9-2Figure 9.1 Basic Communication ModelSender(Source)Receiver(Consumer)MessageChannel(Medium)Feedback
9-3Elements of theCommunications Process• The Message Initiator (the Source)• The Sender• The Receiver• The Medium• The Message• The Target Audience (the Receivers)• Feedback - the Receiver’s Response
9-5Issues in Credibility• Credibility of Informal Sources• Credibility of Formal Sources• Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers( supporters )• Message Credibility
9-6Endorser Credibility• Endorser credibility is important whenmessage comprehension is low• Match must exist between product attributesand endorser attributes• Credibility is higher when endorser’sdemographic characteristics are similar tothose of target audience• Endorser credibility is not a substitute forcorporate credibility
9-7SleeperSleeperEffectEffectThe idea that bothpositive and negativecredibility effects tendto disappear after aperiod of time.
9-8Barriers to Communication• Selective Perception– Wandering, Zipping, and Channel Surfing– Combat with Road blocking (overcrowding)• Psychological Noise– Combat with repeated exposures, contrast in thecopy, and teasers
9-9Figure 9.3 ComprehensiveCommunication ModelSender(Source)Receiver(Consumer)MessageChannel(Medium)EncodesDecodesFeedbackRespondsAppropriately?Miscomprehends?YesYesNoNoCommercialNon-ProfitIndividualFormal vs.InformalSymbolsPicturesWordsImagesVerbal vs. Nonverbal1-sided vs. 2-sidedFactual vs. EmotionalPaid vs. UnpaidPrint, Broadcast, ElectronicPersonal vs. ImpersonalPretests to Ensure Message Will be ReceivedPosttests to Ensure Message Was ReceivedSelectiveExposureIndividualsTarget AudienceIntermediary AudienceUnintended Audiences Mediated by:InvolvementMoodExperiencePersonal Charac.
9-10Issues in Designing PersuasiveCommunications• Communications strategy• Media strategy• Message strategy
9-12Figure 9.4 Perception/ Experience/Memory Model of AdvertisingPre-experience Exposure(phase)Post-experience Exposure(phase)Framing (ftn)PerceptionEnhancingExperienceOrganizingMemoryExpectation (effect)AnticipationInterpretationCueingBrandingInterpretationSensoryEnhancementSocialEnhancement
9-13Media Strategy• Consumer profiles• Audience profilesA cost-effective media choice is onethat closely matches theadvertiser’s consumer profilewith the medium’s audience profile.(tailoring your message to audience needs)
9-14Excerpts from Table 9.2 PersuasiveCapabilities and Limitations of MajorMedia (Newspaper)• Access to large audiences• Effective for local reach• Flexible• Fast• Feedback possiblethrough couponredemption (release), etc.• Not selective• Short message life• Clutter(confusion/disorder)• Cost varies based onad size and circulation
9-15Excerpts from Table 9.2 PersuasiveCapabilities and Limitations of MajorMedia (Magazines)• Highly selective• Selective binding possible• High quality production• High credibility• Long message life• High pass along rate• Long lead time• High clutter• Delayed and indirectfeedback• Rates vary based oncirculation andselectivity
9-16Excerpts from Table 9.2 PersuasiveCapabilities and Limitations of MajorMedia (Television)• Large audiences possible• Appeals to many senses• Emotion and attentionpossible• Demonstration possible• Very high costs overall• Long lead time• High clutter• Short message life• Viewers can avoidexposure withzapping, etc.• Day-after recall testsfor feedback
9-17Excerpts from Table 9.2 PersuasiveCapabilities and Limitations of MajorMedia (Radio)• High geographic anddemographic selectivity• Short lead time• Relatively inexpensive• Good local coverage• Short exposure time• Audio only• High clutter• Zapping possible• Delayed feedbackthrough day-afterrecall tests
9-18Excerpts from Table 9.2 PersuasiveCapabilities and Limitations of MajorMedia (Internet)• Potential for audienceselectivity• Customized trackingpossible and otherfeedback tools possible• Useful for branding andreinforcement ofmessages• Demographic skew toaudience• Very high clutter• Zapping possible• Great variation inpricing• Privacy concerns
9-19Excerpts from Table 9.2 PersuasiveCapabilities and Limitations of MajorMedia (Direct Mail)• High audience selectivity• Personalization possible• Novel, interesting stimulipossible• Low clutter• Perception of junkmail• Feedback possiblethrough response• High cost per contact
9-20Excerpts from Table 9.2 PersuasiveCapabilities and Limitations of MajorMedia (Direct Marketing)• Development ofdatabases• High audience selectivity• Relatively free of clutter• Privacy concerns• Measurable responses• Cost per inquiry, costper sale, revenue perad can be calculated
9-21Table 9.3 Buyer Personalities andAdvertising StrategiesRighteous Social PragmaticHow might advertising be designedfor these three distinct buyer types?
9-22Involvement Theory and PersuasionThe Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)proposes that marketers use the•central route to persuasion for highinvolvement products and the•peripheral route to persuasion for lowinvolvement products
9-32Table 9.4 Impact of Humor on Advertising•Humor attracts attention.•Humor does not harm comprehension.•Humor is not more effective at increasing persuasion.•Humor does not enhance source credibility.•Humor enhances liking.•Humor that is relevant to the product is superior to humor that isunrelated to the product.•Audience demographic factors affect the response to humorousadvertising appeals.•The nature of the product affects the appropriateness of a humoroustreatment.•Humor is more effective with existing products than with newproducts.•Humor is more appropriate for low-involvement products and feeling-oriented products than for high-involvement products.