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Ch 7- Consumer Learning

Ch 7- Consumer Learning



Consumer Behavior by Shiffman & Kanuk

Consumer Behavior by Shiffman & Kanuk
Ch 7- Consumer Learning



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    Ch 7- Consumer Learning Ch 7- Consumer Learning Presentation Transcript

    • 7-1Chapter 7Consumer Behavior,Consumer Behavior,Eighth EditionEighth EditionSCHIFFMAN & KANUKConsumer Learning
    • 7-2The Importance of ConsumerLearning to New Product Success• Why did these products fail?–Listerine Toothpaste–Ben-Gay Aspirin• Why did Pocket Packs succeed?
    • 7-3Importance of Learning• Marketers must teach consumers:– where to buy– how to use– how to maintain– how to dispose of products
    • 7-4Learning Theories• Behavioral Theories:Theories based on thebasis that learningtakes place as theresult of observableresponses to externalstimuli. Also knownas stimulus responsetheory.• Cognitive Theories:A theory of learningbased on mentalinformationprocessing, often inresponse to problemsolving.
    • 7-5ConsumerConsumerLearningLearningA process by whichindividuals acquire thepurchase andconsumptionknowledgeand experiencethat they apply tofuture related behavior.
    • 7-6Learning Processes• Intentional:learning acquired asa result of a carefulsearch forinformation• Incidental:learning acquiredby accident orwithout much effort
    • 7-7Consumer learning contd….• Example• some ads may induce learning (Brand names) eventhough the consumers attention is elsewhere (on amagzine article rather than the ads on facing page)• Other ads are sought out and carefully read byconsumers for making a purchase decision.
    • 7-8Elements of Learning Theories• Motivation• Cues• Response• Reinforcement
    • 7-9Motivation• The degree of relevance or involvementdetermines consumer level of motivation tosearch for– knowledge OR– information about a product or a service.
    • 7-10Cues• Motives serve to stimulate learning,• Cues are the stimuli that gives direction tothese motives e.g. an ad is a cue forconsumer motivation for a specific productor service.• In the market place price, styling,packaging, advertising and the storedisplays all serve as cues.
    • 7-11Cues• Marketers teach motivated consumersegments why and how their products willfulfill the consumers need.• Motives serve to stimulate learning.
    • 7-12Response• How individuals react to a drive or cue• How they behave constitute their responsee.g. a marketer that provides consistent cuesto a consumer may not always succeed instimulating a purchase.
    • 7-13Response contd…• However if marketer succeeds in forming afavorable image of a particular product inconsumer’s mind.• It is likely that he or she will consider thatproduct.
    • 7-14ReinforcementA positive ornegative outcomethat influences thelikelihood that aspecific behaviorwill be repeated inthe future inresponse to aparticular cue orstimulus.
    • 7-15Figure 7.1 Product Usage Leads toReinforcement
    • 7-16Behavioral Learning Theories• Classical Conditioning• Instrumental Conditioning• Modeling or Observational Learning
    • 7-17ClassicalClassicalConditioningConditioningA behaviorallearning theoryaccording to which astimulus is pairedwith another stimulusthat elicits a knownresponse that servesto produce the sameresponse when usedalone.
    • 7-18Example• If you usually listen to the 9 o’ clock newswhile waiting for dinner to be served youwould tend to associate the 9 o, clock newswith dinner, So that eventually the soundsof the 9 o’ clock news alone might causeyour mouth to water even if dinner was notbeing prepared and even if you were nothungry.
    • 7-19InstrumentalInstrumental(Operant)(Operant)ConditioningConditioningA behavioral theory oflearning based on atrial-and-error process,with habits forced asthe result of positiveexperiences(reinforcement)resulting from certainresponses orbehaviors.
    • 7-20Figure 7.2B Analogous Model ofClassical ConditioningUnconditioned StimulusDinner aromaConditioned Stimulus9 o’clock newsUnconditioned ResponseSalivationConditioned Stimulus9 o’clock newsConditioned ResponseSalivationAFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS
    • 7-21Strategic Applications of ClassicalConditioning• Repetition• Stimulus Generalization• Stimulus Discrimination
    • 7-22Repetition• Repetitionincreases strengthof associations andslows forgetting butover time mayresult in advertisingwearout.Figure 7.3 CosmeticVariations in Ads
    • 7-23Three-Hit Theory• Repetition is the basis for the idea that threeexposures to an ad are necessary for the adto be effective• The number of actual repetitions to equalthree exposures is in question.
    • 7-24Three-Hit Theory• 1) to make consumers aware of the product• 2) to show cosumers the relevance of theproduct• 3) to remind them of its benefitsaccording to others marketing scholars• 11 to 12 repetitions
    • 7-25StimulusStimulusGeneralizationGeneralizationThe inability toperceive differencesbetween slightlydissimilar stimuli.
    • 7-26Continued.• It explain why some imitative “me-too”products succeed in the market place.Because• Consumers confuse them with originalproduct they have seen advertised
    • 7-27Example• That an individual can learn to take dinnernot only to the sound of 9 o’ clock news butalso to the some what similar sound ofAzan.
    • 7-28Stimulus Generalization andMarketing• Product Line, Form and CategoryExtensions• Family Branding• Licensing• Generalizing Usage Situations
    • 7-29Figure 7.5Product LineExtension(adding relatedproducts to analreadyestablishedbrand)
    • 7-30Product form extensions• Such as crest toothpaste to to crestwhitestrips,• Listerine mouthwash to listerine paks• Bath soaps to liquid soaps
    • 7-31Figure 7.6 Product FormExtensions
    • 7-32Figure 7.7ProductCategoryExtensions
    • 7-33Family branding• The practice of marketing a whole line ofcompany products under the same brandname
    • 7-34Family branding• The practice of marketing a whole line ofcompany products under the same brandname.• A strategy that capitalizes on the consumersability to generalized favorable brandassociations from one product to others: e.gNestle
    • 7-35Licensing• Allowing a well known brand name to be affixedto products of another manufacturer.• A strategy that operates on the principle ofstimulus generalizations.• Examples: names of designers, manufacturers,celebrities, corporations and even cartooncharacters are attached for a fee i.e rented.
    • 7-36Figure 7-8ShoeManufacturerLicensesIts Name
    • 7-37StimulusStimulusDiscriminationDiscriminationThe ability to selecta specific stimulusfrom among similarstimuli because ofperceiveddifferences.PositioningDifferentiation
    • 7-38Figure 7.10 A Model of InstrumentalConditioningStimulusSituation(Need good-looking jeans)TryBrand DTryBrand CTryBrand BTryBrand AUnrewardedLegs too tightUnrewardedTight in seatUnrewardedBaggy in seatRewardPerfect fitRepeat Behavior
    • 7-39Instrumental Conditioning• Consumers learn by means of trial and errorprocess in which some purchase behaviorsresult in more favorable outcomes (rewards)than other purchase behaviors.• A favorable experience is instrumental inteaching the individual to repeat a specificbehavior.
    • 7-40Instrumental Conditioning andMarketing• Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement)• Reinforcement Schedules– Shaping• Massed versus Distributed Learning
    • 7-41Reinforcement• PositiveReinforcement:Positive outcomes thatstrengthen thelikelihood of a specificresponse• Example: Ad showingbeautiful hair as areinforcement to buyshampoo• NegativeReinforcement:Unpleasant or negativeoutcomes that serve toencourage a specificbehavior• Example: Ad showingwrinkled (smooth) skinas reinforcement to buyskin cream
    • 7-42ObservationalObservationalLearningLearningA process by whichindividuals observethe behavior ofothers, andconsequences ofsuch behavior. Alsoknown as modelingor vicarious(observational)learning.
    • 7-43Model or observational learning• Consumers often observe how othersbehave in response to certain situations(stimuli) and the ensuing (subsequent)results (reinforcement) that occur&• The imitate (model) the positivelyreinforced behavior when faced with similarsituations.
    • 7-44Figure 7.11ConsumersLearn byModeling
    • 7-45CognitiveCognitiveLearningLearningTheoryTheoryHolds that the kindof learning mostcharacteristic ofhuman beings isproblem solving,which enablesindividuals to gainsome control overtheir environment.
    • 7-46Figure 7.12Appeal toCognitiveProcessing
    • 7-47InformationInformationProcessingProcessingA cognitive theory ofhuman learningpatterned aftercomputer informationprocessing thatfocuses on howinformation is storedin human memoryand how it isretrieved.
    • 7-48Figure 7.13 Information Processing andMemory StoresSensoryStoreSensoryStoreWorkingMemory(Short-termStore)WorkingMemory(Short-termStore)Long-termStoreLong-termStoreSensoryInput Rehearsal Encoding RetrievalForgotten;lostForgotten;lostForgotten;unavailable
    • 7-49Retention• Information is stored inlong-term memory– Episodically: by the orderin which it is acquired– Semantically: accordingto significant concepts
    • 7-50Table 7.1 Models of Cognitive LearningAttention CognitiveAction Conative PurchasePostpurchaseEvaluationTrialAdoptionDecisionConfirmationAffectiveEvaluationInterestEvaluation PersuasionKnowledgeAwarenessAwarenessKnowledgeInterestDesireSequentialStagesofProcessingInnovationAdoptionModelDecision-MakingModelTricomponent ModelInnovationDecisionProcessPromotionalModel
    • 7-51InvolvementTheoryA theory of consumerlearning whichpostulates thatconsumers engage in arange of informationprocessing activityfrom extensive tolimited problemsolving, depending onthe relevance of thepurchase.
    • 7-52Figure 7.14Split BrainTheory• Right/ Left BrainHemispheresspecialize in certainfunctionsFigure 7.14
    • 7-53Figure 7.15EncouragingRight andLeft BrainProcessing
    • 7-54Issues in Involvement Theory• Involvement Theory and Media Strategy• Involvement Theory and ConsumerRelevance• Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion• Measures of Involvement
    • 7-55Central andPeripheralRoutes toPersuasionA theory that proposes thathighly involved consumersare best reached through adsthat focus on the specificattributes of the product (thecentral route) whileuninvolved consumers canbe attracted throughperipheral advertising cuessuch as the model or thesetting (the peripheral route).
    • 7-56ElaborationElaborationLikelihoodLikelihoodModelModel(ELM)(ELM)A theory that suggeststhat a person’s level ofinvolvement duringmessage processing isa critical factor indetermining whichroute to persuasion islikely to be effective.
    • 7-57Figure 7.16PeripheralRoute toPersuasion
    • 7-58Figure 7.17 Unexpected HeadlineMetaphor Increases Impact
    • 7-59The Elaboration Likelihood ModelInvolvementCentralRoutePeripheralRoutePeripheralCuesInfluenceAttitudesMessageArgumentsInfluenceAttitudesHIGH LOW
    • 7-60Measures of Consumer Learning• Recognition and Recall Measures– Aided and Unaided Recall• Cognitive Responses to Advertising• Copytesting Measures• Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures ofBrand Loyalty
    • 7-61Figure 7.18StarchReadershipScores MeasureLearning
    • 7-62Phases of Brand Loyalty• Cognitive• Affective• Conative• Action
    • 7-63Figure 7.19Brand Loyalty As A Function ofRelative Attitude and PatronageBehaviorLatentLoyaltyNoLoyaltySpuriousLoyaltyLoyaltyLowLowHighHighHighHigh LowLowRepeat PatronageRepeat PatronageRelativeRelativeAttitudeAttitude