4 - 3Needs and Motivation• Needs are the essence of the marketingconcept. Marketers do not createneeds but can make consumers awareof needs.• Motivation is the driving force withinindividuals that impels them to action.
4 - 5Types of Needs• Innate Needs– Physiological (or biogenic) needs that areconsidered primary needs or motives• Acquired Needs– Learned in response to our culture orenvironment. Are generally psychologicaland considered secondary needs
4 - 7Goals• The sought-after results of motivatedbehavior• Generic goals are general categories ofgoals that consumers see as a way tofulfill their needs• Product-specific goals are specificallybranded products or services thatconsumers select as their goals
4 - 10Figure 4-2cGoals Structure for Weight Control
4 - 12The Selection of Goals• The goals selected by an individualdepend on their:– Personal experiences– Physical capacity– Prevailing cultural norms and values– Goal’s accessibility in the physical andsocial environment
4 - 14Motivations and GoalsPositive• Motivation– A driving forcetoward some objector condition• Approach Goal– A positive goaltoward whichbehavior is directedNegative• MotivationA driving force awayfrom some object orcondition• Avoidance Goal– A negative goal fromwhich behavior isdirected away
4 - 15Rational versus EmotionalMotives• Rationality implies that consumersselect goals based on totally objectivecriteria such as size, weight, price, ormiles per gallon• Emotional motives imply the selectionof goals according to personal orsubjective criteria
4 - 17The Dynamic Nature ofMotivation• Needs are never fully satisfied• New needs emerge as old needs aresatisfied• People who achieve their goals set newand higher goals for themselves
4 - 18Substitute Goals• Are used when a consumer cannotattain a specific goal he/she anticipateswill satisfy a need• The substitute goal will dispel tension• Substitute goals may actually replacethe primary goal over time
4 - 19Frustration• Failure to achieve a goal may result infrustration.• Some adapt; others adopt defensemechanisms to protect their ego.
4 - 20Defense Mechanism• Methods by which people mentallyredefine frustrating situations toprotect their self-images and their self-esteem
4 - 21What type ofdefensemechanism isthisspokespersonusing in thisad?
4 - 24Philosophies Concerned withArousal of Motives• Behaviorist School– Behavior is response to stimulus– Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored– Consumer does not act, but reacts• Cognitive School– Behavior is directed at goal achievement– Needs and past experiences are reasoned,categorized, and transformed into attitudes andbeliefs
4 - 25Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsFigure 4.10weblink
4 - 30A Trio of Needs• Power– individual’s desire to control environment• Affiliation– need for friendship, acceptance, andbelonging• Achievement– need for personal accomplishment– closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs
4 - 31Measurement of Motives• Researchers rely on a combination oftechniques• Combination of behavioral, subjective,and qualitative data• Construction of a measurement scalecan be complex
4 - 32Motivational Research• Qualitative research designed touncover consumers’ subconscious orhidden motivations• Attempts to discover underlyingfeelings, attitudes, and emotions
4 - 33Qualitative MotivationalResearch• Metaphor analysis• Storytelling• Word association and sentencecompletion• Thematic apperception test• Drawing pictures and photo-sorts
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