AboutCrossingBorders<br />Lessons learned and reaffirmed in the Robert M. sex-offender case.<br />Bas Vogelvang<br />Avans...
1. Internationallyactive2. Veryyoungchildren<br />1. Lessvulnerablefordetection and trial<br />Veryyoungchildren<br />2. V...
3. Offenderage4. Offender type<br />3. Relativelyyoung<br />4. ‘Lover’ and predator:<br />Age	   %<br />   <21 	  3%<br />...
5. Internet sharing6. Out of sight<br />5. Notverycommon, increasedvulnerabilility<br />Linkedwithorganized crime<br />6. ...
Childsextourismdestinationcountries<br />
Childsextourism: offender types<br />Situational child sex offender<br />Takes the opportunities presented to him to use a...
Creation of a sextouristmarket<br />sexual desires and self-created opportunities of sex-offenders<br />poverty and underd...
Example: Baltic states,2000<br />Downfall of communism: no immediate alternative social structure<br />Prostitution amongs...
Childtrafficking in oneyear<br />1.2 million children trafficked worldwide (UN). <br />Europe: 200,000 individualstraffick...
Childpornography and Cybercrime		<br />Childpornography: <br />Productionincreasinglylinked to childsextourism<br />Conseq...
Response is slow butsteady<br />Pioneering work of NGOs and intergovernmental organizations, such as the United Nations<br...
Heroes<br />Children at Risk in Baltic Sea Region <br />CRIN - Child Rights Information Network <br />ENOC - The European ...
Operation Predator<br />
OperationRescue / Europol<br />
Recommendations: improve …<br />Victim prevention and prevention of repeated victimization in receiving countries <br />Na...
It is the spirit and not the form of law that keeps justice alive  Earl Warren<br />bo.vogelvang@avans.nl<br />
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Crossing Borders: International Dimensions of Sex Offending

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Presented in Riga, Latvia, March 2011

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Crossing Borders: International Dimensions of Sex Offending

  1. 1. AboutCrossingBorders<br />Lessons learned and reaffirmed in the Robert M. sex-offender case.<br />Bas Vogelvang<br />Avans University<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. 1. Internationallyactive2. Veryyoungchildren<br />1. Lessvulnerablefordetection and trial<br />Veryyoungchildren<br />2. Victim’sage and abuserrelationship:<br /> Family Other <br />Victim’s age member acquaintance Stranger <br />0-5 (10%) 49% 48% 3%<br /> 6-11 (58%) 42% 53% 5%<br />12-17 (32%) 24% 66% 10%<br />Snyder, 2000<br />Barriers: 1) arrangeavailability 2) useforce<br />3) avoiddetection 4) minimizeguilt<br />
  4. 4. 3. Offenderage4. Offender type<br />3. Relativelyyoung<br />4. ‘Lover’ and predator:<br />Age %<br /> <21 3%<br />21-30 10%<br />31-40 24%<br />41-50 37%<br />51-60 19%<br /> >60 6%<br />WODC 2004<br /> Strong pedosexual Weak pedosexual <br /> preoccupation preoccupation<br />Frequent child contact ‘lover’, often homosexual incest<br />Incidental / infrequent child contact pedosexual predatoropportunistic predator<br />Knight & Prentky, 1990<br />
  5. 5. 5. Internet sharing6. Out of sight<br />5. Notverycommon, increasedvulnerabilility<br />Linkedwithorganized crime<br />6. Robert M. profitedfrom a lack of transnationallegislation and co-operation<br /> international pedosexual childabuse is onlyonedimensionof international childsexualexploitation:<br />ChildSexTourism<br />ChildTrafficking<br />ChildPornography<br />Child Cybercrime<br />Associated, ‘demand and marketrelated’ crime<br />
  6. 6. Childsextourismdestinationcountries<br />
  7. 7. Childsextourism: offender types<br />Situational child sex offender<br />Takes the opportunities presented to him to use a minor as sex object<br />Preferential child sex tourist<br />Actively travels and seeks out minors for sexual contact<br />Pedosexuals as subgroup, sometimes working together<br />Both types of offenders create a local demand in receiving countries<br />
  8. 8. Creation of a sextouristmarket<br />sexual desires and self-created opportunities of sex-offenders<br />poverty and underdevelopment, lack of education, urge for survival <br />political and social disruption and the existence of organized crime <br />lack of or insufficient national and extraterritorial laws, combined with corruption and lack of enforcement<br />legal tourist activity (hotels, bars, transport) also profits from the sex tourist market<br />cultural factors, most importantly opinions about girls and females and sexuality of minors, often religiously motivated<br />family circumstances <br />family pressure <br />sexual offending within the family<br />broken families and runaway children / orphans / adoption <br /> child trafficking <br /> child labour<br />
  9. 9. Example: Baltic states,2000<br />Downfall of communism: no immediate alternative social structure<br />Prostitution amongst street children <br />Russia and Scandinavia as sending countries<br />Linked with organized crime and trafficking to both Western Europe and Baltic states<br />
  10. 10. Childtrafficking in oneyear<br />1.2 million children trafficked worldwide (UN). <br />Europe: 200,000 individualstrafficked annually from eastern Europe <br />Significant proportion being children being forced into child labour, prostitution and crime. <br />Terre des Hommes: 6,000 children between the ages of 12 and 16, with more than 650 being forced to work as sex slaves in Italy.<br />Increase of abuse of adoption procedures<br />Internet allows for finding and abusing children outside holiday resorts  change in trafficking destinations<br />
  11. 11. Childpornography and Cybercrime <br />Childpornography: <br />Productionincreasinglylinked to childsextourism<br />Consequentlylinked to traffickingof children to producenewpornographicmaterial<br />Cybercrime:<br />Linked with blackmail, child pornography, child trafficking and child sex tourism<br />Increase of online solicitation of children for self-generated webcam child abuse material<br />ECPAT: <br />Link equivalent legislation in all jurisdictions with integrated partnerships with the private sector, NGOs, education specialists and other stakeholders<br />Example: ROBERT: Risk taking Online Behaviour Empowerment through Research and Training<br />Internet and Online Service Providers need to install reporting mechanisms<br />
  12. 12. Response is slow butsteady<br />Pioneering work of NGOs and intergovernmental organizations, such as the United Nations<br />Followed by governments by increasing number of international conventions and treaties. <br />World Congresses Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation (Stockholm 1996, Yokohama in 2001).<br />Europe: Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. Adopted 2000.<br />Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse<br />Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime<br />Declaration of the Committee of Ministers on protecting the dignity, security and privacy of children on the Internet <br />> 30 countries with extraterritorial laws that allow the prosecution of their nationals for crimes committed abroad, regardless of whether the offense is punishable in the country where it occurred.<br />
  13. 13. Heroes<br />Children at Risk in Baltic Sea Region <br />CRIN - Child Rights Information Network <br />ENOC - The European Network of Ombudsmen <br />ISPCAN - International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect <br />SEECRAN - South East European Child Rights Action Network <br />ECPAT - End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes<br />Save The Children <br />The Separated Children in Europe Programme <br />ICMEC - The International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children <br />EURONET - The European Children's Network <br />EveryChild<br />
  14. 14. Operation Predator<br />
  15. 15. OperationRescue / Europol<br />
  16. 16. Recommendations: improve …<br />Victim prevention and prevention of repeated victimization in receiving countries <br />National legislation and extraterritorial laws for sex offenders <br />Offender treatment availability and efforts for social inclusion combined with control and supervision, e.g. Circles of Support and Accountability <br />Self-regulation and participation in legislation of (inter-)national organizations:<br />international / global trade companies, <br />tourist industries and national tourism departments,<br />national police and justice departments<br />internet providers<br />Role of NGOs combating child sexual abuse:<br />joint efforts for collecting information and sharing it with (inter-)national organizations<br />worldwide awareness campaigns and local support programs <br />Hiring protocols integrity screening of professionals and volunteers working with children <br />Assessment and intervention competence of police officers and child protection workers<br />
  17. 17. It is the spirit and not the form of law that keeps justice alive  Earl Warren<br />bo.vogelvang@avans.nl<br />
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