borobudur_the_Buddhist_Temple_in_Central_J ava__32.jpg
  49. 49. Borobudur  C. 800 CE, Central Java, Indonesia  Buddhist site, (‘most monumental’)  Rises more than 100 ft from ground level  Stepped pyramid  Surmounted by a large stupa  Ringed by 72 smaller stupas  Mahayana symbolism (earthly and cosmic realms)  500+ sculptures of transcendental Buddhas  On balustrades and upper terraces  3-dimensional mandala
  50. 50. http://lh5.ggpht.com/_yaV_Nk30ezk/RfZ5_bABqPI/AAAAAAAABNQ/wRpg43C9Qys/IMG_1795_edited-1.jpg
  51. 51. Kandariya Mahadeva Temple  C. 1000 CE, Madhya Pradesh, India.  Chandella dynasty. Temple build by ruler (unknown). Temple dedicated to Shiva  Northern Style  Post-and-Lintel Construction  Stone blocks  Rests on stone terrace  Steep flight of stairs to mandapas (three halls)  Ritual, symbolize Shiva’s threefold emanation
  52. 52. Rajarajeshvara Temple  Thanjavur, India, C. 1000 CE  Known alternately as the Brihadeshvara  Dedicated to Shiva  Exterior walls display numerous reliefs in niches  Built by the Cholas Dynasty under the rule of Rajaraja I (R. 985-1015 CE)  Enormous, 216ft. tall
  53. 53. http://www.voyana.com/VietnamAndCambodia/images/generic/Large/Angkor_Wat.jpg
  54. 54. Angkor Vat  12th Century, Angkor, Cambodia  Crowning achievement of Khmer architecture  The site of royal (Khmer) capitals  King Suryavarman II (r. 1113- 1150 CE) began the construction  Purpose was to associate the king with his personal god (Vishnu)  The complex incorporates a stepped pyramid with 5 towers set within 4 enclosures on increasing perimeter  Five towers symbolize five peaks of Mount Meru  Stone reliefs glorify Vishnu
  55. 55. Comparison Western Tradition S. & SE Asian Art (900-1200CE)  Monotheistic  Jesus, Muhammad, Saints  Architecture  Religious purposes  Cross shaped plans  symbolic  Vault and arch techniques  Larger interior space  Reliefs narrate stories  Symbolic  Iconography  Ambivalent, closer to “personal truths”  Realism  Growing focus on the real world, along with the Divine  Polytheistic  Dynasties depicted favored God/Goddess  Architecture  Religious in purpose  Temples erected to favored god  Post-and-Lintel Construction  Smaller interior space  Reliefs narrate stories  Symbolic  Clear structure, unified composition  Iconography  Ascetic interpretation of Buddha (instead of princely)  Multiple arms (super-natural)  Naturalism  Ideal, youthful figures
  56. 56. Works Cited  Blog Spot. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://greatindiantemples.blogspot.com/>.  Book Rags. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.bookrags.com/research/gupta-empire-ema-02/>.  Buddha Net. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.buddhanet.net/sanchi.htm>.  Civil Service India. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.civilserviceindia.com/subject/History/prelims/post-gupta-period.html>.  Department of Asian Art. "Mauryan Empire (ca. 323–185 B.C.)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/maur/hd_maur.htm (October 2000)  Exotic India Art. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.exoticindiaart.com/article/lordbuddha/>.  Indian Child. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.indianchild.com/gupta_empire.htm>.  Indian Net Zone. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.indianetzone.com/22/art_architecture_gupta_period.htm>.  Kossak, Stephen M., and Edith W. Watts. The Art of South and Southeast Asia. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2001. The Orange Grove. Web. 14 Nov. 2010. <http://florida.theorangegrove.org/og/file/a71881f6-3db8-8862-1e20-a039d5c98006/1/AsiaArt.pdf>.  Mahavidya. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.mahavidya.ca/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/tittlemier-krista-gupta- dynasty.pdf>.  "Mauryan Art, Maurya Dynasty." Free Encyclopedia & Web Portal on Indian Culture & Lifestyle. 2008. Web. 14 Nov. 2010. <http://www.indianetzone.com/42/art_under_maurya_dynasty.htm>.  Prabhu. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://prabhu.50g.com/pst_gupta.html>.  Stokstad, Marilyn, David Cateforis, and Stephen Addiss. Art History. Third ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005. Print.  “South Asia: North, 1000–1400 a.d.” MetMuseum. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2010. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=07&region=ssn#/Key-Events>.  “South Asia; North 500-1000AD.” Met Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Nov. 2010. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=06&region=ssn>.  “South Asia: South, 1000–1400 a.d.” MetMuseum. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2010. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=07&region=sss#/Key-Events>.  “Southeast Asia, 1000–1400 a.d.” MetMuseum. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2010. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=07&region=sse#/Key-Events>.  Travel. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://travel.sulekha.com/sanchi-attractions.htm>.  Waseb. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://waseb.wordpress.com/2010/04/20/temples-along-the-indus-by-michael-w-meister/>.
  57. 57. THE END Thank You!
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