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Ch 8- Consumer Attitude

Ch 8- Consumer Attitude



Consumer Behavior by Shiffman & Kanuk

Consumer Behavior by Shiffman & Kanuk
Ch 8- Consumer Attitude



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    Ch 8- Consumer Attitude Ch 8- Consumer Attitude Presentation Transcript

    • 8-1Chapter 8Consumer Behavior,Consumer Behavior,Eighth EditionEighth EditionSCHIFFMAN & KANUKConsumer AttitudeFormation and Change
    • 8-2AttitudesA learnedpredisposition tobehave in aconsistentlyfavorable orunfavorable mannerwith respect to agiven object.
    • 8-3Attitudes• Attitudes are not directly observable• Attitude must be inferred from what peoplesay or what they do• Example : determining that a consumer isspecifically using a product and evenrecommends it to friends. Here theconsumer possesses a positive attitude
    • 8-4What are Attitudes?• The attitude “object”• Attitudes are a learned predisposition• Attitudes have consistency• Attitudes occur within a situation
    • 8-5The attitude “OBJECT”• It include specific consumption-or marketingrelated concepts such as product, product category,brand, service, possessions, product use, causes orissues, people, ads, internet site, price, medium• Example: in conducting attitude research we tendto be object specific. i.e consumer attitude towardsthree major brands of cell phones
    • 8-6ATTITUDES ARE LEARNEDPREDISPOSITIONS• Attitudes are always learned• Attitudes are relevant to purchase behavior• Attitudes reflect either favorable or anunfavorable evaluation of the attitude object• Attitudes have a motivational quality• Attitudes may repel the consumer awayfrom a particular behavior
    • 8-7ATTITUDES HAVECONSISTENCY• Attitudes are relatively consistent with thebehavior they reflect• Attitudes are not necessarily permanent• possible situational influences on consumerattitudes and behavior must be considered
    • 8-8Figure 8.1Wendy’sOffers SaladsToDifferentiateItself
    • 8-9Structural Models of Attitudes• Tricomponent Attitude Model• Muliattribute Attitude Model• The Trying-to-Consume Model• Attitude-toward-the-Ad Model
    • 8-10Figure 8.2 A Simple Representation ofthe Tricomponent Attitude ModelConationConationAffectAffectCognition
    • 8-11The Tricomponent Model• Cognitive Component– The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by acombination of direct experience with the attitudeobject and related information from various sources.• This knowledge and resulting perceptionscommonly take the form of beliefs.• The consumer believes that the attitude objectpossesses various attributes and that specificbehavior will lead to a specific outcomes.• Example. A consumers belief system for twomethods of broad band internet access
    • 8-12The Tricomponent Model• Affective Component– A consumer’s emotions or feelings about aparticular product or brand.– The extent to which the individual rates theattitude object as “favorable or unfavorable”,“good or bad”
    • 8-13The Tricomponent Model• Conative Component– The likelihood or tendency that an individualwill undertake a specific action or behave in aparticular way with regard to the attitudeobject.– Conative component is an expresssion ofconsumers intention to buy.– Examples: I definitely/probably/am uncertainwhether will buy it etc
    • 8-14MultiattributeMultiattributeAttitudeAttitudeModelsModelsAttitude models thatexamine thecomposition ofconsumer attitudesin terms of selectedproduct attributes orbeliefs.
    • 8-15Multiattribute Attitude Models• The attitude-toward-object model– Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations.– Consumers generally have favorable attitudestowards those brands that they believe have anadequate level of attributes that they evaluate as+ive, otherwise -ive.
    • 8-16Multiattribute Attitude Models• The attitude-toward-behavior model– Is the attitude toward behaving or acting withrespect to an object, rather than the attitudetoward the object itself• Theory-of-reasoned-action model– A comprehensive, integrative model of attitudes
    • 8-17Attitude-Toward-BehaviorModelA model that proposesthat a consumer’sattitude toward aspecific behavior is afunction of howstrongly he or shebelieves that the actionwill lead to a specificoutcome (eitherfavorable orunfavorable).
    • 8-18Theory ofReasonedActionA comprehensive theoryof the interrelationshipamongattitudes,intentions, andbehavior.
    • 8-19Figure 8.4 A Simplified Version of theTheory of Reasoned ActionBeliefs thatthe behaviorleads tocertainoutcomesBeliefs thatthe behaviorleads tocertainoutcomesEvaluationof theoutcomesEvaluationof theoutcomesBeliefs thatspecificreferentsthink Ishould orshould notperform thebehaviorBeliefs thatspecificreferentsthink Ishould orshould notperform thebehaviorMotivationto complywith thespecificreferentsMotivationto complywith thespecificreferentsSubjectivenormSubjectivenormAttitude towardthe behaviorAttitude towardthe behaviorIntentionIntentionBehaviorBehavior
    • 8-20Theory ofTrying toConsumeAn attitude theorydesigned to accountfor the many caseswhere the action oroutcome is not certainbut instead reflectsthe consumer’sattempt to consume(or purchase).
    • 8-21Figure 8.5AdIllustratingthe Theoryof Trying toConsume
    • 8-22Table 8.6 Selected Examples of PotentialImpediments That Might Impact TryingPOTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTSPOTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS“I wonder whether my fingernails will be longer by the time of my wedding.”“I want to try to lose fifteen pounds by next summer.”“I’m going to try to get tickets for a Broadway show for your birthday.”“I’m going to attempt to give up smoking by my birthday.”“I am going to increase how often I go to the gym from two to four times aweek.”“Tonight, I’m not going to have dessert at the restaurant.”POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTSPOTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS“The first ten people to call in will receive a free T-shirt.”“Sorry, the shoes didn’t come in this shipment from Italy.”“There are only three bottles of champagne in our stockroom. You bettercome in sometime today.”“I am sorry. We cannot serve you. We are closing the restaurant because of aproblem with the oven.”
    • 8-23Attitude-Attitude-Toward-Toward-the-Adthe-AdModelModelA model that proposesthat a consumer formsvarious feelings (affects)and judgments(cognitions) as the resultof exposure to anadvertisement, which, inturn, affect the consumer’sattitude toward the ad andattitude toward the brand.
    • 8-24Figure 8.6 A Conception of theRelationship among Elements in anAttitude-Toward-the-Ad ModelExposure to an AdJudgments aboutthe Ad (Cognition)Beliefs about theBrandAttitude towardthe BrandAttitude towardthe AdFeelings from theAd (Affect)
    • 8-25Issues in Attitude Formation• How attitudes are learned• Sources of influence on attitude formation• Personality factors
    • 8-26Figure 8.8EncouragingTrial
    • 8-27Strategies of Attitude Change• Changing the Basic Motivational Function• Associating the Product With an AdmiredGroup or Event• Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes• Altering Components of the MultiattributeModel• Changing Beliefs About Competitors’Brands
    • 8-28Four Basic Attitude Functions• The Utilitarian Function• The Ego-defensiveFunction• The Value-expressiveFunction• The Knowledge Function
    • 8-29Figure 8.9Clorox Uses AUtilitarianAppeal
    • 8-30Figure 8.10Suave UsesEgo DefensiveAppeal
    • 8-31Figure 8.11AC Delco Usesa Value-ExpressiveAppeal
    • 8-32Figure 8.12A KnowledgeAppeal
    • 8-33ElaborationElaborationLikelihoodLikelihoodModelModel(ELM)(ELM)A theory that suggeststhat a person’s levelof involvement duringmessage processing isa critical factor indetermining whichroute to persuasion islikely to be effective.
    • 8-34Why Might Behavior PrecedeAttitude Formation?• Cognitive DissonanceTheory• Attribution TheoryBehave (Purchase)Behave (Purchase)Form AttitudeForm AttitudeForm Attitude
    • 8-35CognitiveDissonanceTheoryHolds that discomfort ordissonance occurs whena consumer holdsconflicting thoughtsabout a belief or anattitude object.
    • 8-36Figure 8.17ReducingCognitiveDissonance
    • 8-37PostpurchaseDissonanceCognitive dissonancethat occurs after aconsumer has made apurchasecommitment.Consumers resolvethis dissonancethrough a variety ofstrategies designed toconfirm the wisdomof their choice.
    • 8-38AttributionAttributionTheoryTheoryA theory concernedwith how people assigncasualty to events andform or alter theirattitudes as an outcomeof assessing their ownor other people’sbehavior.
    • 8-39Issues in Attribution Theory• Self-perception Theory– Foot-In-The-Door Technique• Attributions Toward Others• Attributions Toward Things• How We Test Our Attributions
    • 8-40Self-Self-PerceptionPerceptionTheoryTheoryA theory that suggeststhat consumersdevelop attitudes byreflecting on their ownbehavior.
    • 8-41DefensiveDefensiveAttributionAttributionA theory that suggestsconsumers are likelyto accept credit forsuccessful outcomes(internal attribution)and to blame otherpersons or products forfailure (externalattribution).
    • 8-42Criteria for Causal Attributions• Distinctiveness• Consistency Over Time• Consistency Over Modality• Consensus