18th Century Post


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18th Century Post

  1. 1. The Enlightenment
  2. 2. Joseph Wright, The Orrery, 1766
  3. 4. The Scientific Revolution <ul><li>The development of Royal Societies in the 16 th century – the sharing of knowledge, public demonstrations (Rembrandt, Thomas Wright) </li></ul><ul><li>The move away from Ptolemaic astronomy and a heliocentric view of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Nature from Observation, not from authoritative texts or governing bodies </li></ul><ul><li>The Idea that Human Reason can provide for the betterment of human life on earth (as opposed to Faith and Ceremony) </li></ul><ul><li>The profound questioning of authority in any guise </li></ul>
  4. 6. The Modern magician Blind Love Questioning Gesture Candle for Light and Skull Fascinated Observer Birdcage – if it lives (or dies) Moonlight and the Enlightenment (reference to the Lunar Society) 2 sisters, torn between curiosity and distress The Philosopher The Bird in a glass Bowl which is about to be sealed and air pumped out The Experiment With An Air Pump Our Invitation
  5. 7. philosophes
  6. 8. philosophes <ul><li>Thomas Hobbes 1588 - 1679 “social contract” </li></ul><ul><li>Rene Descartes 1596 - 1650 “methodological skepticism” </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke 1632 - 1704 “tabula rasa” </li></ul><ul><li>Gottfried Liebniz 1646-1716 “rationalism, logic & analysis” - also note Baruch Spinoza “biblical criticism” </li></ul><ul><li>Voltaire ( François-Marie Arouet ) 1694 - 1778 “civil liberties, individual freedom” </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Jacques Rousseau 1712 - 1778 “nature” </li></ul><ul><li>Diderot 1713 - 1784 “Encyclopédie ” </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson 1743 - 1826 “bill of rights” </li></ul>
  7. 9. The Principia <ul><li>Isaac Newton (1642-1727) </li></ul><ul><li>Offered irrefutable proof – mathematical proof – that Nature had order and meaning that was not based on Faith but on human Reason </li></ul><ul><li>The notion of progress in the human mind toward an ultimate end </li></ul><ul><li>If definable laws can be discerned to govern Nature, they can be discerned to govern men and society </li></ul><ul><li>The notion that bodies at a distance are governed in their motion by a specific force that can be measured (gravity). </li></ul>
  8. 10. Italy
  9. 11. The Martyrdom of Saint Agatha c. 1755 Giovanni Battista Tiepolo 1696 -1770
  10. 12. 37 Tiepolo_-_Allegory of the Planets and Continents, 1752
  11. 13. Rococo in Italy <ul><li>Tiepolo, Apotheosis of the Pisani Family, 1761-62 </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of limitless space </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlit brilliance </li></ul><ul><li>Dazzling light </li></ul><ul><li>Venetian pageantry </li></ul><ul><li>Silvery precious colors </li></ul><ul><li>Impressive scale </li></ul><ul><li>Spiraling forms </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient and distinguished Pisani family rise to heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Allegory and personification accompany the family </li></ul><ul><li>Legs hang freely over the frame, overlapping sides of painting </li></ul>detail
  12. 14. <ul><li>Egid Quirin Asam, Assumption of the Virgin </li></ul><ul><li>1717-25 </li></ul><ul><li>Mary ascends to heaven from her tomb weightlessly carried aloft by angels; those visiting the tomb are aghast in theatrical amazement </li></ul><ul><li>Hard solid forms of the tomb contrast dramatically with the flexible nature of the figures </li></ul><ul><li>Painting, sculpture and architecture combined </li></ul><ul><li>Use of window light and rays above to indicate God’s glory </li></ul>
  13. 15. Giovanni Antonio Canaletto (1697 –1768)
  14. 16. Francesco Guardi c. 1712-1793
  15. 17. 45
  16. 18. Austria and Germany
  17. 19. Rococo in Germany <ul><li>De Cuvillies, Amalienburg, Munich </li></ul><ul><li>Flowing curving lines of decoration that inch like ivy up the walls, the ceilings and around the mirrors </li></ul><ul><li>Ornate frames with silver gilding bordering and entering mirror surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Pale blue and silver color scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamental, decorative, sophisticated </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Neumann, Church of Fourteen Saints, Staffelstein </li></ul><ul><li>3 longitudinal ovals joined by two transverse ovals </li></ul><ul><li>Altar of Mercy in the center </li></ul><ul><li>Open galleries around, some in half-columns, engaged to piers </li></ul><ul><li>Light, airy: this is Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Pastel shades abound </li></ul><ul><li>Complex façade inspired by Borromini </li></ul><ul><li>Concave and convex shapes, intricate bell towers </li></ul>
  19. 21. The baroque style of architecture flourished in Germany in the 18th century. One of the most outstanding German baroque architects was Balthasar Neumann , who favored circular and oval forms and used undulating lines to lend dynamism to his buildings. The Residenz in Würzburg, designed by Neumann, is considered to be one of the finest examples of the German baroque style. The richly decorated Kaisersaal, or Emperor’s Hall, of the Residenz, shown here, is an oval reception room with a domed ceiling and frescoes painted by Italian master Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Balthasar Neumann (1687 – 1753)
  20. 22. Kaisersaal, the Residenz.  Weisburg, Germany.  1719-1744 One major design element was rocaille : fanciful stucco ornaments in the shapes of ribbons, leaves, stems, flowers, arabesques, and elongated curving lines applied to walls and ceilings.  The effect was to blur the boundary between walls and ceiling and to make solid surfaces look like fleeting illusions.  Mirrors further deceived the senses and chandeliers provided jewel-like lighting.  All elements worked together to create a glittering, luxurious setting for an ultra-refined society.
  21. 23. Rococo <ul><li>Aristocratic, playful, delicate, and often provocative </li></ul><ul><li>Considered by subsequent artists as superficial and escapist </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of sensuous objects, lavish decoration and intimate interiors </li></ul>
  22. 24. France <ul><li>The Ancien Regime </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV dies in 1715 after a 72 year reign </li></ul>
  23. 25. 29 Journey to (embarkation from) Cythea
  24. 26. Rococo in France <ul><li>Watteau, Return from Cythera, 1717 </li></ul><ul><li>Right: lady listens to a proposition from a pilgrim to Cythera (island of Venus) who is carrying a handbook on love </li></ul><ul><li>Cupid tugs at a woman to stay </li></ul><ul><li>Cavalier helps a lady to rise </li></ul><ul><li>A woman turns her back in hesitation </li></ul><ul><li>Country ladies lead the way to the gilded boat </li></ul><ul><li>Herm of Venus overlooks the island </li></ul><ul><li>Panther hide is an allusion to Bacchus </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds are light, dream-like </li></ul><ul><li>Slender women in delicate iridescent colors </li></ul><ul><li>Water reflects hazy colors </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship of figures to landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Women turn their backs to the viewer </li></ul>
  25. 27. 59
  26. 28. <ul><li>Watteau, L’Indifferent, 1717 </li></ul><ul><li>The Indifferent One </li></ul><ul><li>Small, intimate scale and subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Dancing pose </li></ul><ul><li>Delicate, a bit tired, or touched with ennui </li></ul><ul><li>Fancifully dressed in rich satins </li></ul><ul><li>Background awash in atmospheric perspective </li></ul>
  27. 29. Signboard of Gersaint (1721)
  28. 31. Antoine Watteau, (1684-1721) Pierrot , 1718
  29. 32. Commedia dell'arte <ul><li>masked “types” and recurrent “characters” </li></ul><ul><li>improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>inclusion of actresses </li></ul><ul><li>an Italian comedy </li></ul>27 27
  30. 33. 68
  31. 34. Ancien Regime in 18 th Century <ul><li>Largely a rural population with tenant and serf conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Divine right of rule vs. right of the governed </li></ul><ul><li>2 Major classes – wealthy and poor (aristocracy and peasants) </li></ul><ul><li>3 Estates – 1.The Clergy 2. The Royalty 3. The peasants (c. 95 – 97%) </li></ul><ul><li>King stood outside Estates – He was the State </li></ul><ul><li>Liberality promoted by certain members of the nobility and rising merchant classes </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce gaining as a provider of wealth vs. land ownership </li></ul>
  32. 35. The 2 nd Estate in the Ancien Regime <ul><li>The Nobility or Noble Class (aristocracy, wealthy landowners, government workers) </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 1% of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Exempt from most forms of taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Received certain privileges (showing Court of Arms, etc.) to demonstrate superiority and collected taxes from the 3 rd estate (with promise of protection) </li></ul><ul><li>Time for Leisure (Play, Music, Thinking) </li></ul>
  33. 37. 43 Francois Boucher (1703 – 1770) The Toilet of Venus , 1758
  34. 38. Fragonard
  35. 39. Rococo in France <ul><li>Fragonard, The Swing, 1767 </li></ul><ul><li>An intrigue painting </li></ul><ul><li>Bishop swings a woman whose lover hides below </li></ul><ul><li>Kicks her shoe at the little statue of Discretion and toward the lover </li></ul><ul><li>Glowing color </li></ul><ul><li>Delicate femininity in tiny hands and feet and layers of petticoats </li></ul>
  36. 40. Jean Honore Fragonard “ The Meeting” 1771-73
  37. 41. 57 Boy Blowing a Bubble , 1739
  38. 43. Jean Baptiste Grueze, 1725 - 1805 The Village Bride 1761
  39. 44. Jean Honore Fragonard 1732 -1806 A Young Girl Reading, 1776
  40. 45. Women Artists of the Rococo <ul><li>Emphasize Enlightenment opinions on Domestic Harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Excelled in formal portraits of aristocratic women </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted with Male Counterparts into the Royal Academie </li></ul>
  41. 46. Adelaide Labille-Guiard 1749 – 1803 Self-Portrait w/ Pupils, 1785
  42. 47. He that loves a rosy cheek, Or a coral lip admires, Or from star-like eyes doth seek Fuel to maintain his fires: As old Time makes these decay, So his flames must waste away. But a smooth and steadfast mind, Gentle thoughts, and calm desires, Hearts with equal love combined, Kindle never-dying fires: Where these are not, I despise Lovely cheeks or lips or eyes. Thomas Carew Elizabeth Vigée-Le Brun 1755 - 1842
  43. 48. <ul><li>Vigée-Lebrun, Self-Portrait, 1782 </li></ul><ul><li>40 exist, all highly idealized </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional concept of femininity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensuous paint handling and color harmonies </li></ul><ul><li>Elegantly attired working artist </li></ul><ul><li>Paints her favorite patron, Marie Antoinette </li></ul>
  44. 49. 15 Elizabeth Vigée-Le Brun 1755-1842 Marie Antoinette and her children , 1787
  45. 50. England
  46. 51. Angelica Kauffman 1741-1807 “ Cornelia Pointing to her Children as Treasures” 1785
  47. 52. Neoclassicism in England <ul><li>Kauffmann, Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplum virtutis </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Roman setting </li></ul><ul><li>Good mother painting </li></ul><ul><li>Visitor shows Cornelia her jewels, asks to see her own jewels </li></ul><ul><li>Cornelia responds that her children are her jewels </li></ul><ul><li>Austere life of a family with children </li></ul><ul><li>Jewels momentarily distract one child </li></ul><ul><li>Severely simplified costumes </li></ul>
  48. 53. William Hogarth 1697 - 1764 The Marriage Contract 1743-45
  49. 54. Grueze Hogarth
  50. 55. The Marriage Contract <ul><li>Gout ridden Earl Squander marries his son to the daughter of a wealthy London Merchant </li></ul><ul><li>Earl points to Family Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Provides money for for the Earl’s crumbling Palladian House </li></ul><ul><li>Buys an aristocratic title for the merchant’s daughter </li></ul><ul><li>Curvilinear Style parodies the fashionable Rococo style </li></ul><ul><li>Garish Interior design betrays lack of taste </li></ul>
  51. 56. Marriage a la Mode 1743 - 45 <ul><li>Paintings in a narrative series from the Marriage Contract to the Lady’s Death </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to be read sequentially like a play </li></ul><ul><li>“ Novelistic Structure” which focuses on Dress, Décor, and Visual Parody to indict characters and satirize their decadence and pretension </li></ul>
  52. 57. The Breakfast Scene or Tete a Tete
  53. 58. 18th Century Art in England <ul><li>Hogarth, Breakfast Scene from Marriage a la Mode, 1745 </li></ul><ul><li>Satire in painting a British specialty </li></ul><ul><li>Second scene in a series of six, based on a play </li></ul><ul><li>The loveless marriage of a bride and groom shortly after their wedding </li></ul><ul><li>Groom has been out all night with other women (the dog sniffs at an unfamiliar bonnet) </li></ul><ul><li>Broken sword may symbolize a fight, or sexual inadequacy </li></ul><ul><li>Bride has been losing at cards, been playing until noon, and seems not to care </li></ul><ul><li>Accountant holds a ledger and a stack of unpaid bills and indicates that they have already spent a fortune </li></ul><ul><li>Items on mantelpiece illustrate their questionable taste </li></ul><ul><li>This is a “Marriage in the Style” </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative art </li></ul>
  54. 59. The disharmony in the union of two separate classes is revealed by the clash of 'high art' (in the form of a Roman bust) and 'low art' (in the form of various cheap trinkets on the mantelpiece.) Likewise, in the adjacent room, paintings of saints are placed in blasphemous proximity to another painting so lascivious it must be concealed by a curtain. (The prints were made by Thomas Cook after William Hogarth from 1796 to 1797)
  55. 60. William Hogarth 1697 – 1764 Creates the “Modern Moral Painting” Worked with French Engravers to ensure technical virtuosity Satirizes arranged marriages and fashionable taste, decadence, impiotency of the aristocracy, and crass social striving of the wealthy merchant class
  56. 61. Sir Thomas Lawrence 1769 - 1830 Queen Charlotte 1789-90
  57. 62. Lady Peel, 1827 <ul><li>3 Massive Bracelets </li></ul><ul><li>Many rings </li></ul><ul><li>Oversized hat with cascading scarlet feathers </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion Victim? </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Brilliance – the paint </li></ul><ul><li>Painting Influence of Rubens and Rembrandt </li></ul>
  58. 63. Pope Pius VII 1819 <ul><li>Presented as a scholar and patron of the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>Omits the triple papal tiara in deference of English Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions of careful detailing to luscious areas of loose paint </li></ul>
  59. 64. Thomas Gainsborough 1727 - 1788 <ul><li>Associated with Hogarth </li></ul><ul><li>One of the King’s favorite painters </li></ul><ul><li>One of the Founding members of the Royal Academy </li></ul>
  60. 65. Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, 1748
  61. 66. 18th Century Art in England <ul><li>Gainsborough, Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan </li></ul><ul><li>She married the great playwright, Richard Sheridan, and became manager of his theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Serious, but relaxed pose </li></ul><ul><li>Dressed informally </li></ul><ul><li>Seated in a Watteau landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Feathery brushstroke </li></ul><ul><li>Hair blows freely </li></ul><ul><li>Unspoiled beauty of natural landscape and the sitter </li></ul><ul><li>Gracious forms bend to the curve of the trees </li></ul><ul><li>A hint of melancholy in the expression of the face </li></ul><ul><li>Circular pattern of the painting </li></ul>
  62. 67. Mr and Mrs William Hallett ('The Morning Walk')
  63. 68. Sir Joshua Reynolds 1723 - 1792 <ul><li>First President of the English Royal Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Large Proponent of “Correct” Art and formula </li></ul><ul><li>Incurs the wrath of William Blake </li></ul>
  64. 69. <ul><li>Sir Joshua Reynolds, Lord Heathfield </li></ul><ul><li>1787 </li></ul><ul><li>Commander of the fortress at Gibraltar </li></ul><ul><li>Huge key to fortress in his hands, he holds it thoughtfully </li></ul><ul><li>One cannon points down and another barrel lies on its back </li></ul><ul><li>Heroic figure </li></ul><ul><li>Painted using bravura brushwork </li></ul><ul><li>Rich colors and atmospheric detail </li></ul>
  65. 70. Sir Joshua Reynolds Lady Sunderlin
  66. 71. Neoclassicism in England <ul><li>Boyle and Kent, Chiswick House, London </li></ul><ul><li>Modeled on the Villa Rotonda </li></ul><ul><li>Squat round Palladio-like dome, but octagonal in shape, with semi-circular windows </li></ul><ul><li>Four chimney stacks flank each side, shaped like obelisks </li></ul><ul><li>Palladian decorative balls decorate projecting wings </li></ul><ul><li>Palladio’s statue is on the left </li></ul><ul><li>2 grand staircases </li></ul><ul><li>Corinthian columns </li></ul><ul><li>Main living quarters on second floor </li></ul><ul><li>Rusticated first floor </li></ul><ul><li>Pedimented windows </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical ground plan </li></ul>
  67. 72. Neoclassicism in England <ul><li>Wood the Younger, Royal Crescent, Bath </li></ul><ul><li>Single continuous Palladian façade </li></ul><ul><li>30 residences in a semi-circle, resembles the Colosseum inside-out </li></ul><ul><li>March of Ionic columns </li></ul><ul><li>English: roofline punctured by chimney pots </li></ul><ul><li>English: excessive length </li></ul><ul><li>Main residences on second floor for a better view </li></ul><ul><li>Columns extend between second and third floors, uniting them </li></ul><ul><li>Windows interspersed between columns </li></ul>
  68. 73. The Enlightenment in France <ul><li>Jacques Louis David </li></ul>
  69. 74. Jaques Louis-David 1748 - 1825, “The Oath of the Horatti” 1784-85
  70. 75. Oath of the Horatti <ul><li>Taken from Livy </li></ul><ul><li>War between Rome and Alba in 669 BC </li></ul><ul><li>One Curatii sister is married to a Horatti and vice versa (betrothed) </li></ul><ul><li>Patriotism and Stoicism </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid poses unlike the swirling compositions of Rococco </li></ul>
  71. 76. Jaques Louis-David 1748 - 1825 “ Death of Marat” 1793
  72. 78. The Terror <ul><li>Robespierre proposes and carries out Law of 22 Prairial – tribunal court of condemnation </li></ul><ul><li>Between June 12 and July 28 (when Robespierre is killed) 1, 285 victims are guillotined </li></ul>
  73. 79. French Revolution <ul><li>July 14, 1789 – Storming of the Bastille </li></ul><ul><li>Jan. 21, 1793 – Louis XVI executed </li></ul><ul><li>War declared on France by Austria and most European Powers </li></ul><ul><li>July 13, 1793 – Marat Executed </li></ul><ul><li>July 27, 1794 – The Thermidorian Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>& Robespierre Executed </li></ul><ul><li>1794 – David Arrested </li></ul>
  74. 80. The Enlightenment in France NeoClassicism Jaques Louis David 1748 - 1825
  75. 81. <ul><li>4 times tried for Prix de Rome (received it in 1774) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied under Boucher </li></ul><ul><li>Official artist of the revoltution </li></ul><ul><li>Designed all Public Pageants, costumes, celebrations, funerals, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreed the removal of wigs, used woolen jackets and linen shirts </li></ul>
  76. 82. Neoclassicism <ul><li>1748 – Excavation begins at Pompeii renewing interest in classical forms </li></ul><ul><li>Publication of The History of Ancient Art by J.J. Winkelmann in 1764 </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct turn from Rococo toward clarity of line and color </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp transitions of area </li></ul><ul><li>Retreat from ambiguity and playfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Noble Simplicity and grandeur </li></ul><ul><li>Classical costume elevated subjects to universal significance (generally) </li></ul>
  77. 83. Timeline of the French Revolution <ul><li>1774 – Louis XVI coronation </li></ul><ul><li>1778 – France enters into the American revolution agianst Canada/England </li></ul><ul><li>1789 – Estates General Convoked for first time since 1614 </li></ul><ul><li>1789 –Third Estate declares itself the National Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>The Oath of the Tennis Court </li></ul><ul><li>First and Second estates join the Third Estate </li></ul><ul><li>Storming of the Bastille </li></ul><ul><li>Paris Mob and Women’s march to Versailles to bring Louis and company back to Paris </li></ul><ul><li>1790 – Pope Pius condemns the Rights of Man </li></ul><ul><li>Nobility abolished by the National Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>1791 - Royal family tries to flee and is arrested </li></ul><ul><li>1792 – Guillotine becomes official execution tool </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of France by coalition troops </li></ul>
  78. 84. Timeline cont. <ul><li>1792 – September massacre of bishops and priests </li></ul><ul><li>Louis brought to trial, Robespierre declares he must die </li></ul><ul><li>1793 – Louis executed </li></ul><ul><li>Committee of Public safety established </li></ul><ul><li>Assassination of MaratMarie Antoinette executed </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-clerical law passed </li></ul><ul><li>1794 – Revolutionary Tribunal - The Terror </li></ul><ul><li>Robespierre guillotined </li></ul><ul><li>1795 – Executive Directory takes power </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>1798 Nelson defeats French Navy at Egypt, stranding Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>1799 – The Consulate is established under the leadership of Napoleon </li></ul>
  79. 86. Lictors Bring To Brutus the Bodies of His Sons <ul><li>Had attempted to overthrow the gov’t and restore monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Father orders their death – Heroic defender of the Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Mother, women in anguish </li></ul><ul><li>Brutus brooding, but right </li></ul><ul><li>Shown during Voltaire’s play Brutus (1790) </li></ul>
  80. 88. Death of Socrates <ul><li>Discussing the immortality of the Soul </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and Philosophizing to the end </li></ul><ul><li>Wide dismissed for her weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Plato (not actually present when Socrates dies) is present in the painting </li></ul>
  81. 90. Intervention of the Sabine Women (1794-99) <ul><li>Love Prevailing Over Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Brings Him to the Attention of Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>Story – Romans abduct duaghters of the sabines. Sabines attack Rome. Hersilia (duahgter of Sabine leader Tatius) married to Romulus. Here is Hersilia between Tatius and Romulus. </li></ul>
  82. 92. Napolean <ul><li>1769 Born in Corsica </li></ul><ul><li>1793 Quickly rises to General (24 yrs old) </li></ul><ul><li>1796 Campaigns into Italy against Austrians </li></ul><ul><li>1798 Campaigns into Egypt – Fleet is destroyed by the English </li></ul><ul><li>1799 Returns, there is a coup, and is elected one of the Triumverate Consulate </li></ul><ul><li>1800 Gains dictatorial powers (first consul) </li></ul><ul><li>1804 Crowns himself emperor </li></ul>
  83. 93. <ul><li>1812 – war with Russia </li></ul><ul><li>1814 – surrenders to Allied Armies, exiled to Island of Elba </li></ul><ul><li>1815 – returns to France </li></ul><ul><li>1815 – June, Waterloo & second abdication </li></ul><ul><li>1815 – Exiled to St. Helena </li></ul><ul><li>1821 – Dies at age 51 </li></ul>
  84. 95. Coronation of Napoleon I and the Empress Josephine on Dec 2. 1804, 1806-1807
  85. 96. David had originally intended to portray the event faithfully, showing Napoleon crowning himself. The Emperor, remembering the quarrels between the Pope and the Holy Roman Empire, placed the crown on his own head to avoid giving a pledge of obedience of the temporal power to the Pontiff. But he evidently felt that it would not be desirable to perpetuate this somewhat disrespectful action in paint; so David painted the coronation of Josephine by Napoleon, with the Pope blessing the Empress. Grouped round the altar, near Napoleon, are the chief dignitaries — Cambécères, the Lord Chancellor, Marshal Berthier, Grand Veneur, Talleyrand, the Lord Chamberlain, and Lebrun, the Chief Treasurer. Madame de la Rochefoucauld carries the Empress's train; behind her are the Emperor's sisters, and his brothers Louis and Joseph. In front of the central stand are some of the marshals, and in it is Marie Laetitia, Madame Mère (the Emperor's mother), who was in fact not present at the ceremony.
  86. 97. Neoclassicism in France <ul><li>David, Coronation of Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>Coronation of Empress Josephine by Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>Veronese style draperies </li></ul><ul><li>Cf. Rubens, Marie de’Medici </li></ul><ul><li>Figures lost in a disparate busy crowd </li></ul><ul><li>Pius I lost in crowd but maintains dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Pageantry, opulence </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon asked David to rework actual event for this painted version </li></ul>
  87. 98. Social Conditions <ul><li>Secularization of European Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Social Democracy & Scientific progress </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalism (global economy) </li></ul><ul><li>Art is an open Market </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious effort to preserve art and artifacts </li></ul>
  88. 99. 1775 - 1815 <ul><li>Great Upheavals </li></ul><ul><li>American and French Revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Dictatorship of Napolean who attempts to unify Europe under French Rule </li></ul>
  89. 100. NeoClassicism <ul><li>A way of Life affecting religion, dress and attitudes of politics </li></ul><ul><li>Distaste for the refined, manipulative, and enigmatic feminism </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue of moral rectitude associated with physical clarity and social reform </li></ul>
  90. 101. Painting <ul><li>Apparent rather than suggestive </li></ul><ul><li>No obscurity or ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Heroic masculinity </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity of Line, Polished Finish and isolated color </li></ul><ul><li>Intolerant, righteous and dogmatic </li></ul>
  91. 102. Jean Antoine Houdon French 1741 - 1828
  92. 103. Napolean, 1806
  93. 104. 1781
  94. 105. 1788 1784
  95. 106. Antonio Canova
  96. 107. Pauline Borghese as Venus, 1801-08
  97. 108. Neoclassicism in Italy <ul><li>Canova, Pauline Borghese as Venus </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s sister as Venus </li></ul><ul><li>She was known for her scandalous and notorious behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Cold, classically nude </li></ul><ul><li>Marble’s sensitivity to chiaroscuro: soft forms </li></ul><ul><li>Possesses Paris’ apple that Venus won in a contest </li></ul><ul><li>Very few people allowed to see this work, and then only by torchlight </li></ul><ul><li>Pose not realistic, compositional inventiveness </li></ul>
  98. 109. United States of America
  99. 110. Unidentified artist, seventeenth century, Elizabeth Clarke Freake (Mrs. John Freake) and Baby Mary , about 1671 and 1674, oil on canvas, 42 1/2 x 36 3/4 in. Unidentified artist, seventeenth century, John Freake , about 1671 and 1674, oil on canvas, 42 x 36 3/4 in. (108 x 93.3 cm), Worcester Art Museum,
  100. 111. The Death of General Wolfe 1770
  101. 112. Neoclassicism in the United States <ul><li>West, Death of General Wolfe </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy over whether history paintings should be in classical dress or contemporary clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of the Greek Hellenistic Dying Gaul and Michelangelo’s Pietà </li></ul><ul><li>Three part composition </li></ul><ul><li>Tells story of the Battle of Quebec in the background: ships unloaded in the middle of the night at right, guns pulled ashore in morning in center, battle occurs around 10 am at left </li></ul><ul><li>Wolfe shot three times in the Battle. West shows us a hand wound and a shot in the side </li></ul><ul><li>Indian sets the place as America, none at the battle </li></ul><ul><li>Ranger in green comes in to tell West he has won the battle and captured the French flag before he dies </li></ul><ul><li>Meticulous handling of paint </li></ul>
  102. 113. The Treaty of Penn with the Indians. 1771-72
  103. 114. John Singleton Copley, 1738-1815 “Watson and the Shark”, 1778
  104. 115. John Singleton Copley Self portrait 1784
  105. 117. Neoclassicism in the United States <ul><li>Copley, Paul Revere </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as an artisan at work </li></ul><ul><li>Polished table and engraving tools before him </li></ul><ul><li>Silver teapot in one hand, he is seen as a man of thought and action </li></ul><ul><li>Takes a measure of us with his glance </li></ul><ul><li>Holds teapot as a political act: the tax on tea </li></ul><ul><li>Seems to ask us where we stand on this issue </li></ul><ul><li>Engraving tools and sand cushion on table </li></ul><ul><li>The shine of the table and teapot offers highly reflective surfaces </li></ul>
  106. 118. John Singleton Copley 1738 - 1815 Nicholas Boylston 1767
  107. 119. Charles Wilson Peale 1741 - 1827
  108. 120. Neoclassicism in the United States <ul><li>Jefferson, Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Doric style </li></ul><ul><li>French doors </li></ul><ul><li>Appears as though it were one story with a dome, but actually two </li></ul><ul><li>Balustrade masks second floor, in the French style </li></ul><ul><li>Octagonal dome </li></ul><ul><li>Studied Palladio </li></ul><ul><li>Visited Roman ruins in southern France </li></ul><ul><li>Columns made of brick, covered in stucco </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical ground plan </li></ul>