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The use of neuromuscular blocking agents in patients with ards copy


The Use of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents in Patients with ARDS

The Use of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents in Patients with ARDS

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  • 1. Bassel Ericsoussi, MD Pulmonary and Critical Care Journal Club University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago
  • 2. Background • ARDS is an inflammatory disease – Pulmonary edema – Stiff lungs – Hypoxemia • 140,000 pts/yr in the USA • Mortality 40-60% • The only confirmed therapy that improve mortality is a lung protective strategy involving the use of relatively small tidal volumes • Neuromuscular blocking agents are used in > 25% of pts with ARDS – Most authorities recommend minimizing their use, largely because of concerns about long-term muscle weakness
  • 3. Background • The two major causes of death in pts with ARDS – Multiorgan failure secondary to infection, sepsis, hemodynamic compromise – Ventilator-induced lung injury and severe hypoxemia
  • 4. The Beneficial Effect of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents in ARDS • Decrease the oxygen consumption of respiratory and other muscles – Decrease the ventilatory demand – Decrease CO • Paralyzing respiratory muscles – No active expiration • Less “atelectrauma” (injury due to repetitive opening and closing of lung units) – No dyssynchrony, and less tidal volume • Less “volutrauma” (increased alveolar-capillary permeability due to overdistention of the lung) • Less “barotrauma” (gross air leaks) • Less “biotrauma “ (release of mediators in the lung and translocation of these mediators into the systemic circulation)
  • 5. Direct Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents • Administration of cisatracurium over a 48 hrs – Decreases levels of IL-8 in BAL – Decreases levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in serum Forel et al. Neuromuscular blocking agents decrease inflammatory response in patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 2006;34:2749-57.
  • 6. The Use of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents in Patients with ARDS • Current guidelines – To facilitate mechanical ventilation when sedation alone is inadequate “pts with severe gas-exchange impairments” Murray et al. Clinical practice guidelines for sustained neuromuscular blockade in the adult critically ill patient. Crit Care Med 2002;30:142-56.
  • 7. The Literature About the Use of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents in Patients with ARDS • Four-center randomized, controlled trial • 56 patients with ARDS • 13/56 infusion of a neuromuscular blocking agent for a period of 48 hr – Improved oxygenation – Trend toward lower mortality (46%, vs. 71% among patients who did not receive a blocking agent; P = 0.06) • This study was not designed to evaluate mortality Gainnier et al. Effect of neuromuscular blocking agents on gas exchange in patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 2004;32:113-9.
  • 8. Methods • Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial • Enrollment time from March 2006 through March 2008 • 20 ICUs in France • 340 patients • Randomly assigned to receive Cisatracurium or placebo for 48 hrs • Both groups underwent mechanical ventilation according to a lung-protective strategy
  • 9. Eligibility Criteria • Endotracheal mechanical ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure • The presence of all of the following conditions for a period of no longer than 48 hours: – PaO2: FiO2 ratio < 150 (severe ARDS) – Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates that were consistent with edema – PCWP , if available, of less than 18 mm Hg – PEEP 5 cmH2O or higher – Vt 6 to 8 ml/kg of predicted body weight
  • 10. Exclusion Criteria • Age younger than 18 years • Lack of consent • Continuous infusion of a neuromuscular blocking agent at enrollment • Pregnancy • Enrollment in other trial within the previous 30 days • Increased intracranial pressure • severe chronic respiratory disease requiring long-term oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation at home • Actual body weight exceeding 1 kg per centimeter of height • Severe chronic liver disease (Child–Pugh class C) • Bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy-induced neutropenia • Pneumothorax • Expected duration of mechanical ventilation of less than 48 hours • Decision to withhold life-sustaining treatment • Other reason • Time window missed
  • 11. Study Treatment • Identical separate 30-ml vials for intravenous infusion – Cisatracurium besylate – Placebo • Peripheral-nerve stimulators were not permitted • The Ramsay sedation scale was used to adapt sedative requirements – Score of 1: anxious, agitated, or restless – Score of 6: no response on glabellar tap • Once the Ramsay sedation score is 6 – 3-ml rapid intravenous infusion of 15 mg of cisatracurium besylate or placebo – Followed by a continuous infusion of 37.5 mg/hr x 48 hr
  • 12. Ventilation Procedure • Ventilator mode: volume assist–control • Initial tidal volume: 6–8 ml/kg of predicted body weight • Plateau pressure: ≤32 cmH2O • Oxygenation goal: PaO2 of 55–80 mm Hg or SpO2 of 88–95% • pH goal: 7.20–7.45
  • 13. Ventilation Procedure • Procedure when oxygenation goal not achieved despite adjustments to FiO2 and PEEP: – Inhaled NO – Almitrine mesylate – Prone positioning – Any combination
  • 14. Ventilation Procedure • Procedure when plateau pressure is >32 cmH2O for at least 10 min (in the following order, as needed): – Increase sedation – Reduce tidal volume to 4 ml/kg – Decrease PEEP by decrements of 2 cmH2O – Injection of cisatracurium in a bolus of 20 mg
  • 15. Ventilation Procedure • Procedure to correct hypercapnia when pH is <7.20 (in the following order, as needed): – Connect Y-piece directly to endotracheal tube – Increase RR to a maximum of 35 cycles per min – Increase tidal volume to a maximum of 8 ml/kg
  • 16. Study Outcomes • Primary Outcome: – In-hospital 90-day mortality • The proportion of pts who died before hospital discharge and within 90 days after study enrollment – The crude 90-day mortality
  • 17. • Adjusted 90 days survival rate (Hazard ratio 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.98; P = 0.04) • The crude 90-day mortality (31.6% vs. 40.7%; P = 0.08) Ongoing cytokine release, related to the biotrauma mechanism???
  • 18. Study Outcomes • Secondary Outcomes: – Day-28 mortality – Number of days outside the ICU – Number of days without organ or system failure – Rate of barotraumas – Rate of ICU-acquired paresis – Numbers of ventilator-free days
  • 19. Definitions • ICU-acquired paresis: MRC score < 48 • Muscle strength was evaluated with the use of the Medical Research Council (MRC) – Paralysis: score of 0 – Normal strength: score of 5 • The overall score ranging from 0 to 60 • Barotrauma: newly developed – Pneumothorax – Pneumomediastinum – Subcutaneous emphysema – Pneumatocele <2 cm
  • 20. Safety • One pt developed bradycardia during the cisatracurium infusion • No other side effects were reported • Steroidal compounds (vecuronium, pancuronium, and rocuronium) may carry the highest risk of myopathy
  • 21. Conclusion • Treatment with cisatracurium for 48 hrs early in the course of severe ARDS – Improved the adjusted 90-day survival rate (did not significantly improve the overall 90-day mortality) – Increased the numbers of ventilator free days – Increased the numbers of days outside the ICU – Decreased the incidence of barotrauma
  • 22. Strengths of TheTrial • Methods used to minimize bias – Blinded-randomized trial – Well-defined study protocol – Complete follow-up – Intention-to-treat analyses • The recruitment of a large number of patients from 20 multidisciplinary ICUs
  • 23. Limitations of The Trial • Results may not apply to other neuromuscular blocking agents • Did not assess the use of a neuromuscular blocking agent late in the course of ARDS • Absence of data on conditions known to antagonize or potentiate neuromuscular blockade • The mortality in the placebo group in this study (40.7%) is lower than that in the control groups in the earlier studies. The current study was underpowered
  • 24. Discussion • All patients in the trial had severe ARDS PaO2:FiO2 < 150 • The beneficial effect of the neuromuscular blocking agent on survival was confined to the two thirds of patients with a PaO2:FiO2 < 120
  • 25. Many Unanswered Questions • What is the optimal duration of use of neuromuscular blocking agents? • Is the observed benefit specific to cisatracurium or shared within the drug class? • Would very heavy sedation produce results similar to those reported? • Why does the beneficial effect appear to be present only in patients with more severe hypoxemia?