Week 1&2 - Office Management Tool-2


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Week 1&2
Office Management Tool-2

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  • A database is a shared collection of logically related data, designed to meet the information needs of multiple users in an organization.
  • Data that describe the properties and context of user data.
  • A relational database is a collection of tables from which data can be accessed in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables.
  • A relational database is a collection of tables from which data can be accessed in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables.
  • A relational database is a collection of tables from which data can be accessed in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables.
  • A relational database is a collection of tables from which data can be accessed in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables.
  • Collection of logical constructs used to represent data structure and relationships within the database
  • Perceived by user as a collection of tables for data storage, Tables are a series of row/column intersections, Tables related by sharing common entity characteristic(s)
  • Collection of logical constructs used to represent data structure and relationships within the database
  • Think about the data that you may want to store about different things around you List the changes that may arise during the working of any system, lets say Railway Reservation System
  • Think about the data that you may want to store about different things around you List the changes that may arise during the working of any system, lets say Railway Reservation System
  • Week 1&2 - Office Management Tool-2

    1. 1. AbduSalam 1OFFICE MANAGEMENT TOOL-II BBA-6th Semester
    3. 3. Week-13  Introduction to Database  Who need a Database?  Data vs Information  Data Processing and their Activities  Database Terminology  Keys Used in DBMS  Database Management System  Relational Database Management System AbduSalam
    4. 4. Week-24  Introduction to Database (Cont’d)  Types of Database  DBMS Applications  Database User’s  Components of DBMS  Database Models  Objectives of RDBMS AbduSalam
    5. 5. Introduction5  Definition  The term database means different things to different people. However, the following definitions are used in the literature:  A database is a collection of logically related data sets or files.  Each file may contain different types of information and are used for specific purpose.  The files may be organized in different ways to meet different processing and retrieval requirements of the users.  A Database is an organized collection of stored data. OR  Database is a structure collection of logically related data. OR  An organized collection of information in computerized format. or  A Computerized representation of any organizations flow of information and storage of data. AbduSalam
    6. 6. Introduction (Cont’d)6  Example  A bank may have separate files for the clients as follows:  Saving A/C, Automobile Loan, Personal Loan, Clients Information etc  The client database of bank will consist of the records from all of the above files. The data of any client can be added, retrieved, or updated by using database program.  The facilities of database are:  Adding new file to database  Inserting new data in existing files  Retrieving data from existing files  Updating data in existing files  Deleting data from existing files  Removing existing files from database AbduSalam
    7. 7. Who Needs a Database?7  Anyone who uses information to market their business.  Anyone who uses information to provide goods or services to their customers.  Anyone who wants to save time and improve the efficiency of using their business information.  Anyone who wants to be more organized about their business information.  Anyone who wants to use information about their business more consistently.  Anyone who wishes to present their business documents or output more professionally. AbduSalam
    8. 8. Introduction (Cont’d)8  Data (Cont’d)  The database is the collection of data about anything, Like cricket teams, students and many more, anything about which you want to store data.  What we mean by data; simply the facts or figures.  Following table shows the things and the data that we may want to store about them: Cricket Country, name, date of birth, specialty, matches played, runs etc. Player Scholars Name, data of birth, age, country, field, books published etc. Movies Name, director, language (Punjabi is default in case of Pakistan) etc. Food Name, ingredients, taste, preferred time, origin, etc. AbduSalam
    9. 9. Introduction (Cont’d)9  Data (Cont’d)  Data is a collection of facts made up of text, numbers, figures, dates and objects. An objects can be a person, event or anything about which data is gathered.  Data is a valuable resource to any business.  Data can be used by the managers to perform effective and successful operations of management.  It provide a view of past activities related to the rise and fall of an organization.  It also enable the user to make better decision for future.  Date is very useful for generating reports and graphs. AbduSalam
    10. 10. Introduction (Cont’d)10  Data (Cont’d)  Example  Data can be names, addresses, phone numbers, dates etc. Mr. Khan 35000 7/18/86  Data can be processed to create useful information. Information is the meaning given to data in the way it is interpreted: Mr. Khan is a sales person whose annual salary is $35,000 and whose hire date is July 18, 1986.  The manipulated and processed form of data is called information.  It is more meaningful than data. AbduSalam
    11. 11. Introduction (Cont’d)11  Data vs Information  Data is unprocessed raw facts about a particular entity while Information is the processed form of data.  Data is used as input in the computer while Information is the output of computer.  Data in normally huge in the volume while Information is normally short in the volume.  Data is the asset of organization and is not available to people for sale while Information is normally available to people for sale.  Data is difficult or impossible to reproduce while Information is easier to reproduce if lost.  Data is used rarely while Information is used frequently.  Data is an independent entity while information depends on data. AbduSalam
    12. 12. Introduction (Cont’d)12  Levels of Data AbduSalam
    13. 13. Data Processing and Activities13  The process of manipulating data to achieve the required objectives and results is called Data Processing.  Software used to process raw data and converts raw data into meaningful information.  Series of actions or operations are performed on data to get required output or results.  Activities on Data Processing  Data Capturing  Data Manipulation  Managing output results AbduSalam
    14. 14. Data Processing and Activities (Cont’d)14  Data Capturing  Process of recording the data in some form is called Data Capturing.  Data may recorded from source documents. Or  Data can also be given directly to the computer through input devices.  Data Manipulation  Process of applying different operations on data is called Data manipulation.  The following operation can be performed on data:  Classifying  Process of organizing data into classes or groups is called classifying.  Example: Data in college can be classified in two groups: Student & Teacher  Calculation  Process of applying arithmetic operations on data is called Calculation. AbduSalam
    15. 15. Data Processing and Activities (Cont’d)15  Sorting  Process of arranging data in logical sequence is called sorting  Summarizing  Process of reducing a large amount of data in a more concise and usable form is called summarizing.  Managing output results  The following activities can be performed on data after the data has been captured and manipulated.  Storage  Process of retaining data for future use is called data storage.  Different storage medium used to store data. AbduSalam
    16. 16. Data Processing and Activities (Cont’d)16  Retrieval  Process of accessing or fetching the store data is called data retrieval.  Data can be retrieved when required.  Communication  Process of transferring data from source to destination for further processing is called communication.  Reproduction  Process of copying or duplicating data is called reproduction of data.  Data can be reproduced if different users need data at different locations. AbduSalam
    17. 17. Database Terminology17  Database File  The main file that include the entire database and that is saved to your hard-drive or floppy disk. For example StudentDatabase.mdb in access 2003 and .accdb in access 2007 & 2010  Also called Master files or Latest updated files  These files are updated when any change in their are required.  Transaction File  It is used to store input data before processing.  It may be temporary file or may exist until the master file is updated.  It may also be used to maintain a permanent record of the data about a transaction. AbduSalam
    18. 18. Database Terminology (Cont’d)18  Backup File  It is used to take backup of important data.  It is permanent file.  It is used to store an additional copy of data.  Data can be recovered from this file if the original file is lost or damaged.  Backup files are mostly created by using specific software utilities.  Entity  Real world things (entities) you need to store information about.  For example Employees, Products, Customers, Orders.  Entities are represented by tables in the database  Entities are represented by rectangles AbduSalam
    19. 19. Database Terminology (Cont’d)19  Table  A two dimensional array of data that contains descriptive information about an entity is known as table or relation.  A table is a collection of data about a specific topic, such as students or contacts, Customers, Orders, or products.  Field  Facts (attributes) you need to know about each entity, e.g. an Employee’s date of birth, salary.  Attributes are represented by fields in the tables  A field is a single characteristic of a person, place, object, event or idea.  Attributes are represented by oval. AbduSalam
    20. 20. Database Terminology (Cont’d)20  Record  A set of related field values. e.g. An employee record includes a set of fields about the employee such as Employee no, name etc.  Degree  Degree is the number of attributes in a relation.  Cardinality  Cardinality is the number of tuples in a relation. AbduSalam
    21. 21. Example  Relationship  A logical connection between different entities is called relationship FieldsRecords Student ID Student Name Phone Department 101 Khan 392-3900 Pharmacy 102 Jawad 392-5555 Statistics 103 Imran 846-5656 Economics Course Code Course Name Student ID 1001 Botany 101 1002 SPSS 102 AbduSalam 21
    22. 22. Primary Key & Foreign Key22  Primary Key  To ensure that each record is unique in each table, we can set one field to be a Primary Key field.  A Primary Key is a field that will contain no duplicates and no blank values. Or  A Primary key is a field, or a collection of fields, whose values uniquely identify each record  Foreign Key  When the primary key is included in a second table, it’s called as a Foreign key  Foreign Keys link to data in other tables AbduSalam
    23. 23. Candidate/Alternate, Composite & Secondary Key23  Candidate/Alternate Key  Field or combination of fields that are not used as a primary key.  Users can also access data by using an alternate key.  e.g.  If student relation contain a Roll No, it can be used as primary key because one Roll No can be assigned to only one student.  Suppose the relation contains another field Registration No that has been used as primary key. In this situation, Roll No becomes an alternate key.  Composite Key  Primary key that consist of two or more attributes  e.g.  Relation uses two fields Registration No and Subject to identify each tuple, then it is called Composite key.  Secondary Key  A field or combination of fields that is basis for retrieval is known as secondary key.  Secondary is a non-unique field. One secondary key may refers to many records. AbduSalam
    24. 24. Fields, Records and a Table24 AbduSalam
    25. 25. Relating Tables Using a Common Field25 AbduSalam
    26. 26. Relating Tables Using a Common Field (Cont’d)26 AbduSalam
    27. 27. Database Management System27  A DBMS is a software tool that allows multiple users to store, access, and process data into useful information.  Used for Organizing, Storing, Maintaining, Retrieving, and Sorting data.  A RDBMS is a collection of tables that are related to one another based on a common field.  A relational database uses multiple tables  Example: Microsoft Access, dBASE, FOXPRO, Oracle.  To manage databases, companies purchase programs called RDBMS  Student Information System  Inventory System AbduSalam 27
    28. 28. Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)28  Relationships between the entities in the database; i.e. what attributes do they have in common.  Relationships are formed in the database between entities that have common attributes. They have common fields in the related tables.  For example, customer ‘Hassan’ can place an order for product ‘Laptop’.  So the Orders table has relationships with Customers table & Products table DON’T DUPLICATE DATA That is, once relationships are created, tables can “talk” to each other. We can link (relate) the tables to find: AbduSalam 28
    29. 29. DBMS Applications29  DBMS touch all aspects of our lives  Banking: all transactions  Airlines: reservations, schedules  Universities: registration, grades  Sales: customers, products, purchases  Online retailers: order tracking, customized recommendations  Manufacturing: production, inventory, orders, supply chain  Human resources: employee records, salaries, tax deductions AbduSalam 29
    30. 30. DBMS Applications (Cont’d)30  The purpose of a relational database management system is to transform Data Information Knowledge Action Data driven decision making AbduSalam 30
    31. 31. Types of Database31  Two types of databases are Centralized & Distributed Database  Centralized Database  A logically interrelated collection of shared data, physically located on a central computer and the user access this data base through their terminals.  All the processing is performed on that central computer.  It provide greater control over accessing and updating data than distributed databases, however,  Centralized databases are more vulnerable to failure since they depend on resources at a central location.  Examples  Personal Computer Databases- those used in small businesses (Accounting, Inventory) AbduSalam
    32. 32. Types of Database (Cont’d)32  Central Computer Databases- Usually involve very large, integrated databases accessible to a large number of users (Airline reservation system, Financial Institutions, etc.)  Client/Server Database- Designed for distribution of work on a computer network in which many clients share services of a single server. AbduSalam
    33. 33. Types of Database (Cont’d)33  Distributed Database  A logically interrelated collection of shared data, physically distributed over a computer network.  A distributed database (DDB) is a collection of multiple, logically interrelated databases distributed over a computer network.  The database must have a single logical data model.  e.g. Banking and insurance applications  DDB increase reliability and availability  When centralized database fails, the database is unavailable to all users. A distributed system will continue to function at some reduced level even when a component fails. AbduSalam
    34. 34. Types of Database (Cont’d)34 AbduSalam
    35. 35. Database User35  Users of Database Systems:  Application Programmers  End Users  Naïve User  Sophisticated User  Database Administrator  Application programmers:  who create different types of database application programs  Application programmers design the application according to the needs  Application programmers are skilled people who have clear idea of the structure of the database and know clearly about the needs of the organizations.  End Users:  Group of users contains the people who use the database application programs developed by the Application programmers. This category further contains three types of users AbduSalam
    36. 36. Database User (Cont’d)36  This category further contains three types of users  Naïve Users  Sophisticated Users  Database Administrator  Naïve Users  Simply use the application database programs created by the programmers.  Has no interaction with other parts of there database and only use the programs meant for them.  They have not to worry about the further working of the database.  Sophisticated Users:  Have some additional rights over the Naïve users, which means that they can access the data stored in the database any of their desired way.  Can access data using the application programs as well as other ways of accessing data. AbduSalam
    37. 37. Database User (Cont’d)37  Database Administrators (DBA):  The most technical class of db users.  Have the knowledge of how to design and manage the database use as well as to manage the data in the database.  DBA is a very responsible position in an organization for development of any database system.  Responsible for design, proper working, implementation, operation of the database and RDBMS, has the responsibility of making proper database backups and make necessary actions for recovering the database in case of a database crash.  To fulfill the requirements of a DBA position a DBA needs vast experience and very elegant technical skills. AbduSalam
    38. 38. Database User (Cont’d)38  Database Administrator takes over the charge and performs specific DBA related activities including:  Installation of software  Database maintenance  Database Backup  Grant of rights to database users  Responsible for grant of access rights to the database users.  Granting and revoking (taking back) the rights  Monitoring of Running Jobs  When a new database is created it takes a limited space but as a result of daily activity the database acquires more data and grows in size very rapidly.  The DBA has to monitor the disk space usage and statistics to ensure that no data over flow occurs at any stage.  Managing Print jobs  Restoring the system AbduSalam 
    39. 39. Components of Database System39  The four major components of Database System are:  Data  Data is the most important component of database system.  Data covers the collection of facts stored in the database.  Main purpose of database system to store, maintain and process data for the user.  Hardware  Physical components of a computer system are known as hardware.  Hardware are used to perform different tasks as input, output, storage, and processing.  Software  Collection of programs used by computer within a database system.  Most important software is DBMS itself. AbduSalam
    40. 40. Components of Database System (Cont’d)40  Three types of software to enable the database system function fully.  Operating System software  It manages all the hardware components and enable other software to run on the computer.  RDBMS software  It manages the database in the database system  Application Programs and Utilities  Used to access and manipulate the data stored in the database  Personnel  People related to database system are called Personnel  e.g. DBA, Programmer, & End User AbduSalam
    41. 41. Database Models41  Set of rules and standards that define how the database organizes data is called Database Model.  Three types of logical database models  Hierarchical Model  It arranges records in hierarchy like an organizational chart.  Each record type in this model is called a node or segment.  Node on the chart represents a particular entity.  Each node is a subordinate of the node that is the next highest level.  This kind of structure is often called inverted tree.  The top-most node is called Root. AbduSalam
    42. 42. Database Models (Cont’d)42  Hierarchical Model (Cont’d) AbduSalam
    43. 43. Database Models (Cont’d)43  Network Model  Each record can have multiple parents  Network model is similar to hierarchical model.  Major difference is that the subordinate entity may participate in as many subordinate relationships as required.  Subordinating entities are represented by arrows in the network model.  Require more complex program to represent a database. It also provide more flexibility than hierarchical model. AbduSalam
    44. 44. Database Models (Cont’d)44  Network Model (Cont’d) AbduSalam
    45. 45. Database Models (Cont’d)45  Relation Model  Most commonly used database model and more flexible than others  Consists of simple relations and these relation represent a particular entity.  Relation are used to hold information about the entity to be represented in the database.  Relations are also called Tables  Tables are a series of row/column intersections, Tables related by sharing common entity characteristic(s) AbduSalam
    46. 46. Database Models (Cont’d)46  Relation Model (Cont’d) AbduSalam
    47. 47. Database Models (Cont’d)47 Represented in an entity relationship diagram (ERD) Based on entities, attributes, and relationships AbduSalam
    48. 48. RDBMS Objectives48  RDBMS have some important objectives:  Database Security  Protection from malicious attempts to steal or modify data.  Database security means to protect the data from unauthorized (access) users, which can modify, update, destroy or delete the data is known as Database security.  Thus data base is always under a responsible person called DBA.  Authentication and authorization mechanisms to allow specific users access only to required data.  Share ability  An ability to share data resources  Share ability means that the actual data must be shared among different people and different processes at the same time.  This capability allows user to store data at a central place. AbduSalam
    49. 49. DBMS Objectives (Cont’d)49  Availability  It means that the users must be able to access data easily.  The data should be available when and where it is required.  Integrity  Protecting the existing database, maintaining the quality of database and ensuring the privacy of database.  The Integrity of a DB is concerned with its consistency, correctness, validity and accuracy.  Database integrity refers to the validity and consistency of stored data.  Integrity is usually expressed in terms of constraints, which are consistency rules that database is not permitted to violate.  Enforcing integrity constraints generally requires access to a large amount of data that defines the constraints but which is not involved in the actual update operation itself.  In a distributed DBMS, the communication and processing costs that are required to enforce integrity constraints may be prohibitive. AbduSalam
    50. 50. Types of Integrity50  Relational Integrity  CREATE Table Student  The primary key can neither be null nor duplicate.  (Std-ID INTEGER NOT NULL)  Referential Integrity  Thus referential integrity means that, if the foreign key contains a value, that value must refer to an existing, valid row in the parent table. AbduSalam
    51. 51. 51  Think about the data that you may want to store about different things around you  List the changes that may arise during the working of any system,  lets say Railway Reservation System AbduSalam
    52. 52. ?52 IF ANY AbduSalam