Introduction <br />In science teaching, teachers should provide the appropriate atmosphere for the children to learn. This would determine the success of learning. Children build knowledge themselves and teacher provides the environment that helps them to learn science through inquiry. Children will discover a concept themselves. <br />Use various methods by teachers in teaching science are important to ensure that students can learn and understand a science concept much better. Knowledge in science not only can provide new knowledge to students in fact they can further their mindset in the field of science growing rapidly in this era of modern technology.<br />Teachers must be more creative in the process of conducting lesson in the class to present the science knowledge. This is to attract students in learning science subjects that most students considered this subject quite difficult and hard to understand what they are taught by teachers in the classroom. Therefore, teachers should also be more aware and try to teach science in a way that is easier to understand by students as associate events or things that happen in their daily life.<br /> Some of the activities that can be carried out in teaching science are to hold discussion groups, make experiments, simulations, demonstrations and storytelling. Examples of activities that can be carried out by teachers to help students better understand science subjects will be discussed further in the next page.<br />
Activities that encourage attitudes and stimulate curiosity:
These activities are driven by input that are designed to peak the students’ interest, capture their attention and imagination and / or make them wonder. The activities do not need to be complex or extraordinary, even the most ordinary things, like a leaf falling can be the focus of an activity if it is presented in such a way as to show the student that there is science involved in the phenomenon and that the phenomenon leads to much bigger things.
Type of Activity Certain Habits That Disturb Life Processes Target Year 4Purpose of ActivityTo find out the effect of smoking on the lungs.Activity Logistics (Materials)Plastic bottle, cotton wool, cork with hole, cigaretteScience Process SkillObserving, communicating.Activities Pupils divided into groups.Each group will be given a plastic bottle, cotton wool, cork with hole and cigarette.They need to fill a plastic bottle half full of cotton wool.Close the plastic bottle with a cork.Insert a cigarette into the hole of the cork.Light up the cigarette.Press the plastic bottle several times.Find out what happen. Teacher will asks student a few questions to encourage their attitude and stimulate curiosity such as:What does the cotton wool represent?What process does the activity of pressing the bottle represent?What does the yellowish colour indicate?What is the effect of smoking on the lungs?Name two other habits that bring harm to humans.
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Activities that provide opportunities for skill development:
These activities, often following (1), are designed to allow students to manipulate things and their surroundings while investigating and exploring the phenomenon that is the focus of the class.
Type of Activity Devices That Are Used To Overcome Human Limitations Target Year 4Purpose of ActivityTo investigate different devices those are used to overcome human limitations.Activity Logistics (Materials)Pictures of devices that can help to overcome human limitations, cardboard, a few pieces of coloured paper.Science Process SkillObserving, communicating, classifying. Activities Pupils divided into groups.They need to cut out the pictures of devices that are used to overcome human limitations. Write the following sentences on each page of white paper:Devices which can overcome limitations of the eyes.Devices which can overcome limitations of the ears.Devices which can overcome limitations of the legs.Devices which can overcome limitations of the hands.Devices which can overcome limitations of the brain. Pupils need to classify each picture according to their function in overcome human limitations.They have to make a folio from above activity.Teacher asks student to complete mind map that shows the devices to overcome human limitations for the conclusion of the lesson.
Activities that provide opportunities for skill development
Activities that allow students to work cooperatively and combine ideas:
These activities are where the students pool their ideas and efforts in exploring the focus phenomenon. They plan, perform and observe the results of experiments together and then come up with reports that they write together.
Type of Activity The Solar System Target Year 4Purpose of ActivityTo find out the correct sequence of planets in the Solar System.Activity Logistics (Materials)Ten balls Science Process SkillObserving, communicating, using space-time relationship.ActivitiesPupils divided into group of ten.They have to do this activity in a field. Nine pupils will stand in nine tracks with a ball on their hands.One pupil will stand in the middle of the nine tracks with a ball in the hand.Let all the nine pupils move around the pupil that is standing in the middle of the nine tracks with the ball in their hands. All the nine pupils represent the planets. Let each of your nine friends will announce their name (planets name) loudly in a correct sequence. List all the name of pupils and planets in a form of table.Teacher will asks student a few questions to test their understanding such as:Which planet is the nearest to the Sun?Which planet is the farthest to the Sun?How do all planets move?List out the planets in the Solar System in the correct sequence beginning with the nearest planet to the Sun.
24765063500<br />38100418465<br />57150212725<br />120015064135<br />Activities that allow students to work cooperatively and combine ideas<br />
Activities that provide opportunities for scientific concept development:
This is where the teacher plays an important role. He or she can provide the scientific input or direct the students to the appropriate scientific input, then help link the information to the observations the students made.
Type of Activity Plants Respond To Stimuli Target Year 4Purpose of ActivityTo investigate that shoot of plant responds to sunlight.Activity Logistics (Materials)Two potted of balsam plants, a box with a hole at the top, a box with a hole at the side, water.Science Process SkillObserving, communicating, experimenting. Activities Pupils divided into groups.They need to put potted of balsam plant in a box with a hole at the top. Label as plant A.Put the other potted balsam plant in a box with a hole at the side label as plant B. Leave both plants in sunlight and water them every day.Observe the plants after a week.Draw your observation in Science practical book.Based on the experiment, students need to complete the following questions:State what must be changed.State what to observe.What can you conclude based on the experiment?
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Activities that relate the phenomenon observed to life and everyday experience:
This can be a cooperative effort involving the whole class or it can be done in small groups. The point is to allow the students to see that the phenomenon they learn is not an isolated thing. It is part of their lives and it is important.<br />
Type of Activity Materials That Conduct Heat Target Year 4Purpose of ActivityTo investigate that certain materials are able to conduct heat.Activity Logistics (Materials)A beaker of hot water, steel ruler, plastic ruler, wooden ruler.Science Process SkillObserving, communicating, experimenting. Activities Pupils divided into groups.The first step is they have to place a beaker of hot water on a table.Put a steel ruler, wooden ruler and plastic ruler into the beaker of hot water. Keep all the rulers in the hot water for a minute.After a minute, take out all the rulers and feel each ruler with your hand.Record your finding in a form of a table.Based on the experiment, students need to complete the following questions:Which ruler feels warm after being placed in hot water for a minute?Why does the ruler feel warm after being placed in hot water for a minute?Which rulers do not feel warm after being placed in hot water for a minute?Why do the rulers not feel warm after being placed in hot water for a minute?State :What is changed? What is kept the same?
264160198120<br />Activities that relate the phenomenon observed to life and everyday experience<br />Conclusion <br />Various activities can be used by teachers in teaching science subjects to attract students to learn science. In learning science, teaching in the classroom should be more focused involvement of students. While the teacher as facilitator to guide students to perform an activity.As we know, learning science will be more meaningful if done in a hands-on, not only in minds-on. Activities conducted by students in hands-on will enhance their understanding further facilitate their making long-term memory.<br />The basic underlying principle of science process skills rest upon the premise that science has to be taught as a procedure of inquiry. Therefore student must be taught to be careful and responsible in conducting experiments, recording and analysing data and making conclusion. This is important because students must be aware of the consequence and impact of the studies done to oneself and to the community and the nature. They must be taught that many of the scientific studies done benefited mankind and many were done to destroy human civilisation. <br />Students must be taught of the consequences that will emerge when scientific investigations are carried out with incorrect procedures. Student must also be highlighted of the danger on the environment when the products of scientific research are dumped to the environment. Teachers must remind students about these issues in the classroom and help students to posses the appropriate scientific attitudes and values. <br />Teachers who are creative in designing teaching and learning science in the classroom not only can attract student interest, but also to inculcate scientific attitudes and values that can guide the students throughout their life. Science is not a small field, but very wide scope. All knowledge learned in school that allows students to apply them in their daily lives. For example, implementation of value on the importance of environmental care will make students more responsible in protecting and preserving the environment around them.<br />BibliographyCarin, A. A. (1993). Teaching science through discovery. New York: Macmillan.Poh, S. H. (2005). Science pedagogy 2: Science teaching and learning strategy. Kuala Lumpur: Budiman.Poh, S. H. (2005). Science pedagogy 3: Science process skills. Kuala Lumpur: Budiman.Poh, S. H. (2005). Science pedagogy 4: Science resources and laboratory management. Kuala Lumpur: Budiman.Unknown. (2010, March 18). KidAstronomy.com. Retrieved March 18, 2010, from Solar System: http://www.kidsastronomy.com/solar_system.htm<br />