Change management


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Change management in theory

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Change management

  1. 1. Change Management By Basem Shaban
  2. 2. Why ? <ul><li>Because one of you is either now or in the </li></ul><ul><li>future will face </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Structural change; </li></ul><ul><li>Merger and acquisition; </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural change; </li></ul><ul><li>IT-based process change. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>What we will cover: </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Change </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral, Cognitive, psychodynamic, Humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Team Change </li></ul><ul><li>Tuckman’s model of team change </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Change </li></ul><ul><li>Lewin, three-step model, Bullock and Batten planned change, </li></ul><ul><li>Kotter eight steps, Beckhard and Harris change formula, </li></ul><ul><li>Nadler and Tushman congruence model, William Bridges </li></ul><ul><li>managing the transition, Carnall,change management </li></ul><ul><li>model,Senge, systemic model, Stacey and Shaw, complex </li></ul><ul><li>responsive processes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Individual Change Development Behavioral is about changing the behaviors of others through reward and punishment . This leads to Behavioral analysis and use of reward strategies. In behaviorism less attention is given to improving processes, improving relationships or increasing involvement in goal setting the main focus is in reward and punishment reinforcement Main Scientists :Ivan Pavalov, Skinner
  5. 5. Individual Change (cont.) <ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Is about achieving results through positive </li></ul><ul><li>reframing. </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Positive listings, Affirmations, Visualizations, </li></ul><ul><li>Reframing, Pattern breaking, Detachment, </li></ul><ul><li>Anchoring and resource states, Rational analysis </li></ul>
  6. 6. Individual Change (cont.) <ul><li>Psychodynamic </li></ul><ul><li>is about understanding and relating to the inner </li></ul><ul><li>World of change. This is especially significant when </li></ul><ul><li>People are going through highly affecting change </li></ul>
  7. 7. Individual Change (cont.) <ul><li>Humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>The humanistic psychology approach is about believing </li></ul><ul><li>in development and growth, and maximizing potential. </li></ul><ul><li>The emphasis is on healthy development, healthy </li></ul><ul><li>authentic relationships and healthy organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing the hierarchy of needs (Moslow) </li></ul><ul><li>learning organization </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing emotions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Individual Change (cont.) <ul><li>Behavioral: get your reward strategies right. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive: link goals to motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic: treat people as individuals and understand their emotional states as well as your own! </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic: be authentic and believe that people want to grow and develop. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Individual Change (cont.) Behavioral Cognitive Performance management Reward policies Values translated into behaviors Management competencies Skills training Management style Performance coaching Management by objectives Business planning and performance frameworks Results based coaching Beliefs, attitudes and cultural interventions Visioning Surfacing hidden issues Understanding change dynamics Counselling people through change Addressing emotions Treating employees and managers as adults Living the values Developing the learning organization Addressing the hierarchy of needs Addressing emotions Fostering communication and consultation Psychodynamic Humanistic
  10. 10. Team Change <ul><li>Tuckman 1965 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Team Change (cont.) <ul><li>Stages of team development </li></ul><ul><li>Schutz 1982 1) In or Out, 2) Top or Bottom, 3) Near or </li></ul><ul><li>Far </li></ul><ul><li>Modlin and Faris 1956 1) Structuralism, 2) Unrest, </li></ul><ul><li>3) Change, 4) Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Hill and Gruner 1973 1) Orientation, 2) Exploration </li></ul><ul><li>3) Production </li></ul>
  12. 12. Team Change (cont.) Myers-Briggs type indicator
  13. 13. Organizational change <ul><li>Lewin, three-step model </li></ul><ul><li>Lewin is responsible for introducing force field analysis </li></ul><ul><li>first step involves unfreezing the current state of affairs. This means defining the current state, surfacing the driving and resisting forces and picturing a desired end state. </li></ul><ul><li>The second is about moving to a new state through participation and involvement . </li></ul><ul><li>The third focuses on refreezing and stabilizing the new state of affairs by setting policy, rewarding success and establishing new standards </li></ul>
  14. 14. Organizational change (cont.) <ul><li>Bullock and Batten, planned change (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Bullock and Batten’s phases of planned </li></ul><ul><li>change draw on the disciplines of project </li></ul><ul><li>management </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration; </li></ul><ul><li>Planning; </li></ul><ul><li>Action; </li></ul><ul><li>Integration. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Organizational change (cont.) <ul><li>Kotter, eight-steps </li></ul>
  16. 16. Organizational change (cont.)
  17. 17. Organizational change (cont.) <ul><li>Nadler and Tushman, congruence model </li></ul><ul><li>The work. This is the actual day-to-day activities carried out by individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>The people. This is about the skills and characteristics of the people </li></ul><ul><li>The formal organization. This refers to the structure, systems </li></ul><ul><li>The informal organization. This consists of all the unplanned, unwritten activities that emerge over time such as power, influence, values and norms. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Organizational change (cont.) Nadler and Tushman, congruence model
  19. 19. Organizational change (cont.) <ul><li>William Bridges, managing the transition: </li></ul><ul><li>Ending, Neutral zone and New beginning </li></ul>
  20. 20. Organizational change (cont.) <ul><li>Carnall, change management model </li></ul><ul><li>says that the effective management of change </li></ul><ul><li>depends on the level of management skill in the </li></ul><ul><li>following areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Managing transitions effectively; </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with organizational cultures; </li></ul><ul><li>Managing organizational politics. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Organizational change (cont.) <ul><li>Senge et al: systemic model </li></ul><ul><li>Start small, Grow steadily, Don’t plan the whole </li></ul><ul><li>Thing, Expect challenges – it will not go smoothly ! </li></ul><ul><li>Senge does not give formulaic solutions, or ‘how to’ </li></ul><ul><li>approaches but rather gives ideas and suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>for dealing with the balancing forces of equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>in organizational systems (resistance). </li></ul><ul><li>The key challenges of initiating change are the </li></ul><ul><li>balancing forces that arise when any group of people </li></ul><ul><li>starts to do things differently </li></ul>
  22. 22. Organizational change (cont.) <ul><li>Stacey and Shaw, complex responsive processes : </li></ul><ul><li>Change, or a new order of things, will emerge </li></ul><ul><li>naturally from clean communication, conflict and </li></ul><ul><li>tension (not too much). </li></ul><ul><li>No matter how considered or passionate, is always </li></ul><ul><li>evolving in ways that we cannot control or predict in the </li></ul><ul><li>longer term, no matter how sophisticated our planning </li></ul><ul><li>tools. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Topics <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>